See also: table of The Complete Reference on Spacewalk The Spacecraft Encyclopedia
Updated: 15 June 2011 
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The most thrilling - and dangerous - experience
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“Walking in space”, or spacewalking, is a peculiar activity. It consists, for an astronaut, to don a spacesuit, open a hatch and “walk” outside his ship. Of course, he (or she) is not walking, since he floats in weightlessness. As reported by many of them, it is one of the most thrilling experience we could dream of: just to float like a bird and see the Earth and the Universe through a faceplate is beyond any descriptions! But it is also one of the most dangerous space activity. Any problem with the spacesuit – especially a puncture – could cost the life of the walker in a minute. There is also the risk of floating away from the spaceship; being in the vacuum of space, it is impossible for the walker to swim back. The astronaut would thus be lost forever in space. Fortunately, this never happenned. So, a spacewalker is ALWAYS tethered to his ship. For all of these reasons, no one ever venture outside a spaceship for the fun of it. Every spacewalk is carefully prepared months in advance and every spacewalker trained for years in pool, simply to learn how to “walk” in space.

At the dawn of the Space Age, in the 1950s, engineers and scientists thought that working outside a spaceship would be an easy task. They even envisioned that, one day, dozen of spacewalkers would go outside giant spacecrafts to work as construction workers do on Earth. But, the first spacewalkers, in 1965-66, soon discovered that the simplest tasks are awfully difficult to do because you’re inside a stiff spacesuit and floating. These first men nearly lost their lives while outside their ship! Their experience changed forever our vision. For this reason, even after nearly fifty years of spacewalking, this activity remains exceptional and is made by only two astronauts at a time. You don’t go out in space simply to walk and work as everyday people do on Earth! 

This special section presents the 350+ spacewalks done since 1965 in two different ways. First, a series of summary tables presents an overview of spacewalks by programs (Gemini, Apollo… ISS). Clicking on the link at the (extreme) left or right of each spacewalk brings you to a detailed description of this walk. In fact, you’re then on a web page (this one) which describes every one of the 350+ spacewalks done to date. This page could be read like an illustrated history of spacewalking. Of course, these pages are updated as soon as a new spacewalk occurred. 

Note that we casually said “spacewalking”, although the walker float outside his spaceship. For the professionals, this activity is called EVA (pronounced: E.V.A.), for extra-vehicular activity (an activity outside a spacecraft). For convenience, we used both terms. Note also that a dozen men had walked on the Moon, which is much more easy than spacewalking since the gravity of the Moon simplified their movement and work. These men had really walked on the Moon!

One of the most fantastic experience: floating in space.
Spacewalkers trained in pool to simulate working in space suit outside their ship.
In the 1950s, we envisioned dozen of construction workers assembling giant spaceships.
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EVA #1

Sov.
#1

Mission: Voskhod 2 Date: 18 March 1965 Duration: 24 min. Program: Soviet Experimental
The First Venture Out of a Spacecraft
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On 18 March 1965, Alexei Leonov became the first men to venture outside a spaceship, making the first “extra-vehicular activity” (EVA) or spacewalk. He really venture into the unknown since nobody had appreciated the difficulties of working outside a spaceship.

Immediately after reaching orbit in Voskhod 2, Leonov opened his spacecraft hatch, transferred into a deployable airlock, went outside and pushed out to the end of his 15-metre umbilical. He reported looking down and seeing from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Caspian Sea. 

“The silence of open space was broken only by the sounds of my beating heart and breathing muffled by headphones inside my helmet,” told Leonov. “Suspended 500 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, I was attached by just an umbilical cord of cables to our spacecraft, Voskhod 2, as it orbited the Earth at 30,000 kph. Yet, it felt as if I were almost motionless, floating above a vast blue sphere draped with a cotorful map. Lifting my head I could see the curvature of the Earth's horizon.

“’So the world really is round,’ I said softly to myself, as if the words came from somewhere deep in my soul. For a few moments, I felt totally alone in this pristine new environment, taking in the beauty of the panorama below me with an artist's eye.

“Throughout the time I had been floating free of the spacecraft, I had been facing directly toward the Sun. The strength of light was intense and the heat incredible. I felt sweat accumulating in drops on my face and running down under the collar of my shirt.

“My pressurized suit was extremely stiff and I had to exert a tremendous pull against the inflated rubber to bend my arms and legs. There was no gravity to give me leverage in the vacuum. Even the slightest movement required extreme effort.

“It was not planned that I should spend much time outside the spacecraft. So great was concern about the huge psychological barrier it was feared man might face in the void of open space, that I had a web of sensors attached to my body. Information on my pulse, blood pressure and even the alpha-rhythm waves in my brain was being constantly monitored, both by Pasha [Commander Pavel Belaiev] aboard the spacecraft and by Mission Control.

“Before relinquishing my position as the first person to step out into this new domain, however, I wanted to be more adventure. So. I gave myself a hefty push away from the spacecraft and immediately started tumbling uncontrollably, rolling head over heels. Only my umbilical cord of cables saved me from drifting off into space. After being yanked to a sharp halt, I had to struggle back to the craft, hauling myself fist over fist along the umbilical.

“When I pulled level with Voskhod 2, my body temperature had risen even higher and I was extremely tired. I knew it was time to reenter the spacecraft. I had been in open space for over ten minutes. I still had forty minutes of oxygen left in my autonomous life-support backpack and had a burning desire to stay outside for much longer. But I knew I couldn't take that risk. Not only would it mean disobeying orders, but in another five minutes, our orbit would take us away from the sun and into darkness. I still had to negotiate my way back into the spacecraft through the airlock, a narrow, collapsible set of interconnected rubberized canvas cylinders, which would be difficult enough without the handicap of working in the dark.

“But as I edged closer to the airlock's entrance, I realized I had a very serious problem. My spacesuit had ballooned in the vacuum to such a degree that my feet had pulled away from my boots and my fingers no longer reached the gloves attached to my sleeves. No engineer had been able to foresee this; the suit had been tested in a pressure chamber simulating a much lesser altitude and no such deformation had occurred. Now, the suit was so misshapen that it would be impossible for me to enter the airlock feet first as I had in training. I simply couldn't do it. I had to find another way of getting back inside the spacecraft, and quickly.

“The only way it seemed possible was by squeezing head first into the airlock. Even to manage that I would have to reduce the size of my spacesuit by reducing its high-pressure oxygen, via a valve incorporated in its lining, which would expose me to the risk of oxygen starvation. If I consulted Mission Control, I knew it would alarm them and, anyway, there was no time for discussion. I was the only one who could solve the problem, and I knew I had to do it fast.

“Reentering the spacecraft this way also meant I would have to perform a somersault once inside the airlock in order to close the outer hatch. It would all take far longer than was scheduled and I was not sure my life-support system would hold out. The exhilaration I had felt just minutes before as I looked down at the Earth evaporated. “ 

 
There are no good picture of the first spacewalk done by Alexei Leonov (see photos above). Fortunately, Leonov was an artist and he produced the three artworks below which depicted, as none could do but him, what he had done.
Adapted from: David Scott and Alexei Leonov, Two Sides Of The Moon, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004. p. 2-4 &  David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 1-2 (see more).
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EVA #2

U.S.
#1

Mission: Gemini IV Date: 3 June 1965 Duration: 36 min. Program: Gemini
An American Experience
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Two and half months after Leonov’s spacewalk, Edward White performed the first American EVA. The Gemini 4 hatch had opened at about 14:34 EDT. White's first tasks was to install a 16-mm movie camera and to place an umbilical guard on the hatch sill. Seven minutes later, he was standing on the seat fitting together the two halves of the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) ? or 'gun' ? that would propel him around the outside of the spacecraft, and placing on the front of it a small camera through which he would take shots of the vehicle. 

Twelve minutes after the hatch opened, White drifted up through the rectangular hatch door. He gently squeezed the trigger on his maneuvering unit, literally pulling himself out in a tractor mode but slightly higher than he wanted to go. Within seconds, he was about 2½ meters from the spacecraft, out past the nose of Gemini IV. 

A gentle movement with the HHMU put him into a slow tumble. “O.K. I rolled off and I'm rolling to the right now,” said White. “Under my own influence - here goes. Looks like a thermal glove Jim [McDivitt, Gemini IV Commander],” as a small object drifted up through the hatch. It was the right hand over-glove that White had elected not to wear in the hope of improving his hold. “All right. Now I'm coming above the spacecraft. I'n down now. I'm under my own control. O.K. I'm must be worth a million dollars! I'm coming back tc works real good Jim.” 

White was in a very slow turn at the nose of the spacecraft when he tugged gently on the tether. It carried him back across the top of the vehicle and put him in the area of the adapter, far behind the re-entry module. just where he did not want to be.

Stable again in attitude, White decided he would give the maneuvering unit a good workout and, with his left hand out, put the HHMU into a line with where he thought his center gravity was located and fired a long burst. It carried him straigh down the center between the two hatches, along the extend rendezvous and recovery section, and out past the nose. Stopping himself with another burst on the pusher nozzle, he performed a few yaw tests and then squeezed the trigger to move across the spacecraft. No luck, the small supply of oxygen gaz was totally expended

“O.K. I think I've exhausted my air now. I have very gool control with it, I just needed more air… Capcom, it was very easy to maneuver with the gun, the only problem I have is I haven't enough fuel. This is the greatest experience, it's just tremendous… Right now, I'm standing on my head and I'm looking right down and looks like we're coming up on the coast of Califormia… as I go on a slow rotation to the right. There is absolutely disorientation associated with it.”

White ran out of compressed oxygen for his maneuvering gun about four minutes after pulling himself out of the hatch. He thus spent the rest of his time using the camera and learning the difficulties associted with tether dynamics.

“O.K. I'm drifting down underneath the spacecraft. There's no difficulty with recontacting the spacecraft… particularly as long as you move nice and slow… Feel very grateful to be having the experience to be doing this. I'll bring myself in and put myself out of your view.”

With no other means of attitude conrol, he had little alternative but to use the long, snaking line to pull himself around. In the weightless void, it was an almost mpossible task; White was going everywhere but in the actual lirection he wanted to. 

And it was an exhilarating experience. The capsule cornicator had been trying for a few minutes to get the attention of very preoccupied pilots. Gemini IV would soon be out of range of tracking stations as the vehicle moved across the continental United States heading for an Atlantic pass. “The Flight Director says, get back in!,” said Mission Control.

“It’s the saddest moment of my life,” later said White.

Just 22 minutes after opening the hatch, he was back on the seat preparing to slide down into the spacecraft. But there were problems: the hatch was difficult to bring down from its open position, and when it was back in place, the locking mechanism refused to function. Each time White tried to apply torque to the latch, he succeeded only in lifting himself back up out of the seat. McDivitt had to hold on to White’s legs to prevent him drifting up, and then White felt a little movement in the handle. Within seconds it was locked tight. The simple action of closing the hatch was the most strenuous part of the entire EVA. 

Counted the period between hatch opening and closing, the spacewalk lasted 36 minutes, with White physically outside the spacecraft for about 21 minutes.

Adapted from: David Barker, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown Publishers, 1978, Chapter 12 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 2-4 (see more).
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EVA (#3)
Mission: Gemini VIII Date: (16 March 1966) Duration: 0 min. Program: Gemini
A tremendously ambitious spacewalk


Gemini 8’s pilot David Scott was supposed to execute the second U.S. spacewalk to test space suit improvements, one of which being the addition of an Extra Vehicular Life Support System (ELSS) that will extend the availability of reserve oxygen, improve the thermal control characteristics, and raise the efficiency of suit flow and pressurization. 

Scott also was to test more maneuvering control with a Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) “space gun.” He was to use a larger capacity tank placed into his back-pack Extra Vehicular Support Package (ESP). The ESP was mounted in the rear of the Gemini‘s adapter equipment section within a cradle. Upon reaching that location, the spacewalker would seat himself on the cradle and back on to the ESP, securing it to his suit by a nylon strap which would come across his shoulders and fasten to the front of the chest-pack. 

Additional equipment prepared for this mission included two tethers. A 7.6-meter umbilical, similar to that used by White, carried an oxygen line, a nylon tether, and an electrical line for communication and bio-instrumentation. A second umbilical, 23 meters length and contained within a bag attached to the top of the back pack in the adapter, comprised a nylon tether and an electrical hardwire with connections for communications and bio-instruments from the astronaut's body.

Donning the chest pack and fitting up the short umbilical, Dave Scott was to open his hatch about 20 hours and 30 minutes into the flight, emerging from the craft at sunrise eleven minutes later on the 13th revolution. He was first to mount a camera, retrieve a package from the side of Gemini set up to study cosmic radiation, move across to the Agena and retrieve a micrometeoroid detection pack. He would then return to the spacecraft, change film in the camera, point it in an aft facing direction and move to the rear of the adapter. 

Checking that the back-pack and tether bag were still in their affixed location, the spacewalker was then to return to a plate on the side of the adapter's retrograde section and demonstrate the use of a special power tool designed to be used in weightlessness. (in that environment, a normal power tool would turn the astronaut rather than the chuck and the Defense Department had developed a non-torque power tool for evaluation.)

Returning again to the adapter, Scott was to don the ESP back pack and, at second sunrise, wait while Gemini 8 Commander Neil Armstrong undocked from the Agena and moved 18 meters out of plane to station-keep on the target. Scott was then to move out from behind the adapter and position himself in increments to the full extent of the 23-meter tether. Across at the Agena, he would wait as Armstrong maneuvered the spacecraft up to him, and then follow as the command-pilot gently pulled back from the Agena to a distance of 76 meters, hauling Scott along in the process. The spacewalker was to get back in the Gemini spacecraft after an EVA of about 2 hr. 10 min.

Unfortunately, this spectacular spacewalk was cancelled when, following the first docking between two spacecrafts – Gemini 8 and an Agena target vehicle – some rocket-engine problems force the crew to abort the mission and return in emergency to Earth. 

This spacewalk was very ambitious – in fact, way too much ambitious – considering, as we will learn with the following Gemini’s EVAs, the difficulties of working in space suit in weightlessness outside a spacecraft.
 

Adapted from: David Barker, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown Publishers, 1982, Chapter 13, p. 228-229.

Gemini 8's spacesuit improvments.
Gemini's adapter (left), where EVA 
equipment would be stored.
The rear of a Gemini spacecraft, 
where EVA equipment were stored.
Gemini 8's Agena docking target 
shortly before docking.

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EVA #3

U.S.
#2

Mission: Gemini IX-A Date: 5 June 1966 Duration: 2 hr. 09 min. Program: Gemini
The horrendous experience of walking in space
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This spacewalk is one of the most significant one ever done because it revealed how much it is difficult to work outside a spacecraft. Up to that day, engineers and ground controllers thought that spacewalking astronauts could do about anything, but Eugene Cernan's EVA revealed the opposite: the simplest task needs to be carefully planned in advance. Cernan nearly lost his life — more than once — during his spacewalk!

After the troublesome Gemini 8 mission, during which David Scott was to have performed an EVA, Gene Cernan became the second U.S. spacewalker on this Gemini 9 mission. He is the first to have made an entire orbit around the world out of a spaceship, to have sense both day and night in space.   In his biography, Cernan told:

“When I pumped my suit up to three and one half pounds of pressure per square inch, the suit took on a life of its own and became so stiff that it didn't want to bend at all. Not at the elbow, the knee, the waist, or anywhere else.  It was as if I wore a garment made of hardened plaster of Paris, from fingertip to toe.

“When the hatch stood open, I barely pushed against the floor of the spacecraft and my suit unfolded from the seated position. I grabbed the edges of the hatch and climbed out of my hole until I stood on my seat.

“And, oh, my God, what a sight. Nothing had prepared me for the immense sensual overload. I had poked my head inside a kaleidoscope, where shapes and colors shifted a thousand times a second. I did not have the words to match the scene.  No one does.

“While Tom [Gemini 9 Commander Tom Stafford ] held my foot to anchor me, I positioned a sixteen-millimeter Mauer movie camera on its mount and retrieved a nuclear emulsion package that recorded radiation data and measured the impact of space dust. Then I stretched forward and planted a small mirror on the nose of the spacecraft. Using it, Tom could watch when I started my trek back to the AMU [Astronaut Maneuvering Unit “space scooter”].

“My only connection with the real world was through the umbilical cord, which we called the "snake," and it set out to teach me a lesson in Newton's laws of motion. My slightest move would affect my entire body, ripple through the umbilical, and jostle the spacecraft. We were forced into an unwanted game of crack-the-whip, with Tom inside the Gemini and me on the other end of the snake.

“Since I had nothing to stabilize my movements, I went out of control, tumbling every which way, and when I reached the end of the umbilical, I rebounded like a Bungee jumper, and the snake reeled me in as it tried to resume its original shape. I hadn't even done anything yet and was already losing the battle. There had been no advance warning on the difficulties I was having because everything I did was new. I was already beyond the experiences of White and Leonov, moving into uncharted territory. Nobody in history had ever done this before.

“I felt as if I was wrestling an octopus. I was looping crazily around the spacecraft, ass over teakettle, as if slipping in puddles of space oil, with no control over the direction, position or movement of my body, and all the while the umbilical was trying to lasso me. Without a stabilizing device, I had no control over the umbilical, and it pretty much did whatever it wanted. "I can't get to where I want to go," I told Tom in exasperation. "The snake is all over me."

“I fought it for about thirty minutes before deciding that this snake was perhaps the most malicious serpent since the one Eve met in the Garden of Eden.

“I took a short break before moving to the rear of the spacecraft, where the backpack was stowed, and again was faced with the enormity of what lay before my eyes, a feast for the senses. 

“I needed to reach the rear of the spacecraft while I still had sunlight, then check out the backpack and strap it on during darkness. Then I would exchange the umbilical connected to my chest pack for the power and oxygen contained within the AMU, and tether myself to the spacecraft with a 125-foot-long [38 metres] piece of thin nylon line. So the next time the Sun popped up, Tom would flip a switch, the single bolt holding the backpack to the Gemini would shear, and I'd be off, rocketing around on my own, the first human to be an independent satellite. Master of the Universe.

But first, I had to get to where the backpack was folded up like some bizarre bird in a nest. My space suit fought my every move, and I needed both flexibility and mobility, the two things it did not have. It was blown up like a balloon figure in the Macy's Thanksgiving parade, and tried to hold that shape, no matter how I sought to bend it. Push in on a party balloon and it will resume its original shape when your finger pressure is removed. Same thing in outer space. My heartbeat increased with the effort, and I was breathing hard, trying to find leverage.

“I worked my way hand-over-hand along a small railing, we entered darkness over South Africa. I unfolded the restraining bars alongside the backpack, and clicked on a pair of tiny lights for illumination. Only one lit up, providing less help than a candle. Lord I was tired. My heart was motoring at about 155 beats per minute, I was sweating like a pig, and I had yet to begin my real work. 

“I could barely see anything at all as I worked through the thirty-five different functions required to make the thing ready to fly. What seemed simple during our Earth simulations was nearly impossible in true zero gravity. Sweat beaded on me and stung my eyes. The helmet prevented me from wiping them. Eventually I flipped the final switch and the backpack powered up. Almost time to fly.

“I was having a hard time seeing things, but it took a while to realize that it wasn't just because of the darkness. I was working so hard that the artificial environment created by the space suit simply could not absorb all of the carbon dioxide and humidity I was pumping out. Vision through my helmet was as mottled as the inside of a windshield on a winter morning, and I told Tom, "This visor is sure fogging up."

“The work was more than hard, and I was panting for breath as my heartbeat soared to 180 beats per minute. Since the visor was fogged on the inside, and I obviously couldn't remove the helmet to wipe it dry, my only choice was to rub my nose against the inside of the shield to make a hole through which I could see.

“Although my mask was cold, my lower back was scalding hot. During the somersaults of daylight umbilical dynamics, I had ripped apart the rear seams on those seven inner layers of heavy insulation and the Sun had baked the exposed triangle of unprotected skin. Now I had a major sunburn and nothing could be done about it until I took off the suit, which would be at least another day. I had a lot bigger things to worry about at the moment, so I disregarded the fiery sensation.” […]

Gemini 9 Commander Thomas Stafford (left) and Pilot Eugene Cernan.
A spacewalking astronaut with an AMU.
Artist rendition of the Gemini flight, with a spacewalk and an Agena dcoking target.
Cernan in his spacesuit (before the flight).
One of the rare photo of Cernan outside his spaceship. (There are no good pictures of Cernan's historic EVA because, at the end of the walk, the camera with which Stafford took pictures fled out of the spacecraft.)
Cernan and Stafford before the flight.

Cernan thus moved to the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) stowed at the rear of his spacecraft but handrails, velcro pads and loop foot restraints failed to help him control his movements. As he struggled, he broke off an experiment antenna mounted on the Gemini spacecraft and tore the outer layers of his suit. (Photo: Cernan and Stafford in their spacesuit, before the flight.)

His exertions exceeded the capacity of his suit’s environment control system to remove moisture, fogging his faceplate and blinding him. Cernan donned the AMU by touch, but Gemini 9 Commander called him back inside. The crew thus abandoned the $10 million Air Force had paid to build the AMU without a try. (Eighteen years will pass before an advanced AMU will be tested by Space Shuttle astronauts.)

After returning to Earth, Cernan conducted underwater simulations of his EVA and reported that neutral buoyancy simulation nearly duplicated actual spacewalk conditions, helping to validate it as a training tool. At the time of his flight, Cernan feared that since he had “failed his EVA”, it could be his first and only spaceflight. But his experience revealed so much about spacewalking that Cernan made two Apollo lunar missions, becoming the last man to walk on the Moon. His Gemini 9 EVA, he said, was the most strenuous experience of his life.

Adapted from: Eugene Cernan & Don Davis, The Last Man on the Moon, St. Martin's Press, 1999, Chapter 13, & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 4-5 (see more).
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EVA #4

U.S.
#3

Mission:Gemini X Date: 19 July 1965 Duration: 49 min. Program: Gemini
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First, Stand-up in space
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Almost from the moment Gene Cernan ended his spacewalk, NASA’s technicians and engineers were back at the drawing boards planning a new family of restraints and positioning devices designed for better body control for future spacewalks. Cernan’s experience also confirmed suspicion that the increasing number of tasks assigned to spacewalking astronaut would be better served by several shorter EVA rather than a long excursion. So, for Gemini 10, Mike Collins began training for a stand-up EVA - SEVA - in addition to a full spacewalk where he was to collect micrometeoroid packages from the exterior surface of Gemini 8's Agena, orbiting the Earth since March. Multiple EVA tasks separated into two specific periods of activity: SEVA at the beginning of the second day and full EVA at the beginning of the third.

Collins was to open the hatch and remain attached by a short tether to prevent strain on his oxygen inlet hose. The EVA was to take place as the spacecraft entered darkness to accommodate the S-13 Ultra Violet Astronomical Camera experiment, a device designed to explore the ultraviolet spectra of stars and some of the planets. Thus, on July 19, his hatch came open one minute into night and Collins performed the first-ever SEVA, floating head and shoulders out into space. 

Over the next 33 minutes, he set up the UV camera and proceeded to shoot off 22 exposures of the Milky Way from Beta Crucis to Gamma Velorum. Sunrise came 34 minutes after the hatch was cracked and Collins handed Gemini 10 Commander John Young the ultraviolet camera and prepared to take 70 mm photos with a Maurer camera of color patches to see if National Bureau of Standards color slates registered the same hues when exposed in space.

About 40 minutes after hatch opening, Collins began to feel a strong irritation in his eyes, a sensation similarly felt by Young. Soon, tears were rolling down the cheeks of both men as the spacecraft's two compressors fed lithium hydroxide traces back into the suit loops. There was nothing to do but terminate the EVA, which they did promptly, closing the hatch. Inside the spacecraft, the crew turned off one of the two suit compressor fan.

Gemini 10 Commander John Young (left) and Pilot Mike Collins.
During his first spacewalk, Collins (at right) had to open up his hatch to simply stand up from his seat.
Adapted from: David Barker, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown Publishers, 1982, p. 239 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 5-6 (see more).
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EVA #5

U.S.
#4

Mission: Gemini X Date: 20 July 1966 Duration: 39 min. Program: Gemini
Learning to walk and work in space
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Mike Collins’ full EVA was scheduled to last 90 minutes, more than a full daylight pass around the globe. Five minutes after sunrise, the spacewalker opened his hatch and stood up. He was restrained by a tether approximately 15 meters in length carrying oxygen in addition to providing a tension-pull inhibiting stress on the life support line. The line also included a nitrogen hose which would he connected to a Hand Held Maneuvering Unit (HHMU) “space gun”. About 5 kg of nitrogen was available for use.

The first order of business was for Collins to float out the hatch, unfolded a handrail and move back along the Gemini rear adapter to retrieve a micrometeoroid package and place it back in the cabin. Then, he would connect the nitrogen line to the port on the side of the spacecraft. 

Momentarily drifting back down into the open hatch, the spacewalker paused for a moment, fired a few squirts from the hand gun to assure himself it worked, and prepared to move back out and across to the Agena target vehicle. Commander John Young had maneuvered his spacecraft close to the docking end of the Agena 8 target vehicle so that it was hanging above the hatches, about 1½ meters distant, sloping away at a 45° angle behind the adapter. Collins gave Young final instructions to position Gemini and, while the commander held his craft at a fixed distance from the Agena, the walker pushed off and up, floating to the rounded lip of the docking cone under the impetus of his own mass.

Working his way round the cone, Collins found great difficulty in using the blunt lip for control, several times nearly slippi ng off as he moved counter-clockwise to where the micrometeoroid pack had been sitting exposed to space for four months. Reaching the micrometeoroid package, he attempted to stop his forward motion, but his lower body momentum left him “turning lazy cartwheels somewhere above and to the left of everything that matters.” Unable to stop when he wanted to, the inertia of his body carried him head over heels as his legs just kept on going. Drifting off the Agena, he could make his way back either with the hand gun or by pulling on the umbilical. Pulling up on the nitrogen line until the floating maneuvering unit came into his heavily gloved hand, Collins grasped it firmly and squeezed the trigger, sending bursts of nitrogen spurting into space from the small nozzles. 

An Agena target vehicle as viewed from Mike Collins' Gemini 10 window.
The micrometeorid package retrieved by Mike Collins from the Agena 8.

Note: there are no picture of Mike Collins making his spacewalk since the camera used was lost at the end of the EVA.

More by luck than judgement, the spacewalker found himself flying straight down upon Gemini and feet first in the hatch, promptly coming to a halt on the seat. However, his movement had pulled the craft out of attitude with the Agena and Young gently blipped the hand controller to nudge Gemini back into position with the target vehicle hanging overhead.

For the second time, Collins drifted up to the docking cone, preferring to use the HHMU this time but, in trying to correct a pitching moment, he translated too high and narrowly missed grabbing hold of the docking cone. Instead of trying to do it the planned way, he fumbled for bunches of wires in the back of the cone, firm hand grips with which to pull himself up and over to the micrometeoroid package. During this activity, his heart rate never exceeded 120 beats/min and his respiration was a steady 20 breaths/min. 

But now, having retrieved the plate he had been working for ten minutes to get, it was time to return to the Gemini spacecraft. He was supposed to emplace another package for possible retrieval on a later flight, but he abandoned that idea when it became clear that in using his hands to clamber around the cone he would probably lose the one he had just removed.

Using the umbilical to pull himself back in, Collins was prevented from giving the maneuvering gun a good workout because Gemini propellant was getting low and Young was cautioned about station-keeping on the Agena. So that was that. The EVA would have to be terminated so that Gemini 10 could pull back from its target and drift, far away from the danger of a collision with the Agena. 

But the process of getting back in caused Collins great difficulty. First, he became wound up in the umbilical, then he had difficulty moving arms and legs within the pressurized suit. Finally, a combined operation freed the pilot and the hatch was closed. Collins discovered that he had lost his camera, then the long umbilical caused problems again, preventing Young from seeing the control panel so he could report fuel usage to Missin Control and causing Collins to accidentally shut off the radio.

This spacewalk shows that without some sort of handholds or restraining devices, a large percentage of the astronaut’s time is devoted to torquing his body around until it is in the proper position to do some useful work. Denied the opportunity to test the HHMU fully, Collins had, nevertheless, retrieved a valuable package that would tell scientists about particles moving in the vicinity of Earth and contribute toward an understanding of near-space environmental conditions. (The hatch was opened for a third time, to eject EVA equipment no longer required.)

Adapted from: David Barker, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown Publishers, 1982, p. 239-241 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 6-7 (more).
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EVA #6

U.S.
#5

Mission: Gemini XI Date: 13 September 1966 Duration: 38 min. Program: Gemini
Richard Gordon’s EVA started badly; just before opening the hatch, he worked up a sweat trying to attach a visor to his helmet. Later he said: “I was pretty tired and had a pretty high heart rate before I ever opened the hatch.” He then attempted a leap to Agena 11, missing and swinging on his 9-metre umbilical to Gemini 11’s adapter section. Using the umbilical, Commander Conrad pulled him back to the hatch for another try. This time, Gordon succeeded in grasping handrails on the Agena. However, he still needed both hands to secure the tether to Gemini 11. He straddled the spacecraft nose as he had in zero-g aircraft simulations, but in space, his suit internal pressure forced his legs together, pushing him away from the nose. He secured the tether while holding onto the handrail with one hand. Gordon moved back to the cockpit area to rest and Conrad ordered him back inside. Gordon said later that “a little simple task that I had done many times in training to the tune of about 30 seconds lasted about 30 minutes… I knew it was going to be harder [than on the ground], but I had no idea of the magnitude.” Neutral buoyancy simulation was not yet a mandatory EVA training tool, so Gordon spent little time underwater preparing for his EVA. Gordon’s experience encouraged Apollo lunar surface EVA astronauts to practice more in their suits.
Richard Gordon outside his Gemini 11 capsule.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 7-8.
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EVA #7

U.S.
#6

Mission: Gemini XI Date: 14 Septeber 1966 Duration: 2 hr. 08 min. Program: Gemini
During this SEVA (stand-up EVA), Richard Gordon had to perform ultraviolet astronomical photography and Earth photography. He had few problems during this SEVA. He opened the hatch just before orbital sunset, installed the S13 ultraviolet astronomical camera and took pictures of Orion and Antares. A short tether held him in the cabin, permitting him to use both hands. During the daylight pass, Gordon performed “general photography,” which included snapping pictures of Houston and Florida. During their pass over the Atlantic, he and Gemini ii Commander Pete Conrad had no photographic targets, so they fell asleep - a testimony to the relaxed pace of this EVA. The spacecraft again moved into darkness and Gordon snapped more pictures of astronomical targets. Experiment S13 closeout and hatch closure were uneventful.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 8.
EVA #8

U.S.
#7

Mission: Gemini XII Date: 12 November 1966 Duration: 2 hr. 18 min. Program: Gemini
At the launch of the last Gemini flight, NASA hadn’t had compliete a single complex EVA that could be called an unqualified success. Thus, great care was taken in training, planning and providing handholds for Gemini 12. Even the flight began with a relaxed Sand-up EVA designed to let Edwin Aldrin become accustomed to his suit and equipment prior to the more demanding full-emergence EVA.

Aldrin emerged in orbital daylight with an enthusiastic “Man, look at that!” and installed the S13 ultraviolet astronomical camera. He evaluated SEVA dynamics until after dark, then performed astronomical photography. 

He installed a camera to record his activities, then prepared for the next EVA by installing a handbar and unfolding a handrail. He changed a diffraction grating on the S13 camera and removed the S12 micrometeoroid package from behind the cockpit. Aldrin resumed astronomical photography as darkness fell again. He witnessed a second orbital sunrise before closing the hatch on his successful first EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 9 (see more).
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EVA #9

U.S.
#8

Mission: Gemini XII Date: 13 November 1966 Duration: 2 hr. 09 min. Program: Gemini
At the start this EVA, Edwin Aldrin moved to the Target Docking Adapter on Agena 12, where he used waist tethers to hold position. Attaching a tether on the Agena to Gemini 12 proved surprisingly easy with both hands free. He then moved back to the adapter section, where he slipped his feet into “golden slipper” foot restraints. He used waist tethers to position himself at a work station for testing representative tasks: he cut cables and fluid lines, fastened rings and hooks, connected and disconnected electrical and fluid connectors, tightened bolts, and stripped velcro. His physical condition was closely monitored so that he could be advised to rest before fatigue developed. 

Aldrin moved to a similar work station on the Agena docking adapter where he tested an Apollo torque wrench with and without tethers. He wiped Lovell’s window and observed thruster firings on Gemini 12, then closed the hatch on the world’s first successful complex EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 9.
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EVA #10

U.S.
#9

Mission: Gemini XII Date: 14 November 1966 Duration: 1 hr. 11 min. Program: Gemini
Edwin Aldrin’s last Gemini 12 EVA - and the final EVA of the Gemini program - was anticlimactic: he just open the Gemini hatch and jettisoned disused equipment. And then, just before orbital sunset, he performed ultraviolet photography. Aldrin photographed sunrise then stowed his gear and closed out the EVA. However, this EVA helped confirm that U.S. EVA planners were on a sure footing going into the Apollo program.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 10.

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EVA #11

Sov.
#2

Mission: Soyuz 4/5 Date: 16 January 1969 Duration: 37 min. Program: Soviet Experimental
After Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5, launched one day apart, became the first piloted spaceship to dock, cosmonaut Yevgeni Khrunov and Alexei Yeliseyev prepared to transfer themselves, by means of an EVA, from Soyuz 5 to Soyuz 4. Moscow TV carried live the cosmonauts’ EVA preparations. 

While inside the orbital module, Soyuz 5 Commander Boris Volynov checked out Khrunov and Yeliseyev’s life support and communications systems before returning to the descent module. He then sealed the hatch and depressurized the orbital module. 

Khrunov went out first, transferring to the Soyuz 4 orbital module while the docked spacecraft were out of radio contact with the Soviet Union over South America. Yeliseyev transferred while the spacecraft were over the Soviet Union. They closed the Soyuz 4 orbital module hatch behind them, then Soyuz 4 Commander Vladimir Shatalov repressurized the module and entered to help Khrunov and Yeliseyev get out of their suits. 

The spacewalkers delivered newspapers, letters, and telegrams printed after Shatalov lifted off to help prove that the transfer took place. Soyuz 4 and 5 separated after only 4 hr, 35 min. together. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 11 (see more).
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EVA #12

U.S.
#10

Mission: Apollo 9 Date: 6 March 1969 Duration: 46 min. Program: Apollo
Originally, the first Apollo spacewalk was to last 2 hr. to test the Apollo spacesuit and demonstrate contingency EVA transfer between the Lunar Module and the Command Module. But Russell Schweickart suffered two bouts of vomiting one day after launch, symptoms of space motion sickness. This caused Mission Control to limit his schedule to a test of the Apollo suit (photo 1) inside the Lunar Module cabin. The revised EVA would occur in daylight and last less than 1 hr.

On mission day 4, Schweickart and Commander James McDivitt entered the Lunar Module (LM). The astronauts depressurized the two spacecrafts and McDivitt opened the LM’s hatch. Since Schweickart was feeling better than expected, McDivitt allowed him to egress and place his feet in the “golden slipper” foot restraint on the LM’s porch (photo 2).

Schweickart took photographs while Divid Scott opened the Command Module hatch, emerged partially, and retrieved thermal exposure samples from the exterior (photo 3). Scott’s SEVA was designed to demonstrate his ability to prepare for contingency EVA transfer from the LM to the CM in the event of docking or transfer problems. 

Schweickart performed well in the foot restraint, so McDivitt permitted him to test handrails and retrieve thermal samples on LM’s exterior. Movement using the handrails was easier in space than during training(photo 4). Schweickart reported. He returned to the LM and the astronauts closed the hatches and repressurized the two spacecraft.

Photo 1 Photo 2 Photo 3 Photo 4
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 12-13 (see more).
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EVA #13

U.S.
#11

Mission: Apollo 11 Date: 20-21 July 1969 Duration: 2 hr. 32 min. Program: Apollo
While climbing down the Lunar Module’s nine-rung ladder, Neil Armstrong activated the TV camera. Ghostly black and white images of the first lunar EVA were immediately broadcast. After describing the surface (“very fine grained… almost like a powder”), he stepped off into history as the first human to set foot on another world. He reported that moving in the Moon’s gravity was “perhaps even easier than the simulations.”

Armstrong then collected a contingency soil sample and tucked it into a pocket on his right thigh. He removed the TV camera from the LM, made a panoramic sweep, and mounted it on a tripod 12 metres afar. The TV camera cable remained partly coiled and presented a tripping hazard throughout the EVA.

Buzz Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface and tested methods for moving around, including two-footed kangaroo hops. Loping became the preferred method of movement, but the moonwalkers reported that they needed to plan their movements six or seven steps ahead. The fine soil was quite slippery. 

They planted the U.S. flag - the ground was too hard to permit them to insert the pole more than about 20 cm – then took a phone call from President Nixon. They then collected rock samples and deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP), which included a passive seismograph and a laser ranging retroreflector. Armstrong loped about 120 metres from the LM to snap photos at the rim of East Crater while Aldrin collected two core tubes. They’d bring back two boxes containing more than 22 kg of lunar surface material.

Many of the surface activities took longer than expected, so the astronauts had to stop documented sample collection halfway through the allotted 34 min. Mission Control used a coded phrase to warn Armstrong that his metabolic rates were high and that he should slow down. He was moving rapidly from task to task as time ran out. Rates remained generally lower than expected for both astronauts throughout the walk, however, so Mission Control granted the astronauts a 15-min extension.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 13-15 (see more).
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EVA #14

U.S.
#12

Mission: Apollo 12 Date: 19 November 1969 Duration: 3 hr. 39 min. Program: Apollo
A the start of the first Apollo 12 EVA, Pete Conrad activated the color TV camera while climbing down the ladder. He then dropped onto the Lunar Module (LM) footpad from the ladder’s last rung, calling out, “Whoopie! Man, that may have been a small one for Neil, but that’s a long one for me!” Even before Al Bean joined him on the surface, Conrad reported that he was getting dirty from lunar dust. 

Bean removed the camera from the LM side and put it on a tripod, in the process pointing it at the Sun. The camera’s vidicon tube was damaged, ending EVA TV for Apollo 12. 

The moonwalkers planted the U.S. flag and collected rocks near the LM, then deployed the Advanced Lunar Science Experiment Package (ALSEP), north of Surveyor Crater, about 180 metres from the LM. Dust kicked up by the astronauts stuck to the ALSEP instruments. The dust was not slippery, though Conrad took a harmless spill because of uneven footing. 

The astronauts had some difficulty removing from the LM side the plutonium fuel cartridge for ALSEP’s nuclear power source. The cartridge was hot enough to melt a hole in a space suit. Conrad and Bean had to dust each other off before climbing back into the LM for the night. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 16.
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EVA #15

U.S.
#13

Mission: Apollo 12 Date: 19 November 1969 Duration: 3 hr. 48 min. Program: Apollo
During their second moonwalk, Pete Conrad and Al Bean became the first to undertake a long (1.8 km) lunar traverse. Objects on the surface appeared closer than they really were, and the bottoms of craters were hidden in shadow. They later comment that “On the Moon, the legs never seem to get tired. The problem with the suit is that it does not always bend as the wearer wants to bend. For example, the suit bends fairly well in the knees and ankles, but it does not want to bend near the top of the thigh. This… results in loping in a stiff-legged fashion - running with straight legs, landing flat-footed, and then pushing off with the toes.”

First, the moonwalkers store the TV camera damaged during the first EVA so it could be returned to Earth for examination.

The 1.8-km traverse had three major objectives:  site exploration, geological sample collection, and Surveyor 3 inspection. They moved to the ALSEP site, collected a core and a trench sample, then they they collected two cores. Along the way they saw spatters of cooled molten glass on rocks and occasional brightly colored rocks. They also noted that the surface was gray or brown depending on Sun angle and direction. 

Two hr into the EVA they received a “go” for a 4-hr EVA. The astronauts stated later that they felt little fatigue and could have continued for twice as long as the three and half hr originally scheduled. 

They skirted the south rim of Surveyor Crater. Surveyor 3 sat on a 12-degree slope, 45 m inside the crater. The moonwalkers were puzzled by the apparent change in Surveyor’s white color caused by a fine coating of tan lunar dust. It looked brown to them. 

They then collected pieces of Surveyor 3 for study by scientists interested in the long-term of effects on equipment of lunar surface conditions. They removed Surveyor 3’s TV camera, sample scoop, and samples of wire, glass, and metal.

Then they moved back to the Lunar Module, stowed the rock boxes, and closed out EVA 2. They reported that fighting the internal pressure of their gloves made their hands tired. 

Mission Control used the code phrase “We’d like an EMU check” to warn the moonwalkers to slow down after their heart rates reached about 160 beats/min. They reported that the thermal meteoroid garments of their spacesuit were severely worn by lunar dust abrasion. Lunar dust became a problem during the return home, floating in weightless, making breathing difficult for the astronauts without their helmets. During the flight home, they had to clean lunar dust off the air filter screens every 2 to 3 hr.
     After their return back to Earth, the moonwalkers had difficulty telling themselves apart in their more than 500 photos. (Markings on the Commander's suit will be add on the next flights.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 16-17.
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EVA #16

U.S.
#14

Mission: Apollo 14 Date: 5 February 1971 Duration: 4 hr. 49 min. Program: Apollo
Communications problems delayed the first EVA’s start by 49 minutes. Alan Shepard stepped onto the Moon and described the surface as “so soft that it comes all the way to the top of the [LM] footpads; it’s even folded over the sides to some degree…” 

After Edgard Mitchell joined him on the surface, the astronauts collected a 19.5-kg contingency sample, then deployed the TV camera (taking care not to point it at the Sun), S-band dish antenna, and U.S. flag. Shepard’s suit had red stripes at the knees and shoulders so he could be identified in photographs. His helmet also bore a red stripe. A hinged center shade section was added to the LEVA, providing additional eye protection when the astronaut walked toward the Sun under low Sun-angle conditions. 

The astronauts deployed the ALSEP experiments about 150 metres west of their Lunar Module, then set up the laser ranging retroreflector 30 metres beyond that. The EVA was extended by 30 minutes to partly compensate for the late start. In all, the astronauts covered about 550 metres before returning to the LM to eat and rest.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 18.
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EVA #17

U.S.
#15

Mission: Apollo 14 Date: 6 February 1971 Duration: 4 hr. 46 min. Program: Apollo
Apollo 14 marked a modest upgrade in lunar surface EVA capabilities. For their second EVA, the moonwalkers used the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET), a 9-kg, two-wheeled “rickshaw” cart for hauling tools, photographic equipment, and sample containers.

The EVA was planned as a 3-km traverse - probably the longest practical for an astronaut wearing a lunar spacesuit if useful work was to be performed along the way and a safety margin maintained. Their objective was the rim of Cone Crater, a meteoroid impact pit 300 metres wide. Geologists saw it as a natural excavation laying bare eons of lunar geological history. Reaching the elevated rim was considered important because it should have contained the oldest rocks.

Al Shepard and Ed Mitchell headed east toward the crater, taking turns towing the MET. They began climbing the blanket of loose debris around Cone 90 minutes into the EVA, about 850 metres from the crater rim. The MET had a tendency to tip and became difficult to pull as the number of boulders increased. The moonwalkers finally resorted to carrying it. Mitchell noted problems with dust, saying that, “we’re filthy as pigs… everything’s going to be covered with dust before long.” Shepard’s heart rate climbed to 150 beats per min and Mitchell’s right EMU backpact wrist cable broke, impeding his hand movements. 

Shepard said after the EVA that the worst problem was “the undulating terrain where you simply couldn’t see more than 100 to 150 metres away from you. Consequently, you were never quite sure what landmark would appear when you topped the next ridge. We were very surprised when we… approached the ridge which we thought to be the rim of Cone Crater, to find there was another one behind it… I think if we had wanted to reach the top of the crater and did nothing else, that we could have done that within the time period allotted.” 

The astronauts received a 30-minutes extension, but were finally compelled to abandon their quest for the rim. They obtained only one of three planned core tubes, 16 photographs, and 10 kg of samples during their Cone traverse.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 19 (see more).
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EVA #18

U.S.
#16

Mission: Apollo 15 Date: 30 July 1971 Duration: 33 min. Program: Apollo
Shortly after landing on the Hadley’s plain, David Scott opened up the hatch on top of the Lunar Module (normally used to transfert toward the Apollo Command Module) to have a peak at the surrounding. This SEVA (stand-up EVA) was partly a response to the surface navigation problems experienced on Apollo 14. 

Pulling his shoulders through the top hatch, he got his bearings at the complex Hadley-Apennine landing site ahead of the surface EVAs.  He told Edgar Mitchell in Mission Control that the site was “exactly like what you had on Apollo 14. It’s very hummocky, and, as you know, in this kind of terrain, you can hardly see over your eyebrows.” 

Scott reported that 5-km Mt. Hadley glowed gold and brown in the lunar morning sunlight, and that there were no large boulders to hinder the progress of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the next day’s scheduled traverse south to St. George Crater.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 20.
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EVA #19

U.S.
#17

Mission: Apollo 15 Date: 31 July 1971 Duration: 6 hr. 34 min. Program: Apollo
With improved lunar space suits for longer EVAs, a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) for greater mobility, and a complex landing site, Apollo 15 represented the beginning of a new era of lunar exploration. Added consumables meant that an astronaut could manage a 7-hour EVA and a 8-km “walkback” if the LRV failed. The LRV was one of the most important additions to Apollo’s capabilities. Two sets of batteries provided sufficient power for a 62-km traverse at a speed of 16 km/hr. A color television camera mounted on the front of the LRV could be pointed and zoomed by a controller in Houston, allowing scientists to investigate traverse stops independently (and to TV viewers to peak around) while the moonwalkers were working.

At the start of the EVA, David Scott set up the improved TV camera while James Irwin collected the contingency sample. They tended to move using two-footed kangaroo hops rather than slow-motion loping. 

Unstowing and deploying the Lunar Roving Vehicle took longer than the 20 minutes allotted. Though it was planned as a one-man task, under lunar conditions, unfolding the vehicle required both astronauts. During LRV deployment, Irwin took the first of several harmless falls. The astronauts found that the rover had no front-wheel steering, but Scott managed to maneuver the vehicle using only rear steering. The astronauts also found that their seatbelts barely fit around their pressurized EMUs.

About 3 hours into the EVA, they set out on a 10.3-km traverse south along the rim of Elbow Crater to the 2-km-dia. St. George Crater, near Hadley Rille. During the traverse, the astronauts reduced suit cooling to avoid becoming cold while their metabolic rates were low. They had some difficulty with light reflected from the landscape opposite the sun, which made obstacles difficult to discern.

The astronauts used a rake to collect “walnut-sized samples” near St. George Crater. Flight controllers operated the LRV camera so geologists on Earth could explore the lunar landscape telerobotically and guide the astronauts in collecting samples.

The moonwalkers then drove back to the Lunar Module to deploy the ALSEP science instrument package. They located the central station 110 metres west of the LM and drilled a hole in the ground for a heatflow experiment probe. But the task was extremely difficult, Scott discovering that the lunar ground is very hard. In his effort, he used so much oxygen that flight controllers had terminated the EVA thirty minutes early and considered cutting back the second EVA.

Both astronauts suffered pain in their fingers caused by their fingernails pressing hard against their glove fingertips. Irwin needed help to remove his gloves, and elected to trim his nails before the second EVA. Scott left his fingernails as they were to avoid reducing his dexterity.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 20-21 (see more).
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EVA #20

U.S.
#18

Mission: Apollo 15 Date: 1 August 1971 Duration: 7 hr. 13 min. Program: Apollo
Based on their experience during the first traverse, mission planners modified the second EVA to maximize time spent doing science and minimize driving. 

When they did reach the surface, David Scott and James Irwin were delighted to discover that Lunar Roving Vehicle front steering had become operational. They began a 12.5-km traverse southeast to the foot of the Hadley Delta mountain and back. The LRV climbed Hadley Delta’s slopes at 10 km/hr. with no difficulty. 

The moonwalkers climbed 100 metres above the Lunar Module, which was more than 5 km away. Soft material on the slopes provided poor footing, and the LRV began to slide while parked. Irwin held the rover while Scott hopped off to collect a green crystalline rock. 

At Spur Crater, they collected the “Genesis Rock,” which today is still believed to be a piece of original lunar crust more than four billion years old. Scott called Spur a “gold mine” of interesting geological samples, so their time there was extended to 49 min. 

The elevation clutch on the LRV camera began to slip. Irwin’s vertical PLSS antenna snapped off, and Scott taped it on horizontally. The astronauts collected so many samples at Spur that the LRV bounced when they dropped the rock box on it. 

They then had to rush because they were approaching the “walkback” limit of their suit reserves. In contrast to the first EVA, Scott used about as much oxygen as expected. The astronauts found navigating back to the LM difficult until they encountered their own outbound tracks. 

Back at the LM, Scott drilled a core hole, encountering much resistance and hurting his hands. Then the 3-metre-long core tube could not be removed. On advice from Mission Control, the astronauts abandoned the tube until the next EVA. They planted the U.S. flag at the EVA’s end.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 22.
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EVA #21

U.S.
#19

Mission: Apollo 15 Date: 2 August 1971 Duration: 4 hr. 20 min. Program: Apollo
The EVA started 1 hr. 45 min late to let the crew rest after they experienced irregular heartbeats. (This was traced later to potassium deficiency, complicated in Irwin’s case by failure of his drink bag.) It was thus shortened to protect the LM’s planned liftoff time. 

David Scott and James Irwin managed to free the core tube which became stuck on EVA 2, but could not take it apart to stow it because the LRV vise was assembled backwards on Earth. They used a wrench and lost 28 minutes. 

They then started their traverse 1 hr. 20 min into the EVA. They drove 5 km  west to Scarp Crater, then turned northwest to Hadley Rille, with stops at Rim Crater and a feature called The Terrace. This EVA marked the first time Apollo astronauts passed out of sight of their LM. 

With this EVA, the fifth of his career, Scott became the record-holder for number of EVAs. His record was not beaten until 1984 by Soviet cosmonauts onboard Salyut 7. During the three traverses, the LRV was used to collect nearly 80 kg of samples and covered almost 50 km.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 23.
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EVA #22

U.S.
#20

Mission: Apollo 15 Date: 5 August 1971 Duration: 41 min. Program: Apollo
Apollo 15 Command Module pilot Alfred Worden became the first astronaut to make an EVA in deep space, at 273 600 km from Earth. 

Using handrails and foot restraints, he had no difficulty making three round trips to the Scientific Instrument Module (SIM) bay built into the side of Service Module. Irwin guided his 8.3-m tether from Command Module hatch. 

Worden first retrieved the 39-kg Itek panoramic camera cassette, which he tethered to his arm and carried to Irwin at the hatch. Though Worden’s metabolic rates remained acceptable throughout the EVA, Mission Control warned him not to rush. 

On the second trip, Worden removed the 10-kg cassette from the Fairchild mapping camera. he made an unplanned third trip to inspect the SIM bay instruments which had malfunctioned. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 24.
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EVA #23

U.S.
#21

Mission: Apollo 16 Date:  21 April 1972 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: Apollo
The first lunar excursion by Apollo 16 astronauts was plague with problems.  First, their landing on Descartes  was delayed several hours because of a malfunction of Command Module’s main rocket engine. Then, Mission Control delayed the EVA’s start until after an 8-hour rest period, during which Commander John Young and Charles Duke studied their surroundings through windows. They reported that Descartes was rockier and hillier than previous sites. 

Then, Duke had trouble getting into his lunar suit because he had grown 4 cm  in weightlessness. Then, a problem with the LM’s steerable antenna delayed EVA start by an hour and prevented Young’s first steps on the Moon from being televised. 

Finally, on the Moon, the astronauts deployed the U.S. flag and ALSEP deployment. Duke used an improved drill to collect a 2.6-metre core. He inserted the heat flow probe, which was linked to the ALSEP central station by a cable. But Young accidentally walked over the cable, tearing it loose from the central station. Mission Control began study of a possible repair during the second EVA. Also, the deployment lanyard on the cosmic ray experiment broke, leaving the crew uncertain as to whether the instrument was fully deployed. 

The moonwalkers deployed the Lunar Roving Vehicle but they discovered that it had no rear steering and one of its batteries read low. Fortunately, rear steering returned and the battery read normal 40 minutes into the traverse.  En route, Young and Duke collected an 11.7-kg rock. The LRV bounced a great deal during the traverses.

Following the traverse, Duke operated a movie camera while Young performed LRV traction tests known jocularly as the famous “Grand Prix.” 

When Mission Control relayed the news that Congress approved Space Shuttle funding, John Young leaped one metre and saluted the flag. (Nine years later, he went on to command the first Shuttle mission.) Duke jumped too, but slipped and fell on his PLSS. 

After the EVA the astronauts reported the usual dust problems: stuck zippers glove disconnects and indicators scratched and difficult to read.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 25.
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EVA #24

U.S.
#22

Mission: Apollo 16 Date:  22 April 1972 Duration: 7 hr. 23 min. Program: Apollo
At the start of their second EVA, John Young and Charles Duke moved the cosmic-ray experiment to an LM footpad out of the Sun because it showed signs of overheating. Young noticed that he felt cooler in the LM’s shadow, where the temperature was 084° C (surface temperature in the Sun was +88° C). 

Onboard the rover, the moonwalkers climbed Survey Ridge to Stone Mountain. They collected core samples on Stone Mountain and reported that the view of their landing site was “just dazzling.” The LM was barely visible in the distance. 

During descent toward the LM, the rover’s pitch meter pegget 20° of slope. The astronauts collected a thin layer of surface material using adhesive plates. As with most lunar EVAs, some activities and stops were deleted because of insufficient time. 

(Prior to the second EVA, Mission Control vetoed repair of the heat flow cable because it would take too much time and possibly short-circuit the ALSEP central station.) 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 25-26.
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EVA #25

U.S.
#23

Mission: Apollo 16 Date: 23 April 1972 Duration: 5 hr. 40 min. Program: Apollo
The landing delay on April 21 caused more water than expected to be used in cooling of the LM’s avionics. Because the cooling water supply was running low, consideration was given to deleting the third EVA, a move the Apollo science “back room” at Mission Control vehemently opposed. The EVA began 30 minutes early, but overall length was cut by two hours and the traverse was shortened by five stops. 

John Young and Charles Duke drove to the foot of Smoky Mountain, near North Ray Crater, where they spent 1 hr. 20 min. sampling and taking magnetic field readings using the Lunar Portable Magnetometer. They found the largest remnant magnetic field discovered on the Moon. 

They commented on the thick dust they kicked up and the generally shattered appearance of the area. Geologists in the back room asked Young to look at North Ray’s bottom, but he turned down the request, saying that: “That rascally rim slopes about 10 or 15 degrees… then all of a sudden… I’ve got to go 100 yards down a 25 to 30 degree slope and I don’t think I’d better.” The astronauts collected samples off 10-metre-high, 20-metre-long House Rock, the largest boulder sampled during Apollo. 

Young found that by hopping into the air and landing on his feet, the weight of his suit overcame the suit’s internal pressure, so he could get to his knees and pick up rocks without using geological tools. 

The LRV suffered temporary navigational computer failure, but the moonwalkers knew where they were from the Sun’s position. They trended back toward their outbound tracks so they could follow them back to the LM, but spotted their spacecraft before they found their tracks. The LRV reached its highest speed on the Moon - 22 km/hr - rolling down a 15-degree slope during return to the LM. 

Young left the LRV parked 50 metre east of the LM, then helped Duke load 96.6 kg of lunar samples into the spacecraft. Controllers on Earth used the rover camera to track the LM ascent as it left Descartes behind. (The avionics cooling water ran out as it completed docking with the Command Module.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 26.
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EVA #26

U.S.
#24

Mission: Apollo 16 Date: 25 April 1972 Duration: 1 hr. 24 min. Program: Apollo
During the flight home, when Ken Mattingly opened up the Command Module hatch to stepped out to recover mapping and panoramic camera film from the SIM bay, some moondust drifted into deep space.

Mattingly made two leisurely trips along Apollo’s Service Module. He inspected the spacecraft’s exterior and exposed the Microbial Ecological Evaluation Device to space for ten minutes. 

Before returning to the cabin, he opened his visor briefly so he could see the stars, taking care not to look in the direction of the Sun.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 27.
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EVA #27

U.S.
#25

Mission: Apollo 17 Date: 11 December 1972 Duration: 7 hr. 12 min. Program: Apollo
The first Apollo 17 surface EVA began 4 hours after landing with no television of Eugene Cernan’s first step, the necessary TV equipment having been omitted to save weight and extend Lunar Module’s hover time. Harrison Schmitt, the only geologist to visit the Moon, took a proprietary interest in the Taurus-Littrow site; he stepped onto the surface after Cernan and quipped, “Who’s been tracking up my lunar surface?” 

The astronauts deployed and tested their Lunar Roving Vehicle, then planted a U.S. flag which had hung in Mission Control since Apollo 11. Cernan accidentally knocked off part of one of the rover’s fenders and repaired it with tape. The astronauts set up the ALSEP 185 metres northwest of the LM.

Cernan drilled two holes 2.5 metres deep holes and inserted two heat flow probes. He also drilled a core sample hole 2.8 metres deep. Collecting the core required 1 hour, the core device stuck despite the long-handled jack designed to ease removal. Cernan’s oxygen consumption climbed rapidly as his pulse hit 145 beats per minutes. Schmitt extracted the core by throwing his weight on the jack handle, but fell and scattered equipment. In general, the Apollo 17 astronauts treated their space suits roughly - experience gained on earlier flights left them with little fear of suit damage. Cernan then inserted a cosmic-ray probe into the hole left by the core. Encumbered by his suit, 

The damaged rover fender fell off on the way to the first geological survey station, so the astronauts were showered with dust. Schedule pressure forced deletion of a trek to Emory Crater in favor of a shorter trip to Steno Crater. The astronauts placed 0.45-kg and 0.23-kg explosive packages during the traverse. The explosives were set off after Cernan and Schmitt departed and recorded by geophones in the Apollo 17 ALSEP. 

Schmitt at first had trouble picking up rocks, which he admitted was “a very embarrassing thing for a geologist.” Cernan drove so Schmitt could do science. The geologist carried a new long-handled scoop which allowed him to sample from the rover seat, saving time. 

Back at the LM, Cernan reported that his tussle with the core tube bruised his arms and burst blood vessels under his fingernails. Dust tracked into the LM gave Schmitt a mild hayfever attack. However, dust catchers on the floor mitigated some of the dust difficulties experienced by previous crews. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 27-28.
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EVA #28

U.S.
#26

Mission: Apollo 17 Date: 12 December 1972 Duration: 7 hr. 37 min. Program: Apollo
At the start of the EVA, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt repaired the rover fender using folded traverse maps and two lamp clamps. They then set out on their second geological traverse. 

At survey stops, they deployed explosive packages. Cernan abandoned some of the caution shown on Apollo 15 and 16 and drove as fast as he could. They spent an hour sampling South Massif landslide material at Nansen Crater. They then explored Shorty Crater, which was suspected (at this time) of being a volcanic vent. Schmitt kicked up orange and crimson soil which appeared to confirm this hypothesis, so the astronauts, Mission Control, and Earth-based geologists rapidly adjusted the tight traverse schedule so Schmitt could collect unplanned core and trench samples. 

Apollo scientific and technical ground-based support was sufficiently refined by this time to permit flexible responses to EVA challenges and opportunities. Later, the astronauts comment that one can conceive of many samples “left uncollected at this remarkable locality.”

The astronauts saw more orange soil at later stops. The soil turned out later to be ancient volcanic glass blasted to the surface when Shorty was formed about a million years ago, not a sign of recent volcanism as originally hoped. 

Before returning to the Lunar Module, Schmitt went back to the ALSEP site to check the orientation of the Lunar Surface Gravimeter. On this EVA, the longest of the Apollo program, the astronauts drove the LRV for 19 km.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 28-29.
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EVA #29

U.S.
#27

Mission: Apollo 17 Date: 13 December 1972 Duration: 7 hr. 16 min. Program: Apollo
Before starting their final traverse, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt recovered the cosmic-ray detector because a small solar flare threatened to flood it with low-energy solar protons. Fortunately the flare was not powerful Ineither the thin-walled Lunar Module cabin nor their space suits could protect them from a powerful flare). 

The moonwalkers traversed to North Massif. They deleted the last geological survey stop to return to the ALSEP to adjust the Lunar Surface Gravimeter, which was still not functioning properly. They then extracted the cosmic-ray neutron probe and set more explosive packages. 

Finally, they unveiled a plaque on Challenger, which read: Here man completed his first exploration of the Moon, December 1972 A.D. May the spirit of peace in which we came be reflected in the lives of all mankind. 

Since they expected to be the last humans on the Moon until the late 1980s, Schmitt and Cernan were eager to keep working but, by EVA closeout Schmitt’s hands were so tired from lack of glove mobility during the long EVAs that he could barely move them. They left the lunar surface carrying 115 kg of samples and 2120 photos.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 29.
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EVA #30

U.S.
#28

Mission: Apollo 17 Date: 17 December 1972 Duration: 1 hr. 07 min. Program: Apollo
Ron Evans performed the last deep space EVA to date, making three trips to Command Module's SIM bay to retrieve film and floating free for a time on his 7.7-metres tether.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 29-30.
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EVA #31

U.S.
#29

Mission: Skylab 2 Date: 25 May 1973 Duration: 40 min. Program: Skylab
The Skylab space station was severly damaged during its launch on May 14. The first crew, launched eleven days later toward the station, reported that solar array wing 2 and most of the meteoroid shield were gone. Solar array wing 1 appeared intact, but a metal strap held it closed.

The crew improvized a Stand-up EVA, trying to open up the solar array. They moved their Apollo Command Module close to the jammed array. Paul Weitz then stood with his upper body through the hatch and assembled a 4.5-metre pole with a shepherd’s hook on the end from three 1.5-metre sections handed to him by Joe Kerwin. He hooked and pulled on the array while Kerwin gripped his legs. Charlers Conrad had to hold the CM steady because Weitz’s efforts pulled it toward the workshop. 

Weitz replaced the hook with a universal prying tool when the strap did not budge, but to no avail.  Their efforts thwarted, the astronauts docked with Skylab and closed out a 22-hour day.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 30.
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EVA #32

U.S.
#30

Mission: Skylab 2 Date: 7 June 1973 Duration: 3 hr. 25 min. Program: Skylab 
Ground controllers developed an EVA solar array repair procedure and the astronauts fabricated tools from onboard materials. They screwed together six 1.5-metre rods, attached a cable cutter at one end, then tied 6 metres of rope to the cutter pull rope. This will permitted the spacewalkers to operate the cutter from 9 metres away - the distance from the edge of Skylab’s airlock hatch to the strap holding shut array wing 1. The cable cutter assembly also served as a handrail for translation to the solar array wing. They also devised a Beam Erection Tether (BET) to force the hydraulic damper to open. Hooks were tied onto the opposite end of the rope. The astronauts would stand with the middle of the BET over one shoulder to hold them against Skylab’s hull and break the damper by straining upwards and pulling.

On June 7, Pete Conrad went outside Skylab’s airlock and Joe Kerwin passed him the six 1.5-metre poles, helped him assemble the cable cutter, and then moved in position. Conrad handed him the cable cutter assembly, then carryied the BET. The plan called for Kerwin to hook the cable cutter assembly on the strap holding wing 1 closed. Conrad would then crawl down the assembly to wing 1 and attach the BET.

However, Kerwin had difficulties finding a firm foothold because Skylab unexpectedly differed from the mockup in the tank in Huntsville. He was forced to hold on with one hand while attempting to position the pole with the other. After a frustrating half hour, he shortened his tether by doubling it. This held him more firmly against Skylab and allowed him partial use of his other hand. He finally succeeded in hooking the aluminum strap. 

Conrad attached the BET large hook to the discone antenna, then climbed along the cable cutter assembly pole. He attached one of the two BET small hooks to bolt holes on wing 1. Again, Skylab differed from the ground mockup; the second small hook would not fit. Kerwin tightened the BET using a cleat, then cut the strap holding the array closed. Conrad placed the BET over his shoulder, put his feet against the workshop’s hull, and strained against to pull open the array. Kerwin joined him. Finally the hydraulic damper holding the array closed gave way. 

As Conrad later described it: “I was facing away from it, heaving with all my might, and Joe was also heaving with all his might when it let go and both of us took off. By the time we got settled down… those panels were out as far as they were going to go.”  Needles on electricity meters on the ground and inside Skylab jumped, signaling success. 

Before going inside, the astronauts serviced the ATM astronomical instruments, changing out film in a malfunctioning camera and pinning open a balky solar telescope aperture door.  The astronauts had difficulty restowing the life support umbilicals in their spherical stowage containers.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 31-32 (see more).
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EVA #33

U.S.
#31

Mission: Skylab 2 Date: 19 June 1973 Duration: 1 hr. 36 min. Program: Skylab
Pete Conrad and Paul Weitz removed film from the ATM solar telescopes for return to Earth and replaced the film. This required a fraction of the time planned. 

Astronauts used single and dual handrails, the latter resembling ladders without rungs. According to them, the single handrails worked well, while translation using the dual rails was as easy as “driving on the freeway.” All handrails were painted blue for visibility and provided with “road signs” - alphanumeric designators. The blue faded rapidly in the strong sunlight of space however, and the designator labels proved difficult to see. 

Their film changeout tasks completed, Conrad and Weitz removed space exposure samples launched on the workshop’s exterior to return them back to Earth. 

They then used a brush to clean the White Light Coronograph occulting disk, which was producing glare. Conrad then moved to Circuit Breaker Relay Module 15. Acting on instructions from the ground, he hit it with a hammer to free a stuck relay. This low-tech solution succeeded and soon the module was feeding electricity into the Skylab power system again.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 32-33 (see more).
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EVA #34

U.S.
#32

Mission: Skylab 3 Date: 6 August 1973 Duration: 6 hr. 31 min. Program: Skylab
This EVA was scheduled before launch to occur on mission day 4, but crew illness (space motion sickness) pushed it back to mission day 10. The main order of business was to install the Twin Pole Sunshade over the parasol installed by the Skylab 2 astronauts because testing on the ground showed that the parasol’s nylon fabric could deteriorate from exposure to solar ultraviolet radia tion. 

At the start of the EVA, Owen Garriott assembled two poles, each made up of 11 1.5-metre sections, and passed them to Jack Lousma, who attached them to a base plate he installed on a hand rail, unfurled the sunshade fabric, and attached a reefing line to make the shade lie flat. He swiveled the completed shade to cover the station, then returned to the airlock to get equipment for the next phase of the EVA. 

Lousma ascended the Apollo Telescope Mount again, installed film. He then inspected Apollo Command Module thruster quads A and B from his position on the ATM. The quads were leaking, but Lousma saw no obvious signs of leakage and they later stopped, so Skylab 3 could run its scheduled 56-day duration. 

Lousma removed a telescope aperture door ramp to keep the door from sticking, which required removal of two bolts not designed for EVA. Then, he deployed the Micrometeoroid Particle Collection experiment. This experiment was originally intended for deployment from the science airlock blocked by the parasol, but was redesigned for EVA deployment and launched with the Skylab 3 crew.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 33.
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EVA #35

U.S.
#33

Mission:Skylab 3 Date: 24 August 1973 Duration: 4 hr. 31 min. Program: Skylab
During this  EVA, in addition to the ATM cameras film changeout task, Owen Garriott and Jack Lousma installed a 7.3-metre cable for a new rate gyro package they installed within the station’s pressurized volume. They also attached a clipboard with two parasol material samples to a handrail, and removed two more ramps from faulty ATM aperture doors.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 34.
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EVA #36

U.S.
#34

Mission: Skylab 3 Date:22 September 1973 Duration:2 hr. 41 min. Program: Skylab
Skylab 3 astronauts Alan Bean and Owen Garriott removed all ATM film for return to Earth, performed partial ATM film installation, and retrieved exposed collectors and samples, including one parasol material sample from the clipboard. 

The Airlock Module suit cooling system was inoperative because of leaks, so no water flowed through the umbilicals to the astronauts’ suits. Air cooling proved adequate for the undemanding tasks at hand, Garriott reported becoming slightly warm, while Bean’s hands were warm throughout the EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 34.
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EVA #37

U.S.
#35

Mission: Skylab 4 Date: 22 November 1993 Duration: 6 hr. 33 min. Program: Skylab
In addition to retrieve a meteoroid collector and install ATM film, William Pogue and Edward Gibson placed the Coronagraph Contamination Measurements experiment on an ATM truss and attempted to photograph Earth’s atmosphere using a camera originally intended for deployment from the science airlock blocked by the parasol solar shield. The camera failed after 5 of 40 planned exposures. 

They also attached the Trans-Uranic Cosmic Ray Experiment detector to the clipboard; pinned open a malfunctioning aperture door; installed space exposure samples; and repaired the Microwave Radiometer/ Scatterometer/Altimeter antenna, which was on the Earth-facing side of station where no EVA handrails or foot restraints existed. The astronauts had difficulty keeping their umbilicals separated.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 35.
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EVA #38

U.S.
#36

Mission: Skylab 4 Date: 25 December 1973 Duration: 7 hr. 01 min. Program: Skylab
During the longest Skylab EVA, Gerald Carr and William Pogue attached the X-ray/ultraviolet Solar Photography experiment to the ATM truss. The experiment was originally intended for deployment from the science airlock blocked by the parasol. 

They also took 40 pictures of Comet Kohoutek; partially replaced ATM film, retrieved space exposure samples, and pinned open another malfunctioning aperture door. 

The astronauts then returned to the Airlock Module to stowed equipment while crewman Edward Gibson maneuvered Skylab to the proper attitude for far UV comet photography. The Far UV camera took three sequences of 10 photos each, then returned the instrument to the airlock. 

Finally they repaired a telescope filter wheel, which involved fine work made challenging by their stiff space suit gloves. They used a dental mirror and penlight to look into the aperture, then carefully positioned the filter wheel with a screwdriver. Leaking cooling water, colored yellow by chromate corrosion inhibitor, formed ice on the front of Carr’s belly-mounted pressure control unit. The leak lacked sufficient volume to deplete the cooling water supply. Yellow ice flaked off as Carr moved.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 35.
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EVA #39

U.S.
#37

Mission: Skylab 4 Date: 29 December 1973 Duration: 3 hr. 29 min. Program: Skylab
During this spacewalrk, Gerald Carr and William Pogue collected a piece of the Airlock Module meteoroid cover for analysis. They then repeated their Comet Kohoutek observations. During the EVA, ice formed on the front of Carr’s suit because of a cooling water leak.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 36.
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EVA #40

U.S.
#38

Mission: Skylab 4 Date: 3 February 1974 Duration: 5 hr. 19 min. Program: Skylab
This tenth and last Skylab EVA included 16 tasks. Gerald Carr and Edward Gibson used the backup “clothesline” film transfer device to move film, collectors, and a camera back and forth between the ATM and the Airlock Module. Carr demonstrated hand over hand movement along a tether. They completed the Earth atmosphere photography begun on their first EVA by snapping photographs between their ATM film removal tasks. 

The astronauts then mounted the Micrometeoroid Particle Collection experiment on the ATM. NASA hoped that the experiment could be collected by Space Shuttle astronauts during a Skylab visit in the early 1980s (which never happen). 

Gibson’s suit cooling system sprang a leak, so he switched to minimum cooling and continued work. At the end of the EVA he reported that he was “tired and hungry.”

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 36.
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EVA #41

Sov.
#3

Mission: Salyut 6 E0-1 (Soyuz 26) Date: 20 December 1977 Duration: 1 hr. 28 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
This Stand-up EVA - the first Soviet EVA since 1969 and the first in nearly four years - was originally planned as a test of the Orlan-D suit in the depressurized transfer compartment at the front of Salyut 6. Beut, since Soyuz 25 could not dock at Salyut 6’s front port, Georgi Grechko was given the additional task of inspecting and recertifying the port for future Soyuz dockings. 

Grechko opened the front docking port and pulled himself halfway out so that he could inspect and manipulate the outer surfaces of the docking mechanism using special tools. He found everything to be in perfect working order.  (Airlock depressurized time was 88 minutes, but SEVA time [hatch open/close] was only 20 minutes.) 

For years, Soviet spaceflight observers believed that mission Commander Yuri Romanenko, in his eagerness to look out the open hatch, nearly drifted free of the station, and that only quick action by Grechko prevented him from being lost in space. Grechko now denies categorically that his commander was ever in danger, and adds ruefully that “Yuri was very angry about the story.” Romanenko says that the story had its start in a “bad joke” Grechko told which was misunderstood, and adds that, even though his short safety tether was not secured, his electricity/communications umbilical firmly fastened him to Salyut 6. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 37-38 (see more).
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EVA #42

Sov.
#4

Mission:  Salyut 6 E0-2 (Soyuz 29) Date: 29 July 1978 Duration: 2 hr. 05 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
On July 29, 1978, Vladimir Kovalyonok and Alexandr Ivanchenkov depressurized Salyut 6’s transfer compartment and open the hatch in its side, starting the first full-emergence EVA of the Soviet space program since 1969 (and the first full EVA since February 1974).

Ivanchenkov positioned himself on the Yakor (“anchor”) foot restraint near the airlock hatch, while Kovalyonok floated with his feet in the transfer compartment. The cosmonauts rested during the 35-minute orbital night, and were treated to the sight of a brilliant meteor burning up below them in Earth’s atmosphere. 

Ivanchenkov removed three space exposure cassettes launched on Salyut 6’s exterior and handed them to Kovalyonok for stowage in the transfer compartment. He then replaced meteoroid dust collectors and installed radiation sensors. Ivanchenkov photographed the Black Sea, Kazakhstan, and China. 

Mission Control ordered them to return inside just before Salyut 6 passed from radio range, but Kovalyonok decided, while out of radio contact, that they could stretch the EVA 20 minutes longer to enjoy the view of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef and New Zealand.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 39 (see more).
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EVA #43

Sov.
#5

Mission: Salyut 6 E0-3 (Soyuz 32) Date: 15 August 1978 Duration: 1 hr. 23 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
The goal of this contingency EVA was to remove the KRT-10 antenna from Salyut 6’s aft docking port. Three hours were allotted for the EVA

With difficulty, Valeri Ryumin opened a handrail recessed into the station’s hull, then gripped it with one hand for 30 minutes until orbital sunrise. As Ryumin moved aft along the station, Vladimir Lyakhov took his place at the handrail.

Ryumin had to use a wire-cutters designed for onboard use to cut through four 1-mm steel cables and free the antenna. Each time he cut at a cable, the 10-metre-dia antenna pitched toward him, threatening to cut his suit (as it had cut thermal insulation blankets on the station’s aft bulkhead) or smash him. Lyakhov positioned himself so he could warn Ryumin of the dish’s movements. Ryumin’s heart rate reached 146 beats/min while he worked. 

Finally, the last cable was cut and Ryumin pushed the KRT-10 antenna away with a “forked stick.”  The antenna flops loosely at the rear of the station. When communication was restored with the ground, the cosmonauts reported that they had completed their task and, at first, were not believed [since it tok them so little time]

Then, the spacewalkers returned to the exterior of the transfer compartment, where Ryumin wiped a porthole with a cloth to collect samples of obscuring “space dust.” They also collected space exposure experiment cassettes mounted just outside the EVA hatch. After the EVA, Ryumin found a small puncture in his suit’s primary bladder, possibly caused by a sharp wire on the KRT-10 antenna.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 41.
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EVA #44

Sov.
#6

Mission: Salyut 7 E0-1 (Soyuz T-5) Date: 30 July 1982 Duration: 2 hr. 33 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
This was the first Soviet EVA since August 1979 with the goal of replace space exposure cassettes; test assembly techniques and Orlan-D space suit upgrades. 

Anatoli Berezevoi spent most of the EVA standing in the hatch passing equipment to Valentin Lebedev, who positioned himself in the Yakor foot restraint. Lebedev’s activities were aimed at preparing for Salyut 7 solar array augmentation EVAs and other space assembly tasks. The Pamyat experiment tested “thermomechanical joining of pipeline sections in outer space,” while Istok tested “threaded connectors” made of different materials.

Lebedev also tested an experimental wrench, which worked well, but his hand went numb because his wrist pressed against his suit wrist ring during tool use. Lebedev complained that the improved Orlan-D cooling system made his feet cold. 

He collected and replaced 20 space exposure cassettes containing gasket rubber, insulating coatings, glass for ports and lenses, and other materials. He also replaced micrometeoroid detectors. He then described the EVA for Soviet TV viewers as he stood on Salyut 7’s hull while Berezevoi televised the station’s exterior and the Earth below.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 42-43 (see more).
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EVA #45

Sov.
#7

Mission: STS 6 Date: 7 April 1983 Duration: 4 hr. 10 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The first Shuttle EVA (and first U.S. EVA since February 1974) was planned to occur during STS-5, but was scrubbed because of Shuttle EMU malfunctions. 

While preparing for STS-6 EVA, Story Musgrave and Donald Peterson “stood” face to face in the airlock, which lead to thrashing and noise. Despite this, they managed to doze during the 3-hour in-airlock prebreathe. They then left the airlock to assess space suit mobility by translating aft along the handholds inside the payload bay door hinge of the Orbiter. Musgrave climbed to the top of the payload bay aft bulkhead and looked back over the Orbiteur’s engine bells.

The spacewalkers demonstrated contingency payload bay door closure without actually closing them. They had difficulties rewinding the payload bay door EVA winch and considered cutting the winch cable, but Mission Control vetoed this and the cable came free. They also went through the motions of lowering a jammed satellite tilt table. Musgrave reported that his fingers were cold.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 43-45 (see more).
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EVA #46

Sov.
#8

Mission: Salyut 7 E0-2 (Soyuz T-9) Date: 1 November 1983 Duration: 2 hr. 50 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
The solar arrays on the Salyut 6 space station underwent rapid degradation in their ability to produce electrical power due to ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure. So Salyut 7 was designed to have its arrays augmented over the course of its occupancy to restore lost capacity.

Vladimir Lyakhov, who thus became the first Russian to perform a second EVA, and Alexandr Alexandrov forst set up a TV camera on a movable arm so flight controllers could monitor the EVA. Then they took up position in foot restraints and removed the add-on array from its container.

Forty min into the EVA, the spacewalkers passed out of range of Soviet ground stations and tracking ships for 50 minutes. Much of the time out of range was spent in darkness, so they awaited orbital sunrise to resume work. 

A total of 48 operations were needed to deploy the array nominally. Lyakhov and Alexandrov used a special winch to unfurl the add-on array along one side of the existing array. The 5-metre-long, 1.5-metre-wide add-on array increased available power by 25 percent. 

Lyakhov received a reprimand from Mission Control for releasing bits of junk to watch them float away - the glittering objects could interfere with Salyut 7’s star sensors.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 45 (see more).
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EVA #47

Sov.
#9

Mission: Salyut 7 E0-2 (Soyuz T-9) Date: 3 November 1983 Duration: 2 hr. 55 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
The goal of this EVA was to augment Salyut 7’s solar imput by installing a second add-on solar array. During the EVA, Vladimir Lyakhov and Alexandr Alexandrov followed the same procedure they used to install the first one two days earlier. The two add-on arrays increased Salyut 7’s electrical capacity by 800 watts. 

During the EVA, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov simultaneously simulated the work in the neutral buoyancy facility. In the event of difficulties, they could give us assistance with their recommendations. 

This spacewalk marked the first time the Soviets performed two EVAs in one mission.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 46.
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EVA #48
Mission:  STS 41-B Date: 7 February 1984 Duration: 5 hr. 55 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The spacewalk tests for the first time the “space scooter” – the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) – and produces some of the most memorable pictures of the Space Shuttle program.

During EVA preparations, while spacewalkers pre-breath in the airlock, to help relieve the thrashing and banging which occurred during airlock depressurization on STS-6, Bruce McCandless pointed his head toward the airlock floor while Robert Stewart pointed toward the ceiling.

Outside in open space, McCandless spent 90 minutes checking and donning his MMU, then tested it in the payload bay by maneuvering precisely around equipment. He found that the backpack shuddered and shook when forward movement was initiated in attitude hold. He then moved 45 metres out from the Orbiter, returned to the payload bay, flew out to 96 metres and returned, then moved out again to about 99 metres. MMU nitrogen propellant use was higher than in simulations. McCandless reported later that he was chilled when out away from the payload bay.

Mission Commander Vance Brand noted that the MMU’s tracking lights were inadequate for finding the astronaut if he strayed away during orbital night. He ordered McCandless to hurry back to the payload bay before the Orbiter passed into darkness.

Then, Robert Stewart installed a Manipulator Foot Restraint on the Canadarm robot arm, but had to postpone a test ride because the EVA was behind schedule. 

When McCandless returned to the payload bay, Stewart attached in front of the MMS (between its control arms) the Trunnion Pin Attachment Device (TPAD) to be used to snare Solar Maximum Mission satellite retrieval, scheduled for the next flight. McCandless practiced docking with a trunnion pin mounted next to a mockup of the Solar Max main electronics box in the payload bay. 

Stewart then flew the MMU 93 metres from the Orbiter. Commander Brand noted that Stewart was traveling at 0.5 km/h about 90 metres from the Orbiter, so warned him to slow down. Stewart tested the MMU for 65 minutes. 

Finally, McCandless became the first astronaut to ride a foot restraint at end of robot arm. The arm proved more stable for EVA work than expected.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 47-48 (see more).
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EVA #49
Mission: STS 41-B Date: 9 February 1984 Duration: 6 hr. 17 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Bruce McCandless and Robert Stewart ventured out to rehearse Solar Max repair schedule for the next Space Shuttle mission.

Unfortunately, the Canadarm manipulator arm suffered wrist joint and elbow TV camera malfunctions prior to this EVA. The camera problem meant that engineering film coverage of the EVA was not as comprehensive as planned. The joint failure was much more serious: it meant that the RMS could not release a rotating Shuttle Pallet Satellite above the Orbiter’s payload bay, depriving the MMU astronauts of a spinning target for practice docking using the TPAD. The ability to dock with a rotating target was considered crucial to the Solar Max repair. The astronauts practiced docking with fixed targets instead. 

Then, Stewart performed a hydrazine transfer experiment to help validate the Orbiter’s proposed role as a satellite tanker. Freon dyed red for visibility filled in for poisonous hydrazine. 

Finally, a foot restraint worked itself loose.  Commander Vance Brand maneuvered the Orbiter and McCandless moved down the starboard sill to retrieve the errant hardware. NASA called this an unplanned test of the Shuttle’s ability to rescue an astronaut stranded by MMU failure.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 49.
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EVA #50
Mission: STS 41-C Date: 8 April 1984 Duration: 2 hr. 38 min. Program: Space Shuttle
NASA considered the Solar Max repair mission a critical demonstration of the Space Shuttle’s ability to service satellites. 

Outside, in the Orbiter’s payload bay, George Nelson, assisted by James van Hoften, donned the MMU, then attempted to dock with Solar Max using the TPAD mounted between the hand controller arms. He bounced off Solar Max after the TPAD jaws failed to close on one of the satellite’s berthing docking pins. Solar Max began to spin. 

Twice more he attempted to latch onto the satellite with the TPAD, each time adding to the slow spin. (His difficulties were later traced to an obstructing grommet on Solar Max which did not appear in its blueprints.)

Nelson then tried to stabilize the satellite by gripping one of its two solar arrays and activating the MMU’s automatic attitude hold feature, but this reversed the spin and started an unpredictable tumble about two axes. Solar Max lost its lock on the Sun and began draining its batteries. He was forced to return to the Orbiter when his MMU nitrogen propellant supply ran low. 

Mission Control considered changing MMUs and TPADs and trying again, but the Orbiter’s rendezvous fuel was running low, threatening the orbiter’s ability to recover a stranded MMU astronaut. 

A subsequent attempt by Terry Hart to capture the satellite using the Canadarm robot arm failed because of the tumble. The astronauts returned to the airlock. 

At the end of the day, it seemed that the Space Shuttle had failed to live up to one of its development justifications: payload retrieval and refurbishment.
 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 49-50-51 (see more).
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EVA #51
Mission: STS 41-C Date: 11 April 1984 Duration: 6 hr. 44 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Prior to this EVA on April 9, Solar Max operators succeeded in stopping the satellite’s tumble, before its batteries became depleted. On April 10, Terry Hart grappled the satellite with the Canadarm on the first try. He then placed the satellite in its servicing cradle in the payload bay. 

Then, during their second spacewalk on April 11, James van Hoften and George Nelson completed replacement of the satellite’s 225-kg attitude control and main electronics box 1 hour ahead of schedule.  Van Hoften reported that the EVA “tools are working great - haven’t had one glitch yet.” The spacewalkers praised the Module Servicing Tool, which was developed specifically for MMS servicing. 

The failed attitude control module and main electronics box of the satellite were stowed for return to Earth, where they would be analyzed to determine the cost-effectiveness of satellite refurbishment in orbit.

They also stowed thermal blankets and various aluminum parts for analysis by orbital debris researchers on Earth. The salvaged components acted as impromptu debris catchers during their 4 yr in space. 

Before returning to the airlock, Nelson stepped into an foot restraint and rode the Canadarm above Solar Max to examine and photograph the satellite from all angles. Van Hoften then took the MMU on a short test flight in the payload bay.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 51-52 (see more).
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EVA #52
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 23 April 1984 Duration: 4 hr. 20 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
On September 9, 1983. Salyut 7’s main propellant system (ODU) suffered an oxidizer system rupture. The Progress 20 docked at the station’s aft port on in April 1984, delivering 25 tools and equipment for repairing the system. 

The ODU was located in unpressurized aft equipment compartment of the station. There were no handholds near it, so ground engineers attached a special work platform with foot restraints to the Progress forward dry cargo module. Mission Control extended the platform by remote control prior to the EVA. Total distance between the Salyut 7 airlock hatch and the worksite was 15 metres. However, the spacewalkers’ progress over the station’s hull was impeded by the 40 kg of equipment they carried, including a tool caddy, cutting tools, wrenches, bypass pipes, a waste container and, most encumbering of all, a ladder for reaching the worksite. 

During their first of two planned EVA – which had the goal of preparing worksite for ODU repair -, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov drove anchor pins into the equipment compartment’s plastic skin to attach the ladder and tool containers, then unfolded the ladder to its full 5-metre length before closing out the spacewalk.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 52.
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EVA #53
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 26 April 1984 Duration: 4 hr. 56 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
At the start of their spacewalk, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov needed about 20 minutes to move from the Salyut 7 airlock to te main propellant system (ODU) worksite. There, they set up a TV camera so that Mission Control could watch their work. Kizim took up position on the ladder installed on the previous EVA, while Solovyov placed his boots in the foot restraints on the Progress platform. 

They pulled aside thermal blankets and cut through the station’s plastic skin to reach the oxidizer plumbing. They then located and replaced a valve on a “shut-off part of the reserve line,” but only after a nut locked by epoxy resin thwarted their efforts for 2 hours. 

The oxidizer system was then pressurized with nitrogen to check their work, revealing that the ODU still leaked. The cosmonauts asked for and received an extension to complete work on the reserve line. But, when the extension lapsed, Mission Control had to order them back inside Salyut 7.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 53.
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EVA #54
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 29 April 1984 Duration: 2 hr. 45 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov lobbied for a third spacewalk and, after some debate on the ground, they were granted permission to attempt to complete the repair of Salyut 7’s main propellant system (ODU). 

First, they finished work on the line they repaired during their second EVA, then installed a bypass line between two fill tubes, creating a new conduit to the main oxidizer supply. After they completed their work, nitrogen was again pumped through the system to check its integrity. To the dismay of all, the ODU plumbing still leaked. 

The spacewalkers replaced the thermal blankets and returned inside the station while troubleshooters on the ground resumed efforts to localize the leak. 

With this EVA, Kizim and Solovyov became the first Soviet spacewalkers to conduct three EVAs in one flight.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 53.
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EVA #55
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 4 May 1984 Duration: 2 hr. 45 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
During their fourth EVA, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov removed the thermal blankets again and installed a second conduit in the Salyut 7 oxidizer system. Oleg Atkov (inside Salyut) and mission controllers were then able at last to pin down the precise location of the ruptured pipe. 

The spacewalkers were then dismayed to discover that they lacked tools adequate to complete the repair. They replaced the thermal blankets and returned inside Salyut 7, their efforts again thwarted. (The Progress 20 undocked on May 6, taking the special extension and foot restraints with it.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 53.
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EVA #56
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 19 May 1984 Duration: 3 hr. 05 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
Salyut 7 had three solar arrays at launch, all of which were designed to be augmented over the period of the station’s occupancy. The Progress 21 cargo freighter delivered extensions for the port array. 

Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov left the airlock toting tools and the two solar array extensions, each in a separate container. They discarded the containers after removing the panels. From foot restraints, they assembled each 4.56-square-metre extension, then attached the first and winched it into position.

Onboard Salyut, Oleg Atkov used controls to turn the port array 180 degrees so it presented its other side to the cosmonauts. They then attached and winched into place the second add-on panel. 

Then, Solovyov struggled to tie two knots in wire bundles linking the arrays to the station’s main external power panel, a task he later compared to “trying to thread a needle in boxing gloves.” The new panels contained cells made of gallium arsenide that were more efficient at producing electricity than the silicon cells launched with Salyut 7. They added 1.2 kW to Salyut 7’s power supply. 

Adding the port array extensions required only one EVA, demonstrating the benefits of EVA experience (this was Kizim and Solovyov’s fifth EVA) and of applying lessons learned from the previous solar array add-on EVA in November 1983. With this EVA, they tied David Scott’s record for total number of EVAs.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 53-54.
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EVA #57
Mission: Salyut 7 EP-4 (Soyuz T-12) Date: 25 July 1984 Duration: 3 hr. 35 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
This EVA, the first spacewalk performed by a woman, had the goal to test the “Universal Hand Tool” (URI) multipurpose electron beam cutting, welding, soldering, and brazing tool. (In this way, the Soviets were upstaging U.S. Kathy Sullivan's EVA scheduled for October.) 

Vladimir Dzhanibekov opened the Salyut 7 airlock and unfolded than stood in a Yakor foot restraint. He then set up a worksite lamp. Svetlana Savitskaya handed out the URI, which Dzhanibekov set up and attached to an external power outlet. He then traded places with Savitskaya, who set up a TV camera. 

Savitskaya began work with URI, first cutting a 0.5-milimetre-thick titanium sample. In all, she performed six cutting, two silver spray coating, and six soldering experiments. Savitskaya and Dzhanibekov then traded places again so he could test URI. Dzhanibekov said later that “the tool is very handy and I’m sure we’ll be using it a lot.” After finishing, he took down URI and handed the device and experiment samples to Savitskaya. 

Dzhanibekov then removed Ekpozitsiya cassettes from the station’s exterior and handed them to Savitskaya, who handed back a Meduza biopolymer cassette for installation. Products of the welding experiment returned to Earth.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 54-55 (see more).
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EVA #58
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-3 (Soyuz T-10) Date: 8 August 1984 Duration: 5 hr. 00 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
On their fifth trie to repair Salyut 7’s propulsion system (ODU), Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov used a new tool - a Portable Pneumo Press - brought by a visiting crew. As usual, they moved to the worksite and pulled back the thermal blankets. They used the press to squeeze a stainless steel pipe. Checks showed that the ODU oxidizer system was at last sealed. 

This walk marked the tenth EVA for the Orlan-D suits. Perhaps because it was old, Solovyov’s suit suffered cooling water pump failure. He compensated by operating primary and backup circulating fans simultaneously and resting periodically to cool off. 

Before returning inside, the spacewalkers removed a sample of silicon solar cell material so engineers could study its degradation. They used a special holding tool to avoid contaminating it with their suit gloves. (It was later reported that the men’s hands were in bad shape after the EVA “as if they had been in a fist fight.”)

With this EVA, their sixth together, Kizim and Solovyov broke David Scott’s 1971 record for total EVAs and completed a record 22 hr. 50 min. of EVA in a single mission.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 56-57 (see more).
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EVA #59
Mission: STS 41-G Date: 11 October 1984 Duration: 3 hr. 29 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The main task of the EVA – the first by an American woman - was a test of the Orbiter Refueling System using toxic hydrazine fuel, which required 1 hour to David Leestma and Kathryn Sullivan. They also tested the Provisional Stowage Assembly EVA tool box and new EMU boots. 

Before going inside, they manually stowed the Orbiter’s Ku-band antenna, which had given trouble earlier in the flight, and inspected the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) antenna, which had not closed properly and had had to be pushed shut using the RMS. The spacewalkers found that insulation caught between the antenna sections was a possible cause. 

As they prepared to close out the EVA, the airlock hatch cover escaped. While Commander Crippen maneuvered the Orbiter to pursue, Leestma somersaulted from the middle of the bay and snatched it.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 57.
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EVA #60
Mission: STS 51-A Date: 12 November 1984 Duration: 6 hr. 00 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The purpose of the two EVA scheduled for this mission is to retrieve Palapa B-2 and Westar 6 satellites (for which their apogee-kick motor failed to propelled them to geostatonary orbit). The chance to complete these rescues was estimated at only 50 percent chance of success since both satellites were not designed for retrieval nor EVA servicing.

The goal of the first EVA was to recover the 555-kg Palapa B-2. In the payload bay, Joe Allen donned the MMU (“space sccoter”) and attached a grapple stinger to its arms. He then flew to Palapa, inserted the stinger into the spinning, drum-shaped satellite’s Apogee Kick Motor bell, and activated the MMU’s automatic attitude hold feature to stop the spin. 

Allen and Dale Gardner than cut off Palapa’s omnidirectional antenna, and Gardner, standing in an foot restraint fixed on the Canadarm, attempted to attach the 2.44-metre A-frame device. But the device stubbornly resisted his efforts.

The spacewalkers thus fell back on the backup plan: Gardner grasped and held the satellite, while Anna Fisher, on the command of the Canadarm, guided him to the stowage frame intended to hold Palapa in the Orbiter’s payload bay. (Gardner’s gloves became abraded during the EVA because of friction from a knurled tool handle.)

Finally, they removed a bracket clamp from the A-frame during EVA closeout and took it into the airlock for examination in the crew compartment. (Later investigation revealed that the A-frame was blocked by a Palapa waveguide extension that did not appear in the spacecraft blueprints.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 58.
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EVA #61
Mission: STS 51-A Date: 14 November 1984 Duration: 5 hr. 42 min. Program: Space Shuttle
This EVA was to recover Westar VI. Joe Allen and Dale Gardner ventured into the Orbiter’s payload bay with Anna Fisher again operating the Canadarm. Gardner flew the MMU to the 499-kg Westar VI satellite and successfully stabilized it using the stinger and MMU. 

The spacewalkers left the omnidirectional antenna intact to serve as a handling aid. While Allen held the satellite on the Canadarm, Fisher moved him to the back of the payload bay where they secured it for return to Earth. 

A torque wrench escaped when Gardner bumped a tether release button, but he was soon alerted and he captured it before it could drift out of reach. 

In their postflight debrief, the crew noted that the EVAs were physically and mentally exhausting for all five crewmembers. They suggested that Shuttle crews of at least six were desirable for missions with complex EVAs. Allen and Gardner reported that satellites were relatively easy to handle; in fact, they were easier to handle in some ways than the long, lightweight A-frame. Allen added that “As objects get smaller in space, they become more difficult to handle. It’s really extraordinary how much easier it is to move more massive objects like satellites.”

Ironically, this EVA marks the final flight of the MMU. The two flight units had flown a total of 10 hr. 22 min. in space.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 58-59.
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EVA #62
Mission: STS 51-D Date: 16 April 1985 Duration:  3 hr. 06 min. Program: Space Shuttle
This spacewalk marks the first unscheduled and improvised EVA of the Space Shuttle program. Spacewalkers Jeffrey Hoffman and David Griggs had to install improvised switch-pulling appendages at the tip of the Canadarm robot arm. 

Three days before, the crew had deployed two satellite from the Orbiter payload bay, one of them being the Syncom-IV/Leasat 3 geosynchronous communications satellite. Unfortunately, this craft remained inert after deployment, and engineers quickly determined that a likely culprit was a faulty switch on the satellite’s side. 

They thus hatched a plan in which spacewalking astronauts would attach improvised switch-pulling appendages to the Canadarm end effector. Two different switch-pullers (the “lacrosse stick” and the “flyswatter”) were manufactured using materials on board Discovery, including tape and plastic book covers. Then, Rhea Seddon, onboard the Orbiter, would maneuver the arm so that the appendages snag the switch that started an automatic timer. The crew would quickly move away to get clear of the plume from the satellite’s kick motor. 

Before the EVA, Seddon bent the arm at elbow and wrist to bring the its end effector closer to the airlock. At the start of the EVA, Hoffman and Griggs moved to the end effector, which is about halfway down the payload bay, and attached the switch-pullers with a payload retention strap. 

They rested while out of communication range. During night passes, both men became cold. Their work completed, Griggs pushed himself over the starboard payload bay sill toward the Orbiter’s delicate radiator panels. But Commander Karol Bobko warned him to return to the payload bay. The astronauts then returned to the warmth of Discovery’s crew compartment. 

Rhea Seddon snared the switch repeatedly with the switch-pullers, but Syncom IV/Leasat 3 remained inert.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 60 (see more).
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EVA #63
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-4 (Soyuz T-13) Date: 2 August 1985 Duration: 5 hr. 00 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
During this EVA, Viktor Savinykh and Vladimir Dzhanibekov augmented the port side solar array using two extension panels delivered by Progress 24. Moscow TV showed portions of the EVA live. 

The spacewalkers used the Orlan-DM’s headset lights to continue work during orbital night. They left a small piece of solar cell material outside as an exposure experiment. This completed the series of solar array augmentation spacewalks planned at Salyut 7’s launch to occur over the station’s occupancy. 

Before closing out the EVA, they installed a Soviet/French experiment for collecting meteoritic dust (it was expected to gather dust from Halley’s Comet) and changed space exposure cassettes near the transfer compartment hatch.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 61.
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EVA #64
Mission: STS 51-I Date: 31 August 1985 Duration: 7 hr. 20 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Failure of Syncom-IV/Leasat 3 on the April Shuttle mission was followed by four months of intense preparation for a repair EVA. Only a single EVA was planned, but shortly after the crew reached orbit, on August 27, Mike Lounge, the Canadarm operator, discovered that fuses had blown in the arm, forcing him to position its joints one at a time with no computer assistance. Mission controllers in Houston determined that two EVAs were necessary to complete the repair and began replanning the mission. 

Spacewalkers James van Hoften  and William Fisher entered the Orbiter’s payload bay and Van Hoften placed his feet in a foot restraint at the tip of the Canadarm. The 6818-kg drum-shaped satellite rotated very slowly, so he found it easy to install a bar for slowing rotation by hand. However, the EVA fell behind schedule because the handling bar - which included a grapple fixture for the arm end-effector - did not fit at first. 

The astronauts safed the satellite using plugs and specialized tools, then installed a bypass cable harness to work around the faulty switches that prevented activation in April.

They discovered that the satellite’s batteries had not frozen as some had feared. Syncom-IV/Leasat 3’s omnidirectional antenna popped up, indicating a successful repair, and Van Hoften and Fisher closed out the first EVA.  The crew left Leasat 3 safed on the Candarm when they bedded down for the night.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 62.
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EVA #65
Mission: STS 51-I Date: 1 September 1985 Duration: 4 hr. 26 min. Program: Space Shuttle
During their second spacewalk, James van Hoften  and William Fisher installed an instrumented cover over Syncom-IV/Leasat 3’s apogee kick motor nozzle and then armed the motor. 

They experienced difficulties handling the satellite, which threatened to collide with the Orbiter. This was largely because they could not see each other from their positions on opposite sides of the 4.3 metre-diameter satellite and thus imparted opposing motions. Van Hoften warned that “if something happens and I’m about to lose it, I’m going to give it a heck of a push and bail out.” Fortunately, the astronauts managed to control the satellite’s motions, however. 

Van Hoften spun up Syncom-IV/Leasat 3 manually to 3 rotation-per-minute and released it. Subsequently,, the satellite proceeded successfully to geosynchronous orbit. 

In their postflight debrief, the spacewalkers recommended against EVAs on consecutive days, and stated that their spacesuit is “unquestionably overcooled.” In his crew report, Van Hoften stated that his fingers became very cold while he held Leasat 3, even with water to his cooling system shut off. But with the water off, his helmet fogged up.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 62.
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EVA #66
Mission: STS 61-B Date: 29 November 1985 Duration: 5 hr. 32 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The two STS 61-B EVAs were designed to demonstrate assembly techniques which might be used in space station assembly. This first EVA focused on human performance. The assembly procedures were precisely timed ahead of the EVAs, in NASA neutral buoyancy facilities, to determine if underwater simulation verifies EVA performance. In addition, the space suits were instrumented to allow precise monitoring of oxygen consumption during work. 

Spacewalkers Jerry Ross and Sherwood Spring first assembled the 3.4-metre Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) assembly jig in the Orbiter’s payload bay. Each cell was assembled in the jig, then pushed up so that the next cell could be assembled. Ross later called this “a neat way to build a truss.” 

Assembling the ACCESS truss required 58 minutes in the water tank, and the EVA timeline allotted 2 hours for a single ACCESS assembly. However, only 55 minutes were required to build the truss, so the astronauts disassembled it and built it again. 

The Experimental Assembly of Structures through EVA (EASE) task assessed the capabilities of free-floating astronauts, and involved putting together beams weighing 29 kg to make a 3.6-metre three-sided pyramid. EASE was scheduled to be assembled six times, but the astronauts managed eight assemblies. 

During the first four assemblies, the astronauts used foot restraints. Spring noted in his postflight debriefing that his fingers grew numb during the third EASE assembly and very tired during the fourth. 

At the end of the EVA, he assembled and hand-deployed a small target satellite to be used after the EVA as a station-keeping target for the Orbiter, which played the role of an automated orbital maneuvering vehicle in rendezvous software tests.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 63.
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EVA #67
Mission: STS 61-B Date: 1 Decemer 1985 Duration: 6 hr. 41 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The second EASE/ACCESS EVA sought to assess the ability of astronauts to handle large structural elements and the ability of the RMS to support station assembly. 

Jerry Ross and Sherwood Spring assembled nine bays of ACCESS, then placed parts for the tenth bay on the Canadarm. Ross stepped into the foot restraint and Mary Cleave, onboard the Orbiter, positioned him within reach of the top of the ACCESS girder, where he assembled the tenth bay. The parts were not tethered. 

Ross performed a cable run assembly simulation by attaching a tether along the side of the tower while Cleave positioned him. Then Spring released the bottom of the tower so Ross could try to precisely handle the beam from the RMS. He replaced it in the assembly jig where it started, demonstrating astronaut ability to assemble a truss in one place and install it in another. 

Spring then replaced Ross on the foot restraint. He changed a beam on the tower to simulate structural repair, then pointed the truss at the Moon to judge his handling ability. 

They took down ACCESS, and Spring assembled EASE from the arm. Before finishing, he joined two beams to simulate handling a thermal control heat pipe. Ross unlatched the EASE pyramid so that his partner could maneuver it.  Then he replaced Spring on the foot restraint to duplicate the EASE activities. 

The spacewalkers reported that the most difficult part of the EVAs was torquing their own 182-kg masses while holding the EASE beams. Generally speaking, ACCESS worked well, while EASE required too much freefloating. 

They judged that performing 6-hr EVAs every other day over a 5- or 6-day period was feasible, and recommended glove changes to reduce hand fatigue. Ross said in the EVA debrief that the crew had tried to have the MMU (“space sccoter”) manifested for use in the second EVA, because “for certain applications it would be very useful… in particular if you were building portions of a space station attached to the orbiter, then moving those portions farther than the manipulator arm could transport them.” He added that the MMU could be used to attach cable runs and instruments in places out of reach of the robot arm. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 64.
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EVA #68
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-6 (Soyuz T-15) Date: 28 May 1986 Duration: 3 hr. 50 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
After first visiting the new Mir orbital module, Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov transferred, in their Soyuz spacecraft, to Salyut 7 to tie up loose ends left by the station’s previous crew (which had been forced to end its mission early after its commander Vladimir Vasyutin, became ill.)

Thus, the 7-time spacewalkers removed and placed inside Salyut 7’s transfer compartment space exposure cassettes and the joint Soviet-French micrometeoroid collector deployed in August 1985. They then attached the cylindrical 150-kg URS space assembly device to the hull outside the airlock hatch. 

The URS device deployed a 20-kg, 12-to-15-metre tubular metal truss held together by hinges and springs. The URS truss was deployable, as opposed to the erectable EASE and ACCESS systems Ross and Spring worked with 7 months earlier. Pravda stated that the truss’ length could be increased to a kilometer or more by adding more folded cassettes. 

Kizim operated the three buttons that controlled deployment, then climbed halfway up the truss. He found it sturdy, with oscillations limited to a few centimeters of amplitude. The top of the URS truss carried the 3-kg Fon (“Background”) device, which assessed the environment around Salyut 7. 

The spacewalkers also installed the BOSS visible light communications system on a work compartment porthole, then refolded the URS girder and closed out the EVA.  Portions of the EVA were televised live to Soviet audiences. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 65 (see more).
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EVA #69
Mission: Salyut 7 E0-6 (Soyuz T-15) Date: 31 May 1986 Duration: 4 hr. 40 min. Program: Salyut 6 & 7
This ninth EVA by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov tem was the last carried out on Salyut 7. 

The spacewalkers extended the URS truss, then used the BOSS device installed on the previous EVA to relay data on truss stability from instruments at the top of the truss. These included a small seismograph for tracking low-frequency (small) vibrations imparted by the station’s acceleration, and the Mayak (“beacon”) experiment, in which a camera tracked high-frequency vibrations by filming the movements of a small orange light attached to the truss. 

Solovyov and Kizim then rigidized the truss by welding portions using the URI tool. After closing and dismantling the truss, they installed the Mikrodeformator device which studied aluminum-magnesium alloy reactions to repeated structural loads under space conditions. 

At the end of the EVA, they brought inside the sample of solar cell material left outside by Savinykh and Dzhanibekov in August 1985.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 66.
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EVA #70
Mission: Mir EO-2 (Soyuz TM-2) Date: 11 April 1987 Duration: 3 hr. 35 min. Program: Mir
The first spacewalk of the Mir space station program was a contingency spacewalk to permit Kvant, the station’s first expansion module, to complete its docking.

The astronomy module Kvant arrived at the Mir core module’s aft port on April 10 and achieved a soft docking. But full retraction of the docking probe proved impossible, and the docking collars remained separated by a few centimeters. A contingency EVA was quickly authorized. 

Thus, Yuri Romanenko (who took part in a similar contingency EVA from Salyyt 6 in 1977) and Alexander Laveikin left the transfer compartment at the front of Mir and moved 13 metre along the module’s hull to the aft port. (Laveikin’s space suit registered a minor pressure drop, causing momentary concern, but the problem was quickly traced to an incorrect switch setting.)

Flight controllers extended the docking probe to permit the spacewalkers to examine the docking unit. They discovered an “extraneous white object” jammed between the two spacecraft. This was later identified as a twisted piece of cloth, possibly trash escaped from Progress 28, which had undocked from the aft port on March 26. 

With difficulty, Laveikin freed and discarded the object. The cosmonauts then waited nearby while the Mission Control commanded the Kvant probe to retract, completing hard dock. The cosmonaut returned inside an expanded Mir station.

Source: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 67.
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EVA #71
Mission: Mir EO-2 (Soyuz TM-2) Date: 12 June 1987 Duration:  1 hr. 53 min. Program: Mir
To save weight, the Mir core module was launched with only two solar arrays. But it had a socket on top to install a third array (which was delivered inside the Kvant module). 

During the first of two spacewalk planned to installe the solar array, Yuri Romanenko and Alexander Laveikin first attached an extendible “hinged lattice girder” truss to the top of the Mir complex, then attached folded solar panels to both sides of the girder. 

Then, to test their ability to operate without EVA restraints, they employed no foot restraints on this and their next EVA, relying instead on tethers. Laveikin later stated that this gave them “more freedom to maneuver, but we had to cling to the ship with one hand.”

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 68.
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EVA #72
Mission: Mir EO-2 (Soyuz TM-2) Date: 16 June 1987 Duration: 3 hr. 15 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Romanenko and Alexander Laveikin placed an extendible truss on top of the one they installed on June 12 and attached folded solar arrays to either side. They linked the electrical systems of the array sections, then deployed the structure to its full height of 10.6 metres. Each of the four array sections was made up of eight rectangular solar cell leaves with a total area of about 24 squatre metres. 

Before going inside, they attached space exposure cassettes to Mir’s exterior. 

By June 23, the cosmonauts completed work inside Mir to connect the new array to Mir’s electrical system. The new array increased available power by 2.4 kW.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 68.
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EVA #73
Mission: Mir EO-3 (Soyuz TM-4) Date: 26 February 1988 Duration: 4 hr. 25 min. Program: Mir
Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov opened one of the four radial berthing ports in Mir’s transfer compartment and prepared their work site at the base of the solar array installed by Romanenko and Laveikin in June 1987. They had to replace one of four sections of the array. 

This entailed “collapsing” the lower extendible boom to fold shut both solar array sections attached to it. The new section was, like the one it replaced, made up of eight leaves of solar cells. Carbon-plastic composite replaced metal in the new section, however, and six of the leaves used improved solar cells that produced as much power as eight conventional leaves while better withstanding the rigors of space. The remaining two leaves were instrumented and independently replaceable, providing a test site for new solar cell materials. 

The spacewalkers stood in foot restraints while they worked, continuing the EVA restraint tests begun in June 1987. They redeployed the extendible boom, unfolding the new section and exposing it to sunlight. 

To round out the EVA, Manarov and Titov moved back along the Kvant module to inspect the rendezvous antenna on Progress 34 (it was late in opening), televised Mir’s exterior and the Soyuz TM-4 spacecraft for the benefit of engineers on Earth, and replaced space exposure cassettes.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 69.
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EVA #74
Mission: Mir EO-3 (Soyuz TM-4) Date: 30 June 1988 Duration: 5 hr. 10 min. Program: Mir
The joint Dutch-British-Soviet TTM X-ray telescope gave trouble soon after launch on the Kvant module in April 1987, so engineers proposed and received approval for an EVA to replace its detector. However, the instrument was not designed for EVA servicing. Some tools for the repair were developed by Dutch and Soviet scientists and delivered to the Mir crew. 

While outside Mir, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov cut through 20 layers of thermal insulation to reach the 40-kg detector. Because there were no footholds or handholds at the worksite, they took turns working while the other held him. More clips held the detector in place than expected. Three screws locked in place by resin threw them off timeline; they had to scrape one with a saw blade before it would turn, and the effort required to turn the screws forced them to rest several times. 

After the cosmonauts accomplished 70 percent of the task, a special “key” tool for removing a brass clamp snapped. Before they passed out of radio contact, the Mission Control gave the cosmonauts 15 minutes to remove the clamp using other tools. When communication was restored, Titov and Manarov reported that they had given up and returned to the transfer compartment hatch. 

Before entering the airlock, they measured attachment locations for a foot restraint to be used on an upcoming Soviet-French spacewalk.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 70.
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EVA #75
Mission: Mir EO-3 (Soyuz TM-4) Date: 20 October 1988 Duration: 4 hr. 12 min. Program: Mir
A second Kvant’s X-ray telescope repair EVA was originally set for July 5, but was postponed to permit more preparation. On September 9, Progress 38 delivered seven new tools.

On Octiber 20, Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov left one of the transfer compartment berthing ports carrying a new detector for the TTM - the old detector was not designed for replacement. The new one had handling aids and large fasteners easily operated using EVA gloves. 

The detector slid into place with difficulty, but the repair still required about an hour less than expected. 

Titov and Manarov then installed a special foot restraint for the Soviet-French EVA scheduled for December. The restraint was designed and manufactured on the ground using measurements they made during their February EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 71-72 (see more).
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EVA #76
Mission: MIr EO-4 (Soyuz TM-7) Date: 9 December 1988 Duration: 5 hr. 57 min. Program: Mir
This EVA made Jean-Loup Chretien the first non-U.S./non-Soviet spacewalker. It had the purpose to erform first French EVA, conduct engineering experiments for Hermes Development Program and Columbus space station program. The EVA was a highlight of the 3-week French-Soviet Aragatz mission. The EVA was scheduled for December 12, but Mission Control elected to move it to December 9 to leave time for Chretien to participate in a second EVA if the hexagonal ERA platform did not deploy. It was scheduled to last just 3 hr. 

First outside, Chrétien leaned out of a transfer compartment hatch and unfolded handrails recessed into Mir’s hull. Then, he used springs and hooks to attach the Enchantillons space exposure rack to the handrails. It carried five technological experiments. Chretien attached electrical leads to Mir’s power supply and with difficulty opened sample container lids on the rack. 

Alexandr Volkov then joined him outside to set up the 240-kg ERA, which included a mounting platform, deployable structure and “filming block” for recording deployment. They attached the mounting platform to handrails on the frustum between Mir’s transfer compartment and small-diameter work compartment, then attached the deployable structure. 

Sergei Krikalev commanded ERA to deploy from inside Mir, but it remained stubbornly folded. The frustrated spacewalkers shook the recalcitrant structure, but Mission Control rejected Volkov’s offer to kick ERA.

After consultation with French engineers, Mission Control told the cosmonauts to discard ERA and return inside if it failed to open by remote command. Mir then passed out of radio range, and Volkov kicked ERA several times. When the TsUP reacquired Mir, it learned that the platform was fully deployed. (Fully deployed, ERA measures 3.6 metres wide by 3.8 metres long.) 

Finally, the cosmonauts discarded the structure and returned inside, setting a new Soviet EVA endurance record.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 72-73.
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EVA #77
Mission:  Mir EO-5 (Soyuz TM-8) Date: 8 January 1990 Duration: 2 hr. 56 min. Program: Mir
The Kvant 2 module arrived at Mir’s front port in December 1989 and was pivoted into place at one of the radial ports using a robot arm.  Mir Resident then began preparations for the first of five planned EVAs to integrate Kvant 2 into the Mir complex and receive the Kristall module. 

Spacewalkers Alexandr Viktorenko and Alexandr Serebrov exited Mir through one of three unoccupied radial ports in Mir’s transfer compartment. The EVA’s start was delayed 1 hour by a valve that let air escape from Soyuz-TM 8 when the cosmonauts spilled air from the transfer compartment. 

Viktorenko and Serebrov finally egressed during orbital night, just before midnight Moscow time. They had other minor problems: a broken wire in Viktorenko’s suit prevented water temperature monitoring and Serebrov’s coolant loop leaked. 

Despite these minor annoyances, the cosmonauts successfully installed two star trackers - each weighing 80 kg - on “standard points” on Kvant. They also retrieved Meduza samples from Mir’s hull before ending the EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 73-74.
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EVA #78
Mission: MIr EO-5 (Soyuz TM-8) Date: 11 January 1990 Duration: 2 hr. 54 min. Program: Mir
During this EVA, Alexandr Viktorenko and Alexandr Serebrov retrieved the Echantillons exposure experiment attached to Mir’s hull by Jean-Loup Chretien in December 1988. They then installed space exposure cassettes containing non-metallic materials on the Mir core module and installed on Kvant the Arfa-E experiment, which monitored the ionosphere and magnetosphere. 

The spacewalkers removed the supports for the French ERA experiment from Mir’s hull, then returned to the transfer compartment. Whline inside the depressurized compartment, they moved the Konus #2 drogue from the +Y port (where Kvant 2 is docked) to the -Y port (opposite Kvant 2) to receive Kristall. This Konus transfer was originally planned to occur during a separate EVA, so this reduced to four the total number of EVAs planned for Viktorenko and Serebrov.

This EVA marked the last use of the Mir's transfer compartment as an airlock (until 1995), the spacewalkers will from now used the Kvant 2 Special Airlock Compartment.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 74.
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EVA #79
Mission: Mir EO-5 (Soyuz TM-8) Date: 26 January 1990 Duration: 3 hr. 02 min. Program: Mir
This spacewalk marked the first use of the Soviet EVA space suit with an add-on package supplying power, telemetry, and communications, rendering obsolete the umbilical used on all previous Soviet EVAs. Alexandr Viktorenko and Alexandr Serebrov were linked to Mir only by tethers. They also inaugurated the Kvant 2 Special Airlock Compartment (SALC), the main airlock of the Mir complex

The cosmonauts tested the suit modifications while they installed outside the Kvant 2 airlock a “dock” for the Sredstvo Peredvizheniy Kosmonavtov (SPK, or “Cosmonaut Maneuvering Equipment”) - the Soviet equivalent of the U.S. MMU “space scooter”.

They then removed the obstructing Kvant 2 Kurs antenna ahead of the SPK flight test. Before pulling shut Kvant 2’s large EVA hatch, they installed Ferrit and Danko space exposure cassettes on the module’s hull and installed the Gemma-2 camera on the Kvant 2 tracking platform.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 75.
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EVA #80
Mission: MIr EO-5 (Soyuz TM-8) Date: 1 Febuary 1990 Duration: 4 hr. 59 min. Program: Mir
Thie EVA was to testflight for the first time the SPK cosmonaut maneuvering device, the Soviet equivalent of the U.S. MMU,

Alexandr Serebrov trained for years in simulator to fly the SPK. For the testin open space, he remained attached to Mir at all times by a 60-metre tether. The slender tether was deemed necessary because the station could not maneuver to retrieve him if he became stranded out of reach. It was attached to an electric winch on the dock installed on the previous EVA. The winch automatically took up slack in the tether to prevent tangling. 

Serebrov flew the SPK out 5 metres from Mir and back three times. He then backed to 33 metres, stopped, and completed various maneuvers. Alexandr Viktorenko videotaped Serebrov. 

During his final test maneuvers, Serebrov determined that he was approaching the dock off course. He corrected, and the tether caused him to flip backwards and rock “like a pendulum.” Despite this, Soviet engineers were pleased by initial results of the SPK test.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 75.
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EVA #81
Mission: MIr EO-5 (Soyuz TM-8) Date: 5 February 1990 Duration: 3 hr. 45 min. Program:  ir
Before this second and final flight of the SPK “space scooter”, Alexandr Serebrov attached the Spin-6000 device on the front of the SPK belly band. This instrument measured the radiation background outside Mir, focusing on the secondary radiation produced by atomic particles striking the station’s hull. 

Serebrov backed away to 45 metre and did an “aerobatic” roll, covering a total of about 200 metres. He needed help from Alexandr Viktorenko to redock because Spin-6000 blocked his view of the dock. 

According to Vladimir Shatalov, Head of Cosmonaut Training, the SPK was to be used after these first two tests for undefined “practical purposes.” Other officials said that it would be used to inspect Mir’s exterior. In fact, the SPK remained stored inside Mir until February 1996, when it was abandoned at the end of its dock outside the Kvant 2 airlock hatch to make more room in the Kvant 2 SALC. 

(Presumably, Societ controllers arrived at the same conclusions of their U.S. counterparts: the use of SPK and MMU “space scooters” pose a high risk of the trauma of loosing a spacewalker in open space.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 76.
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EVA #82
Mission: MIr EO-6 (Soyuz TM-9) Date: 17 July 1990 Duration: 7 hr. 00 min. Program: Mir
Soyuz TM-9 arrived at Mir in tatters, with thermal blankets on its descent module flapping loosely about their forward attachment points. Without the blankets, the temperature inside the spacecraft fell, so condensation threatened to form on sensitive electronics. Also, temperature extremes threatened the heatshield and pyrotechnics, and the loose blankets could obscured sensors used to orient the craft for reentry. No EVA had been scheduled for this Mir expedition but, after more than 150 days in space, Anatoli Solovyov and Alexandr Balandin had to go outside to repair their Soyuz return craft. 

At the start of the EVA, these inexperience (and probably tired) spacewalkers damage the Kvant-2 airlock hatch by opening it before all the air was evacuated. They violated Kvant 2 airlock egress procedure when releasing the hatch hooks prematurely. Air pressure within the lock being at 5 kpascal (0.74 psi), the hatch sprang back against its hinges with a force of 400 kg. 

Oustside, spacewalkers’ traversing Kvant 2’s 13.73-metre length required longer than expected (about 90 minute). (The cosmonauts quipped after the EVA that they had plenty of handholds, but needed street signs.) They rested during orbital night passes. And then, three hours passed before they finished installing a straight ladder bridging the gap between Kvant 2 and the Soyuz, and then a curved ladder to the heatshield and explosive bolts. 

The mood in Mission Control was tense, in part because controllers could not see the cosmonauts - the TV camera cables were not long enough to reach the worksite.

The cosmonauts detected no obvious damage to the explosive bolts and heatshield. They then folded two of the thermal blankets in half, but left the third alone. By this time, more than 5 hours had passed, so they hastened back to the Kvant 2 hatch, leaving ladders and tools at the worksite. 

They entered the Kvant 2 airlock after exceeding the 6-hour’s space suit safety limit, only to find that the hatch would not close! They used the Kvant 2 instrument-science compartment (ISC) as a contingency airlock, leaving the SALC in vacuum. Soviet officials stated that the ISC could be used to extend the main airlock compartment for transferring large equipment outside the Mir station.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 76-77.
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EVA #83
Mission: MIr EO-6 (Soyuz TM-9) Date: 25 July 1990 Duration: 3 hr. 31 min. Program: Mir
Playback of the videotape made by Anatoli Solovyov and Alexandr Balandin and detailed post-EVA debriefing convinced engineers that Soyuz TM-9 was in excellent condition to return to Earth. However, before the cosmonauts could safely undock, they had to remove ladders and tools they left near the Soyuz after their first EVA. In addition, engineers wanted them to inspect the Kvant 2 hatch. A Soviet state commission authorized the cosmonauts to work outside the station for up to 9 hours if required. 

So, the spacewalkers depressurized the Kvant 2 instrument-science compartment (ISC) and moved through the unpressurized airlock into space. First, they televised images of the damaged hatch to Mission Control. One hinge was obviously deformed. 

Then, they moved to the Soyuz worksite - more easily this time - and removed the ladders, stowing them on Kvant 2’s hull. 

Meanwhile, engineers on the ground sought a means of closing the hatch. Despite difficulty in gaining sufficient leverage, Balandin and Solovyov forced the hatch shut. They repressurized the airlock and ISC, sealed themselves in the latter, and doffed their suits, leaving the hatch to the airlock compartment  closed. After 24 hours, the external airlock hatch showed no leakage, so Misson Control gave them permission to leave open the hatch connecting the airlock to the rest of the station.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 77-78.
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EVA #84
Mission: MIr EO-7 (Soyuz TM-10) Date: 29 October 1990 Duration: 2 hr. 45 min. Program: Mir
Gennadi Manakov and Gennadi Strekalov used a specially designed tool to remove insulation from the outside of the airlock hatch, revealing that the hinge was damaged beyond their ability to repair. They attached a special latch to ensure adequate closure and retreated inside.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 78.
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EVA #85
Mission: MIr EO-8 (Soyuz TM-11) Date: 7 January 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 18 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Viktor Afanaseyev and Musa Manarov successfully replacing the Kvant 2 hatch hinge damaged six months earlier. The work was described as “very complex and very delicate” because the hinge was not designed for EVA replacement. 

The replacement hinge was designed to be installed by cosmonauts working in pressure suits with EVA tools. The EVA was scheduled to last 4 hours 20 minunutes. But, 4 hours into the EVA, the spacewalkers entered the airlock and closed and sealed the hatch to check their work, then reopened it and egressed to carry out other EVA tasks.

These included moving parts and equipment for the upcoming solar array transfer EVA to Kvant 2’s exterior, removing a camera from the Kvant 2 “video spectrum complex” (the Gemma-2 unit for Earth environment monitoring) for repair inside Mir, and removing for return to Earth a space exposure cassette of superconductive materials.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 79.
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EVA #86
Mission: MIr EO-8 (Soyuz TM-11) Date: 23 January 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 33 min. Program: Mir
Viktor Afanaseyev and Musa Manarov installed the 45-kg telescoping Strela boom on a Mir core module launch shroud attachment. Strela (“arrow”) was installed primarily for moving the 500-kg solar arrays on Kristall to new locations on Kvant, but would also be used for moving cosmonauts and equipment around Mir’s exterior and as a mobile handrail. 

The task was originally scheduled to occur over two EVAs. This EVA lasted almost 2 hours longer than planned, but concluded with Strela entirely installed. To test the device, Manarov rode the end of the boom while Afanaseyev operated its cranks. 

Before closing out the EVA, the spacewalkers removed the Ferrit space exposure experiment from Kvant 2 and replaced it with the Sprut-5 device for measuring particle flow near Mir.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 79-80.
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EVA #87
Mission: MIr  EO-8 (Soyuz TM-11) Date: 26 January 1991 Duration: 6 hr. 20 min. Program: Mir
Viktor Afanaseyev and Musa Manarov installed two supports for the Kristall solar arrays on either side of Kvant. They worked near the Kvant Kurs system antenna, which was used to guide Progress and Soyuz spacecraft during docking at the Mir complex aft port. They also installed laser retroreflectors.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 80.
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EVA #88
Mission: STS 37 Date: 7 April 1991 Duration: 4 hr. 26 min. Program:  Space Shuttle
The first U.S. EVA after the January 1986 Challenger accident was a contingency EVA ahead of the planned EVA.  On April 7 Linda Godwin used the RMS to lift the 15,750-kg  Gamma-Ray Observatory from its cradle in the Orbiter’s payload bay. The observatory’s solar panels were commanded to open to their full span of 21 metres. Then, the high-gain antenna unlatched, but its 5-metre boom did not deploy. The Shuttle crew attempted to open the high-gain by shaking GRO with their Orbiter’s thruster jets and the robot arm. 

Thus, the spacewalrk began with Jerry Ross moving down the starboard slidewire and Jerome Apt moving down the port. Seventeen minutes into the spacewalk, Ross shoved loose the boom by exerting about 27 kg of force using his right hand while holding onto a GRO flight support structure trunnion with his left. 

The astronauts then set up a foot restraint so they could continue manual deployment, a procedure they had practiced four times in the neubral buyancy pool. The procedure involved removing a pin, pulling the antenna to fully deployed position, and using a wrench to lock the boom. They had difficulty finding handholds on GRO in darkness. 

Then they performed some of the EVA Development Flight Experiment activities originally scheduled for April 8. They evaluated handrails (the dog bone cross section design proves superior to the round cross-section design); used the Crew Loads Instrumented Pallet (CLIP) to measure forces placed on foot restraints by simple tasks; and moved along a rope extended across the payload bay. 

Finally, they returned to the airlock but did not repressurize it until GRO was successfully away. Ross and Apt stuck their helmeted heads out the airlock hatch to watch GRO shrink into the distance.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 80-81.
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EVA #89
Mission: STS 37 Date: 8 April 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 47 min. Program:  Space Shuttle
Jerry Ross and Jerome Apt assembled a 14.6-metre track down the port side of the Orbiter payload bay while freefloating and attached the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart device. 

They then took turns on CETA, each placing their feet in a CETA foot restraint so that his body was parallel to the bay wall and using a handrail to pull himself the length of the track. Apt reported that “you can give yourself a couple of pulls and go all the way to the end of the bay.” 

An electrical locomotion system with hand cranks for generating electricity for a motor and a mechanical locomotion system with a winch-type pull handle were also tested. 

Ross inadvertently demonstrated that the CETA parking brake did an excellent job of holding the cart in place by forgetting to turn it off before trying to move. The manual cart won out because it required less effort to operate than the electrical (second place) and mechanical versions. 

Ross, standing in the CLIP-equipped foot restraint on the Canadarm, rode far out over the main engines at varying speeds while Apt used strain gauge devices to measure when the arm’s brakes slipped. Ross attempted to perform coarse positioning of the “limp RMS” to see if equipment gripped by the end effector could be positioned with power off - this did not work well. In general, arm-based tasks took longer to perform than expected. 

The astronauts became cold; in their post-mission report they stated that “it is clear that the [space suit] has excessive cooling capacity.” They warned of trouble during Space Station Freedom assembly, when temperatures might plummet to –85° C  if the worksite was pointed away from Earth at night. 

Despite the success of their EVAs, Ross and Apt recommended that EVAs on consecutive days be avoided.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 81-82.
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EVA #90
Mission: Mir EO-8 (Soyuz TM-11) Date: 25 April 1991 Duration: 2 hr. 25 min. Program: Mir
Following Progress-M 7 failed approaches to Mir aft port in March, the space station occupants had to inspect the docking mechanism.  For this purpose, they flew around the complex onboard their Soyuz spacecraft. They localized the problem in the Kurs antenna on Kvant. Thus, In April, Viktor Afanaseyev and Musa Manarov had to conduct an EVA to inspect Kurs. 

But first, the cosmonauts set up an experimental thermo-mechanical joint outside Kvant 2. The experiment was designed to provide data supporting Sofora truss deployment on Kvant during the next Mir crew. Afanaseyev also put the camera taken inside Mir on January back into service on Kvant 2’s movable platform. 

Meanwhile, Manarov clambered a distance of about 30 metres to inspect the balky Kvant Kurs antenna. By doing so, he violated the Soviet EVA policy which required that Afanaseyev accompany him, and he later received a rebuke for doing so. However, he televised images of the Kurs antenna to engineers at Mission Control: a 23-centimetre parabolic dish was missing, apparently knocked off by an accidental kick during the January 26 EVA. 

The cosmonauts then installed markers (“road signs”) on handrails to assist future spacewalkers in finding their way around Mir’s expanding exterior. Finally, they collected the thermomechanical joint installed at the start of EVA before returning to the Kvant 2 airlock. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 82-83.
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EVA #91
Mission: Mir EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 25 June 1991 Duration: 4 hr. 48 min. Program: Mir
Progress-M 8 delivered tools and equipment for the planned 6-hour Kvant Kurs antenna repair EVA. The work was considered unusually delicate and complex because it involved small tools, such as a dental mirror, and many small parts not designed for EVA handling. In addition, there were few handholds and footholds at the Kvant work site. Getting into proper working position required a full hour when the repair was simulated in the Hydrolaboratory. 

Fortunately, Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev succeeded in installing a new Kurs antenna on Kvant. They rested during orbital night when visibility was too poor to permit delicate work. 

Then, they assembled a prototype thermo-mechanical joint outside Kvant 2 in preparation for the planned Sofora truss assembly EVAs. The joint had sleeve couplings made of titanium-nickel alloy with “memory effect,” which shrank and snugged tight when heated by a hand-held heating and assembly device. 

The newspaper Izvestia stated that: “It is sad that we have of late referred to the Mir orbital complex… almost exclusively in connection with repair work. No one will argue that it is [not] taking ever-increasing effort to maintain the aging orbital complex. Yet it is still not fully equipped…” 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 83.
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EVA #92
Mission: Mir EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 28 June 1991 Duration: 3 hr. 24 min. Program: Mir
Progress M-8 delivered the 1-metre TREK panel, a space exposure experiment devised by the University of California at Berkeley to study cosmic-ray superheavy nuclei by recording their tracks through layers of phosphate glass. TREK was designed to remain outside on Kvant 2 for 2 years, then be recovered and returned to Earth for analysis. 

Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev installed TREK and tnan a charged particle detectors, retrieved the thermomechanical joint assembled during the previous EVA, and tested a new TV camera. They used the Strela boom to move around Mir’s exterior and completed the EVA 2 hr ahead of schedule.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 84.
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EVA #93
Mission: Mir EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 15 July 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 45 min. Program: Mir
This IS the first of four planned EVAs dedicated to Sofora truss assembly. Spacewalkers Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev used Strela to move themselves and the Sofora mounting platform from Kvant 2 to the worksite on Kvant. They then attached four heating and assembly devices to exterior electrical power outlets. 
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 84-85.
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EVA #94
Mission: MIr EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 19 July 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 28 min. Program: Mir
Sergei Krikalev used the Strela boom to transfer Anatoli Artsebarski and two boxes of Sofora parts to the Kvant worksite. He also transferred the first cubical, half-meter-wide Sofora truss section, which the cosmonauts assembled inside Mir before the EVA to serve as a base for the remaining 20 truss sections. 

The spacewalkers attached the mounting platform moved on the previous EVA to Kvant’s hull, then began Sofora assembly. The truss was put together lying back over Soyuz-TM 12 at the aft port, parallel to the long axis of the Mir core module.  They used the four heating and assembly devices to shrink the memory metal sleeves in the truss joints. They had difficulty seeing their work as the lighting changed, but managed to keep working during orbital night. They were unable to use foot restraints provided because the distance between the restraints and their work was different than on Earth, so they relied on their hands and arms to hold position. 

Krikalev and Artsebarski assembled three Sofora segments before closing out this, their fourth EVA together.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 85.
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EVA #95
Mission: MIr EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 23 July 1991 Duration: 5 hr. 34 min. Program: Mir
Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev partly assembled Sofora segments inside Mir between EVAs to save time. During this EVA, they added 11 more segments to Sofora, commenting on how easy it was to assemble.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 86.
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EVA #96
Mission: Mir EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 27 July 1991 Duration: 6 hr. 49 min. Program: Mir
Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev sixth and final EVA began with release into space of the worn-out Orlan-DMA #10 suit. The suit was worn 9 times by different cosmonauts. The newspaper Pravda lamented the suit’s disposal in space, saying that it might have been returned to Earth and sold for profit to a museum. 

The three remaining Sofora segments were assembled, then the truss was attached to its mounting platform on Kvant and raised so that it was nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the Mir base block. Sofora was sloped 11 degrees toward Mir’s front to place its top above the station’s center-of-gravity. 

Artsebarski climbed to the top of the truss and attached a Soviet flag mounted in a metal frame. Moscow TV stated that, “it is not difficult to understand Anatoli Artsebarski and Sergei Krikalev, who, on their own initiative, placed a Soviet flag atop the girder. After all, our country has not totally fallen apart yet and there are still things which we do better than anyone else in the world.” 

Artsebarski’s helmet visor fogged up because his suit’s heat exchanger ran out of water, so Krikalev had to guide him back to the Kvant 2 airlock.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 86-87.
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EVA #97
Mission: Mir EO-9 (Soyuz TM-12) Date: 20 February 1992 Duration: 4 hr. 12 min. Program: Mir
At the start of the EVA, Alexandr Volkov s suit heat exchanger clogged, forcing him to remain near the Kvant 2 airlock so he could use the module’s heat exchanger. Despite being tied by his cooling umbilical to the airlock, he assisted with installation of space exposure experiments on Kvant 2. 

Then Sergei Krikalev moved off to carry out the remaining EVA tasks by himself, an obvious violation of the Russian EVA “buddy system.”  He removed Sofora assembly equipment and cleaned cameras on Kvant, then collected an experimental solar array section that was added to the Mir core module top array in 1988. 

The EVA required less time than planned despite Volkov’s absence. With the conclusion of this EVA, Krikalev established a new world record for total EVA time of 36 hr. 29 min, which stood for more than four years.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 87.
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EVA #98
Mission: STS 49 Date: 10 May 1992 Duration: 3 hr. 43 min. Program: Space Shuttle
On its mainden flight, the new Space Shuttle Orbiter, Endeavour, had for mission to salvade an Intelsat VI satellite, stranded in low-Earth orbit since March 1990. Spacewalkers Rick Hieb and Pierre Thuot were charged with capturing the satellite and attaching a 10,5-tons solid-fueled perigee kick motor to boost it to geosynchronous orbit. 

Thuot, who held a capture bar device equipped with a Canadarm grapple fixture, rode the end of the arm. During orbital night, Endeavour completed rendezvous and Thuot attempted to attach the capture bar to the Intelsat. Differences between ground training and actual orbital tasks thwarted his efforts and Intelsat VI began to oscillate. Several times, the arm stopped moving because it was driven into positions its joints could not support. 

After three capture attempts, Endeavour moved off to permit Intelsat controllers to damp its wobble.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 89.
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EVA #99
Mission: STS 49 Date: 11 May 1992 Duration: 5 hr. 30 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Mission controllers again tried the original plan for capturing Intelsat VI, this time with greater care taken in positioning Pierre Thuo and less force on the capture bar. The spacewalker tried five more times to attach the capture bar while Rick Hieb stood by in the payload bay. 

Although his alignment was unquestionably correct, the bar refused to seat and the satellite began wobbling again. The Orbiter backed away to allow Intelsat controllers to stabilize it. Thuot later remarked that handling Intelsat VI “was much more dynamic than our training had led us to believe.”

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 89.
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EVA #100
Mission: STS 49 Date: 13 May 1992 Duration: 8 hr. 29 min. Program: Space Shuttle
After two failed attempts to capture Intelsat VI, it was proposed to capture the satellite using a three-person EVA, the first and only in history. (On the ground, engineers had to verified that three astronauts could fit into the airlock.) 

With Pierre Thuo on the Canadarm, Rick Hieb near the starboard payload bay wall, and Tom Akers in the center of the bay (attached to an ASEM strut), Mission Commander Brandenstein edged the Orbiter toward the satellite’s underside. The spacewalkers studied the 14,4-ton satellite’s slow rotation for about 15 minutes, and then together grasped it. 

Hieb then attached the capture bar while Thuot and Akers held Intelsat VI. Then Melnick grappled the bar with the Canadarm to move the satellite into position above the perigee kick motor. The spacewalkers attached the apogee-kick motor, then retreated to the airlock while Kathy Thornton activated springs to propel Intelsat VI out of the payload bay. The craft was finally sent on its way to geosynchronous orbit.

The three spacewalkers returned to the payload bay and cleaned up, stowing foot restraints and a camera. They thus completed the100th EVA in history and also the longest.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 89-90.
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EVA #101
Mission: STS 49 Date: 14 May 1992 Duration: 7 hr. 44 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The fourth EVA of Endeavour’s first flight was dedicated to the Assembly of Station by EVA (ASEM) experiment (which was to have been the focus of the mission’s second and third EVAs). The ASEM experiment was built by McDonnell-Douglas, Space Station Freedom truss prime contractor. When manifested, it was an exercise in assembling the Freedom truss. At about the time ASEM was manifested, however, NASA took the decision to launch the truss in pre-assembled, pre-integrated segments. ASEM, according to Thornton, became “an exercise in frustration” involving excessive “arm work” and freefloating.

Spacewalkers Kathy Thornton and Thomas Akers assembled a pyramidal structure 4.6 metres wide from struts and connectors (“sticks and balls”) carried in the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) in the payload bay. 

After they completed the ASEM structure, Melnick used the Canadarm to position it so the spacewalkers could attach the MPESS. Akers and Thornton fell behind the EVA timeline, so a plan to have each astronaut ride the MPESS as Melnick hoisted it over Endeavour’s nose was abandoned. The exercise was important because the over-the-nose location was an important station assembly area.  Mass-handling exercises using the 1725-kg MPESS were also truncated because of time pressure and because the Intelsat VI retrieval provided needed data. 

The EVA included the Crew Self Rescue (CSR) flight demonstration, which tested equipment to allow an EVA astronaut to safely return to a space station if he or she became untethered. Six self-rescue devices were included, but the extra time spent on ASEM meant that only the Crew Propulsive Device (CPD) could be tested. The CPD was a hand-held nozzle assembly resembling the Gemini HHMU which was fed by a compressed nitrogen tank mounted on the PLSS. It worked as expected, but time constraints meant that it could be evaluated for only about 10 minutes of a planned 15 to 20 minutes. 

The other Crew Self Rescue devices included inflatable and telescoping poles and a rope “bola” device the drifting astronaut could throw to hook to a station strut. The devices were all tested before flight by suited astronauts aboard the KC-135 aircraft.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 90-91 (see more).
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EVA #102
Mission: Mir EO-11 (Soyoz TM-14) Date: 8 July 1992 Duration: 2 hr. 03 min. Program: Mir
Onboard Mir, four of the six Kvant 2’s gyrodynes - gyroscopes which stabilize and maneuver the space station without using propellant - had ceased to operate. (A seventh, inside Kvant, also failed, but this was replaceable without an EVA.) So, this EVA was to inspect Kvant 2 gyrodynes to evaluate difficulty of repairing them. 

Alexandr Viktorenko and Alexandr Kaleri used large shears to cut through thermal insulation on Kvant 2 module to reach its gyrodynes. They inspected and televised the gyrodynes for engineers on the ground. 

Before closing out the EVA, they also tested binoculars compatible with a space suit visor for inspecting Mir’s outlying areas.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 91.
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EVA #103
Mission: Mir EO-12 (Soyuz TM-15) Date: 3 Sepember 1992 Duration: 3 hr. 56 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli Solovyov undertook the first of a series of EVAs to install the 700-kg VDU thruster package (deliveed by Progress M-14) on top of the Sofora truss on the Kvant module. 

On this EVA, they installed a locking device on Sofora to hold the truss securely while bent back. They used the Strela boom to move themselves and their equipment about the station. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 92.
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EVA #104
Mission: MIr EO-12 (Soyuz TM-15) Date: 7 September 1992 Duration: 5 hr. 08 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli Solovyov bent back Sofora on the hinge a third of the way along its length and locked it into position to receive the VDU. To ease installation, the thruster package was deployed from Progress M-14 at an angle matching the top of the bent-back Sofora truss. 

They laid a 14-metre power cable along the truss and attached metal braces to the VDU for securing it to Sofora. And working by flashlight during orbital night, they removed the metal frame containing the tattered remnants of the Soviet flag placed atop Sofora in 1991. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 92.
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EVA #105
Mission: Mir EO-12 (Soyuz TM-15) Date: 11 September 1992 Duration: 5 hr. 44 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli Solovyov attached the VDU to Sofora’s top and straightened the truss, then completed electrical connections between the VDU and Mir. This installation was originally scheduled to require four spacewalks, but Avdeyev and Solovyov finished the work in three. 
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 92-93.
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EVA #106
Mission: MIr EO-12 (Soyuz TM-15) Date: 15 September 1992 Duration: 3 hr. 33 min. Program: Mir
In their final EVA, Sergei Avdeyev and Anatoli Solovyov moved the Kurs rendezvous and docking system antenna on Kristall to permit Soyuz TM-16 to dock at the Kristall androgynous docking unit, certifying the unit ahead of a planned docking by the U.S. Space Shuttle. 

Before returning inside, they removed from the Mir core module top array an experimental solar panel that had been exposed to space for four years. They also removed micrometeorite panels and samples of construction materials from Kvant 2’s exterior for return to Earth.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 93.
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EVA #107
Mission: STS 54 Date: 13 January 1993 Duration: 4 hr. 28 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The purpose of this spacewalk was simply to gain EVA experience ahead of the Space Station Freedom assembly. Gregory Harbaugh and Mario Runco left the airlock 40 minutes late because preparations took longer than expected. 

They tested carrying a large object by carrying each other, demonstrated large tool use with a tool for manually positioning the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite tilt table, and tested their ability to align bulky objects by placing each other in the bracket which holds the EMU in the airlock. 

The EVA was videotaped for study by EVA operations engineers on the ground. The astronauts had to close out their walk at the planned time, despite their late start, because it was assigned a lower priority than observations by one of the Orbiter’s payloads, the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer, which had to be suspended during the EVA. 

After returning to the cabin Runco and Harbaugh recorded answers to detailed EVA questions. After they returned to Houston, they repeated their tasks in the buoyancy pool to help improve EVA training. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 93-94.
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EVA #108
Mission: Mir EO-13 (Soyuz TM-16) Date:19 April 1993 Duration: 5 hr. 25 min. Program: Mir
While outside Mir, Alexandr Poleshchuk moved to the Strela controls on the core module while Gennadi Manakov took up position on the boom’s arm.  The, Poleshchuk moved him to the worksite on Kvant. They thus used Strela to transfer a solar array electric drive. By the start of the third hour of the EVA, the cosmonauts moved one container.

With some difficulty, the cosmonauts attached one drive to the framework installed on Kvant in 1991, then connected plugs to link it to Mir’s electrical supply. 

Poleshchuk then discovered that one of Strela’s two control handles had come off and floated away from Mir. Their planned second EVA had to be postponed for a month, when the next Progress freighter would deliver a new handle. Solovyov said after the EVA that, “we will be sure to screw the handle on tighter next time.”

It was reported that, for the first time, these cosmonauts worked on a contractual basis, one source reported that they were paid one million roubles for three EVAs.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 95.
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EVA #109
Mission: Mir EO-13 (Soyuz TM-16) Date: 18 June 1993 Duration: 4 hr. 33 min. Program: Mir
Progress M-18 having delivered a replacement Strela handle, spacewalkers Gennadi Manakov and Alexandr Poleshchuk installed it without any problem. 

Then, they used the boom to move the second solar drive container to the worksite on Kvant. In contrast to their first EVA, Manakov and Poleshchuk installed the second drive with few problems. 

They completed the installation ahead of schedule, so they were able to spend several minutes televising images of Mir’s exterior to engineers at Mission Control.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 95.
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EVA #110
Mission: STS 57 Date: 25 June 1993 Duration: 5 hr. 50 min. Program: Space Shuttle
At first, this EVA was a low-priority mission objective to practice Space station activities, but it became a priority when the European Retrievable Carrier 
(EURECA) platform, snared by the Canadarm for return to Earth, failed to lock down its antenna. So, flight controllers made securing the antenna the EVA’s primary task. 

For the first time, spacewalking astronauts left an Orbiter airlock through an extension which linked it to the Spacehab module in the payload bay. 

Outside, David Low pushed on EURECA’s antenna from the Canadarm while controllers on the ground commanded the latches to close. The antenna locked down, and the astronauts turned to the EVA development objectives. 

Thus, Low and Peter Wisoff tested Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission-01 and Space Station EVA equipment. They took turns carrying each other while riding the robot arm to judge their ability to move large loads, used a foot restraint while working with tools, and tested safety tethers. 

While away from the payload bay, pointed at space, they got cold enough to shiver, and their hands became numb and painful.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 96 (see more).
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EVA #111
Mission: STS 51 Date: 16 September 1993 Duration: 7 hr. 05 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Immediately after leaving the airlock, spacewalkers James Newman and Carl Walz made a practice translation down the payload bay door sills. 

At the back of the bay, Walz investigated damage caused by a pyrotechnic fastener malfunction in the Advanced Communications Technol-ogy Satellite payload. Walz found that the explosion had torn a hole in the Orbiter’s aft payload bay bulkhead, but caused no damage to the payload bay doors or other equipment. He decided not to handle the debris because it might cut his gloves. 

The astronauts then commenced EVA. They conducted a glove-warming evaluation using the payload bay lights, then tested tethers for high- and low-torque work and a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) designed for HST SM-01. They also compared ground training with actual work on orbit. They reported that their boyanch pool experience was more difficult than the actual EVA. The HST-related tests assured planners that ground preparations for the flight were on a sound footing. 

The astronauts accomplished more than planned and remained ahead of schedule until closeout, when the equipment-bay door refused to close. The EVA thus required 45 minutes more than scheduled.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 97.
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EVA #112
Mission: Mir EO-14 (Soyuz TM-17) Date: 16 September 1993 Duration: 4 hr. 18 min. Program: Mir
The Soviet Union planned to follow Mir with Mir-2, a large station which would have incorporated a large truss to support solar dynamic power generation systems and antennas. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 scuttled these plans, but paved the way for merging Mir-2 and SSF into one International Space Station (ISS). This EVA is often identified as Mir-2-related.

Spacewalkers Vasili Tsibliyev and Alexandr Serebrov moved equipment from Kvant 2 to Kvant using Strela. They installed a “grate,” then attached a platform behind Sofora. They then moved the container holding the Rapana truss to the attachment site and linked it to Mir’s electrical system. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 97 (see more).
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EVA #113
Mission: Mir EO-14 (Soyuz TM-17) Date: 20 September 1993 Duration: 3 hr. 13 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Vasili Tsibliyev and Alexandr Serebrov returned to the Kvant module to assemble the Rapana truss, a 26-kg cylindrical framework with memory alloy joints akin to those in Sofora. They expanded when heated, causing Rapana to unfold from its container. Extension to a length of 5 metres required just 3 minutes. The truss was scheduled for analysis after 10 months on Mir’s exterior. The cosmonauts installed space exposure samples on Rapana before closing out the EVA.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 98.
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EVA #114
Mission: Mir EO-14 (Soyuz TM-17) Date: 28 September 1993 Duration: 1 hr. 52 min. Program: Mir
This EVA was the first connected with new U.S.-Russian cooperation in space. The primary objective of the EVA was the Panorama survey, a detailed inspection of Mir’s exterior designed to provide Russian, U.S., and European engineers with assurance that Mir remained in good shape to support ambitious joint space projects after 7 years in space. Panorama was also designed to assess damage caused by the intense Perseid meteor storm of August 1993. 

The EVA was planned to last more than 4 hours, but had to be cut short when Vasili Tsibliyev’s suit cooling system failed. He stayed near the Kvant 2 airlock while Alexandr Serebrov collected TREK experiment detector plates and videotaped and photographed Mir’s exterior from Kvant 2.  (Serebrov, the first cosmonaut to test the SPK maneuvering device (1990), said later that the SPK should have been used for Panorama.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 98 (see more).
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EVA #115
Mission: Mir EO-14 (Soyuz TM-17) Date: 22 October 1993 Duration: 38 min. Program: Mir
This EVA, to inspect Mir’s exterior, was to last 5 hours but it had to be terminated almost as it started because of a problem in the oxygen flow system of his Orlan space suit, which had been worn 13 times by different cosmonauts and had exceeded its recommended operational lifetime. 

Before going inside, Vasili Tsibliyev and Alexandr Serebrov inspected and collected space exposure experiments, installed meteoroid detectors, and spoke with Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, who was visiting the TsUP. 

They also snapped a few photos for the Panorama survey, but a third EVA had to be scheduled to complete the task. (With that spacewalk, Serebrov matched the old record for most EVAs (9) held jointly by Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov since 1986.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 99.
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EVA #116
Mission: Mir EO-14 (Soyuz TM-17) Date: 29 October 1993 Duration: 4 hr. 12 min. Program: Mir
After two EVAs cut short by space suit problems, Vasili Tsibliyev and Alexandr Serebrov at last completed the Panorama survey of Mir’s exterior. They filmed Mir’s main Altair/Luch geostationary satellite system communication antenna and the solar arrays. (Analysis of the Panorama photos and videotape showed Mir’s exterior to be intact but contaminated by thruster emissions. The solar arrays showed minor damage from meteoroids and orbital debris collisions.)

Then, they inspected Sofora’s mount and attached another space exposure cassette to Mir’s exterior. They also watched a piece of metal of undetermined origin drift past. Finally, the cosmonauts tossed the Orlan-DMA suit that gave trouble on the last EVA out the Kvant 2 hatch after rigging it so it appeared to be saluting. 

Serebrov set a new career record for most EVAs (10), but Sergei Krikalev’s record for most time spent in EVA (36 hr, 29 min) remained intact. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 99.
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EVA #117
Mission: STS 61 Date: 4 December 1993 Duration: 7 hr. 54 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Having capture the Hubble Space Telescope with the Canadarm robot arm and berthed it on the Flight Support System in the Orbiter’s aft payload bay, Story Musgrave and Jeffrey Hoffman could proceed to the first EVA to repair the telescope. (The crew carried 6,545 kg of servicing gear, including more than 200 individual tools and crew aids.)

The spacewalkers first installed a cover on a low-gain antenna to avoid damaging it, and then changed Rate Sensing Unit 2 and 3, Electronics Control Unit 1 and 3, and four fuse plugs. Musgrave, the shorter of the two astronauts, was able to slip under the HST sunshade to reach the Rate Sensing Units. 

Because they did not have to remove the sunshade, this saved about 1 hour of EVA time. Musgrave unbolted the old Rate Sensing Unit, then Hoffman, in a foot restraint on the Canadarm, slid it out while Musgrave steered it free. 

Up to this point, the spacewalkers were ahead of timeline, but then they had difficulty closing the RSU compartment door, which was deformed due to exposure to temperature extremes during HST’s first 3 years in space. Musgrave pushed on the bottom of the door while Hoffman, on the arm, pushed on the top. This was the only major problem experienced on any of the HST SM-01 EVAs, a fact that surprised, given the history of EVA.

Finally, the astronauts closed out by setting up the payload bay for the next EVA. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 100-102 (see more).
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EVA #118
Mission: STS 61 Date: 5 December 1993 Duration: 6 hr. 36 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Hubble Space Telescope’s solar arrays replacement was scheduled for this first servicing mission, even before the telescope was launched. Originally, this was meant to compensate for solar array degradation. But problems with “jitters” in the arrays caused by thermal expansion and contraction quickly overshadowed the original justification. The new arrays were modified to eliminate the vibration problem.

After the first EVA, the arrays were commanded to close. The star-board array failed to close properly because of a bent bistem in its support framework. It was closed only 30 percent to avoid bistem breakage, which might have created a sharp-edge hazard. 

During the EVA, spacewalker Kathy Thornton,was unable to receive radio from the Orbiter or the ground until 3 hr. 15 min into the EVA; she lost radio again near EVA’s end. His co-waler Thomas Akers served as relay during the blackout. 

They thus detached and jettisoned the starboard array, then installed its jitter-proof replacement. The port array was then removed and stowed for return to Earth and its replacement installed. The new arrays were left rolled up. 

The spacewalkers finished their work by installing a foot restraint for the next EVA.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 102.
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EVA #119
Mission: STS 61 Date: 6 December 1993 Duration: 6 hr. 47 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The objective of the third HST servicing EVA was to replace the 281-kg Wide Field/Planetary Camera with a WFPC-2 built from a spare after ground controllers determined that HST had faulty optics. Spacewalkers Story Musgrave and Jeffrey Hoffman removed the original WFPC, placed it in a countaine to return it to Earth, and put the WFPC-2 in place.

The Telescope was then tip forward to put its closed aperture door within Canadarm reach. Both spacewalkers mounted the arm and replaced two of four MSS magnetometers near HST’s aperture. They discovered that the MSS covers are disintegrating, raising fears that foam fragments from the covers might infiltrate HST’s optics. 

They also installed four more fuse plugs and performed some light tasks originally scheduled for the next EVA before closing out.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 103.
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EVA #120
Mission: STS 61 Date: 7 December 1993 Duration: 6 hr. 50 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The Goddard High Speed Photometer (GHSP) had to be sacrificed to provide a place for the Corrective Optics Space Telescope (COSTAR) device for correcting HST’s faulty optics. 

First, Kathy Thornton mounted the Canadarm and opened the GHSP access door using a power rachet tool. One of the two power tools failed completely, while the other lost its variable speed setting. 

Tom Akers then climbed inside, disconnected the 221-kg photometer, pulled it out, and handed it to Thornton. Nicollier, on the control of the arm, then moved Thornton and GHSP to a holding device, where she temporarily stowed the instrument. She then pulled the 290-kg COSTAR from its enclosure. She tnen Lend the instrument to Akers, who aligned it on its rails, slid it in, engaged its latches, and connected its electrical cables. The replacement task, scheduled to require 3 hr. 10 min, was completed in only 35 minutes. 

The spacewalkers then installed a new DF-224 co-processor to improve computer performance. (Communications problems continued for Thornton.)

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 103-104.
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EVA #121
Mission: STS 61 Date: 8 December 1993 Duration: 7 hr. 21 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Story Musgrave and Jeffrey Hoffman replaced HST’s Solar Array Drive Electronics then put protective covers fabricated aboard the Orbiter on Magnetic Sensing System units 3 and 4 to prevent foam from getting into the telescope’s optics. 

Controllers on the ground then commanded HST’s solar arrays to unroll. They experienced trouble, so the spacewalkers aided deployment. Each array required 5 minutes to unroll. (Communication problems meant no biomedical data during most of the EVA.)

The astronauts returned to the airlock, ending a record EVA total of 35 hr. 28 min for this mission. 

On December 9, Claude Nicollier used the Canadarm to grapple the Hubble Space Telescope and lift it above the Orbiter’s payload bay. Ground controllers charged HST’s batteries, deployed the high-gain antenna booms, and opened the aperture door. Nicollier then released the telescope. The astronauts away, taking care not to strike HST with plumes from the orbiter’s steering jets. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 105.
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EVA #122
Mission: MIr EO-16 (Soyuz TM-19) Date: 9 September 1994 Duration: 5 hr. 04 min. Program: Mir
The Mir space complex was struck by Soyuz TM-17 and Progress M-24 in January 1993 and August 1994 respectively. Yuri Malenchenko and Talgat Musabayev went outside to Inspect the  struck areas.

They started their EVA by replacing space exposure cassettes outside Kvant 2, then moved to the front of the Mir core module. There, they inspected Kristall near where it joined the core module and found that the damage caused by Soyuz was light: a missing 30-cm-by-40-cm thermal blanket and scratches on insulation nearby. They mended the damage. Then, they inspected the Progress impact area on the Mir transfer compartment, finding no appreciable damage.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 105-106.
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EVA #123
Mission: Mir EO-16 (Soyuz TM-19) Date: 14 September 1994 Duration: 6 hr. 01 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Malenchenko and Talgat Musabayev inspected the movable solar arrays on Kristall, which were scheduled to be retracted and moved to Kvant through a series of EVAs. They also inspected mounting brackets and drives on Kvant on which the arrays would be mounted. The spacewalkers also took down space exposure cassettes from Rapana and inspected Sofora, then mounted a new amateur radio antenna. 
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 106.
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EVA #124
Mission: STS 64 Date: 16 September 1994 Duration: 6 hr. 51 min. Program:  Space Shuttle
On Friday, September 16, spacewalkers Mark Lee and Carl Meade successfully completed the first untethered U.S. space walk in a decade, trying out a new rescue aid for astronauts who might float free from their spacecraft.  The spacewalk lasted 6 hours 51 minutes and was the 28th in the Space Shuttle program.

Lee and Meade exited the airlock mid-morning Friday and conducted several tests of the SAFER, the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue, while untethered in Discovery's cargo bay. Susan Helms maneuvered Discovery's robot arm for the procedures.

The test had four parts - familiarization, a programmed jet test series to gather engineering data, tumbling tests, and precision maneuvering - and occurred within a 7.6-m-by-8.2-m box of space at the front of the Orbiter’s payload bay. 

The spacewalkers quickly determined that the device used less nitrogen than predicted. After completing the familiarization and engineering data portions of the test, Lee and Meade took turns standing in an foor reatrains on the Canadarm and tumbling the other. 

The tumbled astronaut activated SAFER’s automatic attitude hold system, stabilized, then maneuvered toward the ars, which Helms pulled away to simulate a separation rate of 0.06 mps. Meade rolled Lee at 2 rpm - faster than planned, but SAFER stabilized him without difficulty. Finally, the astronauts took turns flying SAFER precisely along the robot arm to a point near the aft flight deck windows. 

The Electronic Cuff Checklist, a planned replacement for paper checklists, performed poorly, and Meade’s feet became very cold. 

Adapted from: STS-64 MCC Mission Status Report #16 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 106-108 (see more).
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EVA #125
Mission: STS 63 Date: 9 February 1995 Duration: 4 hr. 39 min. Program: Space Shuttle
This was the first EVA in the EVA Development Flight Test program, which aimed to prepare NASA for International Space Station assembly. The spacewalkers wore space suits with thermal modifications, including thicker underwear, better insulated gloves, and a bypass switch to allow reduction of cooling water flow without reducing ventilation.

Bernard Harris and Mike Foale entered the payload bay through the airlock extension tunnel linking the Orbiter's cockpit to Spacehab. They floated into the payload bay shortly after 6 a.m. Central to begin the Shuttle program's 29th spacewalk. 

After arranging their tools, they were lifted out by Vladimir Titov which, onboard the Orbiter, positioned the Canadarm robot arm so that of the payload bay on the Canadarm robot arm, up to 9 metres above the payload bay, for a 15-minuntes to evaluate how well new space suit undergarments would keep them warm. The Orbiter’s attitude was purposely maintained to make the astronauts as cold as possible - the payload bay was pointed away from the Sun during daylight and toward deep space during orbital night. The spacewalkers were away from the relative warmth of the payload bay, subjectively rating their comfort levels while sensors in their gloves collected objective data that will be compared to temperatures taken of the space environment around them.

For the second part of the spacewalk, Harris conducted a mass handling exercise with the Spartan-204 satellite to gain experience in moving large objects on orbit. Voss unlatched the SPARTAN and Titov moved Foale into position over the freeflyer so he could lift it in an experiment to determine astronaut’s ability to handle large loads. Foale then handed the SPARTAN to Harris. 

While Harris was finishing his portion of the exercise, both astronauts reported that their hands were beginning to get cold. During orbital night,  Foale’s glove temperature dropped below minus 6 degres §C. Harris’ feet became cold through contact with the Orbiter’s structure as a temperature of minus 148 deg C  was recorded by the thermal cube. The astronauts reported that the thermal overgloves produced only slight warming. 

Foale took back the SPARTAN, but Mission Control canceled the remainder of the mass-handling experiment and terminated the EVA early after the astronauts rated the cold as a 3 (“unacceptably cold”) on a 1 to 8 scale devised before launch. Foale put the SPARTAN back in its berth. The Orbiter was then maneuvered to warm the spacewalekrs before they returned to the airlock.

After taking off his helmet, Harris smelled an odor and suffered burning eyes. Wetherbee collected an air sample and Harris washed his eyes with water. Postflight analysis revealed no contaminants. The irritation could have been caused by contact with an anti-fogging soap solution - four EVA astronauts encountered the same problem on previous flights.

Adapted from: STS-63 MCC Mission Status Report #15 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 108-109 (see more).
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EVA #126
Mission: Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 12 May 1995 Duration: 6 hr. 08 min. Program: Mir
This EVA, by Vladimir Dezhurov and Gennadi Strekalov, was planned to last 5 hr. 20 min. The spacewalkers first changed wiring on Kvant to prepare for transfer of the 12.2-metre Kristall arrays, then moved to Kristall and practiced folding three small panels of one array. Each array had 28 such panels. Removal of the U.S.-built TREK space exposure experiment (a 20-min procedure) was planned, but had to be postponed when the EVA ran 15 minutes past the safe limit. The cosmonauts were reported to be very tired after the EVA, so they rested all the next day.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 109-110 (see more).
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EVA #127
Mission: Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 17 May 1995 Duration: 6 hr. 52 min. Program: Mir
This spacewalk has for objective the transfert of a solar array from Kristall to the Kvant module. First task was, by Normand Thagard onboard Mir, to cycle closure servomotor switches while Gennadi Strekalov monitored the array closure perched on Strela (operated by Vladimir Dezhurov). Strekalov had to manually close one panel. 

Then, detaching the array from Kristall required no tools since it was designed for easy removal by cosmonauts encumbered by space suit gloves. 

Then, Dezhurov transferred Strekalov and the array to the Kvant worksite, and joined him there. Since batteries for the arrays remained in Kristall, electric cables had to run Mir’s length. The cosmonauts lacked sufficient time to install the array and reopen it as planned. Instead they lashed it to its mount with tool tethers. (The resulting power deficit was made up in part by electricity from the arrays on Progress M-27, which was retained for two days longer than originally planned.)

The next scheduled EVA was delayed two days to give the cosmonauts more time to rest.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 110.
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EVA #128
Mission: Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 22 May 1995 Duration: 5 hr. 15 min. Program: Mir
This spacewalk had for purpose to Install Kristall array on Kvant and to stow a second Kristall array. It was plagged by an electricity shortage, which interfered with communication between Mir and Mission Control. There was insufficient power for TV through the Altair geosynchronous satellite. 

Despite this, Vladimir Dezhurov and Gennadi Strekalov succeeded in installing the array moved on May 17. Then, Norman Thagard, onboard Mir, commanded the array to unfold, restoring Mir’s electrical supply. 

The spacewalkers had also time to closed 13 of 28 segments on the second Kristall array, so it could continue to produce electricity while leaving sufficient clearance for this module to be repositioned. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 111.
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EVA #129
Mission:  Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 29 May 1995 Duration: 21 min. Program: Mir
Vladimir Dezhurov and Gennadi Strekalov performed an “intra-vehicular activity ” (IVA) to prepare Mir core module’s berthing node for the transfer of Kristall to nadir (Earth-facing) port. The spacewalkers remained inside the the station and never ventured out.

They thus entered the transfer compartment, sealed the hatches linking it to Kristall, Mir and Kvant 2, and dumped its air. They then removed the Konus #2 drogue from the -Y port, closed the port with a hinged flat plate door, opened an identical door on the nadir port, and installed the Konus unit. Their task completed, they repressurized the transfer compartment. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 111.
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EVA #130
Mission: Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 2 June 1995 Duration: 23 min. Program: Mir
On June 1st, a new specialized module, Spektr, docked at the front port of Mir. The next days, Vladimir Dezhurov and Gennadi Strekalov performed a second IVA (inside Mir) to configure the docking port that will berthed the Spektr module.

They thus closed hatches leading to Mir, Kvant 2, Kristall and Spektr, depressurized the transfer compartment, and moved Konus #2 to the -Y port so Spektr could be relocated there. The new module was pivoted into place on June 3. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 112.
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EVA 
(can-
celled
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Mission: Mir EO-18 (Soyuz TM-21) Date: 16 June 1995 Duration: 0 min. Program: Mir
On June 5, two Spektr arrays were deployed, but one failed to open fully, producing 20 percent less electricity than expected. 

The Russians announced plans to mount an unrehearsed EVA on June 15 to fully open the array ahead of the first Space Shuttle docking with Mir. The EVA was rescheduled to June 16, then canceled because Gennadi Strekalov refused to take part. He contended that the EVA was unnecessary and made hazardous by inadequate preparation. Rookie Commander Vladimir Dezhurov argued with Strekalov, but the veteran flight engineer was adamant. 

After they returned to Earth, Dezhurov and Strekalov were each fined the equivalent of $9000, 15 percent of the fee they had contracted to receive for the mission.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 112.
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EVA #131
Mission: Mir EO-19 (STS 71) Date: 14 July 1995 Duration: 5 hr. 34 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Anatoli Solovyov and Nikolai Budarin inspected the Mir’s -Z berthing port, where the Kristall module was to be relocated, for leaks and found nothing out of the ordinary. The transfer compartment had experienced an unexplained slow pressure loss a month before. 

They then used Strela to reach the balky Spektr array, which they succeeded in opening using a NASA-built tool. Small lateral array sections remained oriented 90 degrees from planned final position, but the electricity lost was judged insignificant and the Spektr array repair declared complete. 

The cosmonauts then moved to Kvant 2, where they inspected an antenna and a malfunctioning solar array drive motor.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 112.
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EVA #132
Mission: Mir EO-19 (STS 71) Date: 19 July 1995 Duration: 3 hr. 08 min. Program: Mir
The planned 5-hr. 38-min EVA to install the Mir Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer (MIRAS) was cut short because the cooling system in Anatoli Solovyovs space suit failed, forcing him to remain linked by an umbilical to the cooling system in the Kvant 2 airlock. 

Thus, Nikolai Budarin prepared equipment for MIRAS installation on the next EVA. He also retrieved the U.S.-built TREK detector from Kvant 2’s surface. TREK, placed on Kvant 2 during a 1991 EVA, was originally scheduled for return to Earth in 1993, but this was postponed because of more pressing EVA demands. 

The cosmonauts had difficulty closing the airlock hatch. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 113 (see more).
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EVA #133
Mission: Mir EO-19 (STS 71) Date: 21 July 1995 Duration: 5 hr. 35 min. Program: Mir
Anatoli Solovyovs and Nikolai Budarin repaired Solovyov’s suit in consultation with ground engineers and immediately began preparations for another EVA to install the Mir Infrared Atmospheric Spectrometer (MIRAS). 

They attached the MIRAS package to Strela, then Budarin maneuvered both Solovyov and the scneitific instrument to the worksite on Spektr. They needed about 2 hours to install MIRAS using three clamps. 

The spacewalkers completed their work early, but controllers at Mission Control received no data from the instrument. While Solovyov and Budarin stood by outside Mir, controllers traced the problem to Spektr’s data transmission system. The cosmonauts corrected the problem and MIRAS began returning data. 

Early in this EVA, Solovyov broke Krikalev’s 1992 record for total EVA time. By the time he returned to the Kvant 2 airlock, his total was 41 hr 49 min.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 113-114.
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EVA #134
Mission: STS 69 Date: 16 September 1995 Duration: 6 hr. 46 min. Program: Space Shuttle
With a 6-hour 46-minute spacewalk under their belts, Space Shuttle's astronauts completed the final major milestone of the flight.

Jim Voss and Mike Gernhardt began the spacewalk at 3:20 Central on Saturday, September 16, evaluating thermal improvements made to their spacesuits and a variety of tools and techniques which may be used in the assembly of the International Space Station.  In turn, each spent 45 minutes on the end of the Orbiter's mechanical arm as Jim Newman maneuvered them away from the radiated warmth of the payload bay. 

With the Orbiter's payload bay pointed away from the Sun, the spacewalkers were exposed to temperatures as low as minus 85° C during this "cold soak" evaluation. They continually provided subjective ratings on their comfort levels to flight controllers on the ground.  Temperature measurement devices mounted on the robot arm and in the payload bay provide objective data that will be correlated with their evaluations. Throughout the entire spacewalk activity, both reported they were very comfortable, both during their cold soak evaluation and as they worked through a series of repetitive tool-handling tasks in Endeavour's payload bay.

With all their objectives complete and after stowing their tools and equipment, the two spacewalkers made their way back into the airlock, closed the hatch and began to repressurize the airlock. 

Adapted from: STS-69 MCC Mission Status Report #19 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 114.
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EVA #135
Mission: Mir EO-20 (Soyuz TM-22) Date: 20 Octoboer 1995 Duration: 5 hr. 11 min. Program: Mir
On this first EVA by an European Space Agency astronaut, Thomas Reiter led the way out the Kvant 2 hatch. He climbed onto the end of the Strela boom, then Sergei Avdeyev handed him the payload bag, moved him to Spektr, and used Strela as a handrail to join him. 

The spacewalkers crawled to the opposite side of Spektr to reach the European Space Exposure Facility-1. Reiter threaded a tether from the payload bag through wire loops attached to pins on ESEF-1, then pulled the tether to release covers, exposing four attachment sites. 

They also installed two dust collectors, a space environment monitoring package, and a control electronics box. The dust collectors had motorized covers operable from within Mir. One of the dust collectors remained open at all times unless a Shuttle, Soyuz or Progress was near the station, then it was closed to avoid spacecraft thruster contamination. The other was opened only when Earth passed through dust left behind by comets. 

Commander Yuri Gidzenko powered up the ESEF-1 instrument from inside Mir and verified that it was functioning as expected. 

Reiter and Avdeyev then moved to a second worksite 2 metres away from ESEF-1, where they replaced exposure cartridges with cartridges delivered by Progress M-29.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 115 (see more).
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EVA #136
Mission: MIr EO-20 (Soyuz TM-22) Date: 8 December 1995 Duration: 37 min. Program: Mir
Sergei Avdeyev and Yuri Gidzenko made an “intra-vehicular activity” (IVA) to transfer docking cone to receive the Priroda module. They entered the core module transfer compartment, sealed hatches leading into Soyuz, Spektr, Kvant 2, Kristall and Mir, and vented the atmosphere into space. They then transferred the Konus #2 docking drogue from the -Z port to the +Z port to receive the Priroda module.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 116.
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EVA #137
Mission: STS 72 Date: 114-5 January 1996 Duration: 6 hr. 09 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Astronauts Leroy Chiao and Dan Barry spent more than six hours in the Orbiter's cargo bay on Monday, January 15, conducting the first of two spacewalks on the mission to test tools and techniques which may be used in the construction of the International Space Station. They floated out of the airlock at 23:35 Sunday night to begin the 31st spacewalk in Shuttle history.

After taking a few minutes to acclimate themselves in the payload bay, first-time spacewalkers Chiao and Barry attached a portable work platform to the end of the robot arm, operated by Pilot Brent Jett and Koichi Wakata. Jett used the arm to grapple various pieces of hardware designed to hold large modular components, mimicking the way equipment boxes and avionics gear will be moved back and forth in assembling the Space Station.

The spacewalkers unfolded a cable tray diagonally across the forward portion of the cargo bay housing simulated electrical and fluid lines similar to those which will connect modules and nodes of the Space Station. The rigid umbilical, as it is known, was tested for its ease of handling and the ability of the astronauts to hook up the lines to connectors on the side of Endeavour's bay.

While Chiao unraveled various lengths of cable from a caddy device, Barry spent time practicing the hookup of the various cables in the rigid umbilical to connectors in the bay, testing his ability to manipulate tiny bolts and screws in weightlessness. He reported that most tasks could be accomplished with little difficulty. They then traded places, as Barry mounted the portable work platform to evaluate its worth.

The astronauts stayed ahead of their timeline throughout the night, finally concluding their spacewalk at 5:44 Monday morning. In all, Chiao and Barry spent six hours and nine minutes in the cargo bay.

Adapted from: STS-72 MCC Mission Status Report #7 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 116.
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EVA #138
Mission: STS 72 Date: 16-17 January 1996 Duration: 6 hr. 54 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Astronauts Leroy Chiao and Winston Scott tested connectors, cables and work platforms for almost 7 hours in the Orbiter's cargo bay on Wednesday, January 17, during the second spacewalk of the STS-72 mission.

They floated into the bay at 23:54 Tuesday. The spacewalk began about one hour later than expected since the astronauts took longer to don their suits than had been expected.  The spacewalk concluded at 6:34, with the two astronauts logging 6 hours 53 minutes and 41 seconds working in the vacuum of space.

Chiao and Scott worked with utility boxes, slidewires and a portable work stanchion affixed to Orbiter's robot arm to gather additional data on methods and procedures which may be incorporated in the techniques which will be used to assemble the International Space Station.

Flight controllers had to juggle spacewalk activities throughout the night due to the delayed start and a drop in temperature in the thruster fuel lines on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit satellite. Commander Brian Duffy maneuvered Endeavour to a warmer attitude allowing SFU temperatures to increase. The maneuver slightly delayed one of the priority tasks of the spacewalk: a test of how well Scott's spacesuit would repel the freezing temperatures of space.

Late in the spacewalk, Scott finally climbed into foot restraints on the OAST-Flyer satellite platform for the thermal evaluation exercise. Endeavour was maneuvered to the coldest position possible, with its payload bay facing out toward deep space and allowing temperatures to dip to about 104 degrees below zero at the point where Scott was positioned to test the ability of his spacesuit to repel the bitter cold temperature of space.

It was Chiao's second spacewalk and the first for Scott.

Adapted from: STS-72 MCC Mission Status Report #9 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 117.
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EVA #139
Mission: Mir EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 8 February 1996 Duration: 3 hr. 06 min. Program: Mir
Thomas Reiter and Yuri Gidzenko EVA's was expected to last 5 hr. 30 min. The cosmonauts first moved the SPK “space sccoter” outside Kvant 2 for permanent storage. The bulky device, which took up room in the Kvant 2 airlock compartment, was a hindrance to EVAs since its two flights in 1990. 

Then Gidzenko crawled down Strela and took his place at its control cranks. He moved Reiter from Kvant 2 to Spektr, then crawled down Strela and around Spektr to join Reiter at the ESEF-1 worksite, where they removed two 2-kg dust collectors. Thus, Reiter retrieved the collectors he installed in October. (The ESEF-1 returned to Earth with Reiter aboard Soyuz TM-22 on February 29.)

The spacewalkers fell behind schedule but caught up by working during night passes. They were unable to remove a malfunctioning antenna on one of the solar arrays with the tools at their disposal, so the Mission Control ordered them to cut short the EVA. But spacewalkers’ exuberance was undamaged by the setback.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 117-118.
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EVA #140
Mission: Mir EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 15 March 1996 Duration: 5 hr. 51 min. Program: Mir
The first Strela boom could only reach only Mir’s -Z side, so a second Strela boom was installed to allow the cosmonauts to translate easily to the repositioned Kristall module. Thus, spacewalker Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev attached the boom to brackets on Mir’s core module and extended it to its full 12-metre length, then used it to return to the Kvant 2 airlock.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 118.
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EVA #141
Mission: STS 76 Date: 27 March 1996 Duration: 6 hr. 02 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Astronauts Linda Godwin and Rich Clifford successfully completed the first ever spacewalk from a docked Space Shuttle Wednesday, March 27, installing four experiments on the exterior of the Russian Mir space station. They performed the first U.S. EVA outside a space station in more than 22 years. Their EVA was significant also for being the first conducted from a Shuttle orbiter docked to a space station. (Mir and the U.S. Orbiter together weighed 237,494 kg, the heaviest human artifact ever assembled in space.)

Starting at 12:36 CST, they spent six hours, two minutes and twenty-eight seconds spacewalking in Atlantis's cargo bay and on the exterior of the Mir's docking module. The spacewalkers took care not to venture beyond the 4.6-metre-long DM onto Kristall because the Russians feared that they might accidentally damage its delicate surface structures. They smoothly performed all of the objectives planned for the spacewalk, the most important of which was to install the four experiments to monitor the space environment on the exterior of Mir for the next year and a half.

The Mir Environmental Effects Payload, as the experiments are called, were clamped to outside rails on the docking module. They will gather information on space debris encountered outside the Mir; the amounts and types of contaminants around the station; and the corrosive effects of space on various materials. When retrieved and brought back to Earth, the experiments will provide valuable insight to engineers about the space environment likely to be encountered by the future International Space Station.

Godwin and Clifford also detached a television camera from the outside of the Mir docking module to return it to Earth, and they evaluated a variety of new spacewalking tools capable of being used on both U.S. and Russian spacecraft.

Adapted from: STS-76 MCC Status Report #10 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 119 (see more).
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EVA #142
Mission: MIr EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 21 May 1996 Duration: 5 hr. 20 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev used the Strela boom installed in March to move to the Docking Module at the end of Kristall. There, they removed the Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), jointly developed by NASA and Russian Space Agency, and delivered attached to the Docking Module on the Space Shuttle STS-74 mission. The array was designed to help increase available Mir power, extending the station’s life and supplying additional power for U.S. experiments.

They thus secured MCSA to Strela, then moved it to Kvant, removed it from its container, and attached it to a mounting bracket. 

They returned to the Kvant 2 airlock using Strela and assembled a 1.2-metre Pepsi can replica from aluminum struts and nylon sheets. The oversized replica was delivered by Progress M-31. They videotaped each other near the replica, then disassembled it for return to Earth. The videotape would be used by Pepsico in a commercial campaign.

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 120 (see more).
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EVA #143
Mission: MIr EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 24 May 1996 Duration: 5 hr. 34 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev deployed the 18-metre-long Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) outside the Kvant module using a handcrank. The array, which unfolded like an accordion, had 84 “panel modules” of 80 silicon solar cells each. The cells were identical to those planned for use on the U.S. segment of the International Space Station. 

The spacewalkers linked the array to Mir’s power supply, but the electrical cables used permitted power to be supplied from only half of the array. Fully operational, MCSA would supply 6 kW of electricity - at the end of this EVA, it supplied half that. 

Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 121.
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EVA #144
Mission: MIr EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 30 May 1996 Duration: 4 hr. 20 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev went outside Mir to install U.S.-built Modular Optoelectrical Multispectral Scanner (MOMS) device on the Priroda module, (MOMS already flew on the STS-7 and STS 41-B Shuttle missions.)
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 121.
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EVA #145
Mission: MIr EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 6 June 1996 Duration: 3 hr. 34 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev moved to the Spektr module and replaced cassettes in the Swiss/Russian Kozma experiment, then installed the Particle Impact Experiment (PIE) and the Mir Sample Return Experiment (MSRE). They finally installed the SKK-11 cassette, which exposed construction materials to space conditions.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 122.
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EVA #146
Mission: Mir EO-21 (Soyuz TM-23) Date: 13 June 1996 Duration: 5 hr. 42 min. Program: Mir
Yuri Onufrienko and Yuri Usachev installed the Ferma-3 (Rapana) structure on Kvant, a 5.9-metre truss made up of four sections. They assembled and installed the structure on Kvant’s underside, then moved to Priroda and manually deployed the saddle-shaped Travers Synthetic Aperture Radar antenna. They closed out their spacewalk by filming the final segment of the Pepsi commercial. 
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 122.
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EVA #147
Mission: Mir Mir EO-22 (Soyuz TM-24) Date: 2 December 1996 Duration: 5 hr. 57 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Valeri Korzun and Alexandr Kaleri installed a 23-metre cable to double to 6 kW the amount of electricity provided by Mir Cooperative Solar Array. This involved attaching the cable to the array, then trailing it to the socket for the Mir core module “top” solar array, which was no longer used because it was shadowed by Kvant 2. They then moved the Rapana girder to the top of the new Strombus girder on Kvant’s underside.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 123.
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EVA #148
Mission: Mir Mir EO-22 (Soyuz TM-24) Date: 9 December 1996 Duration: 6 hr. 36 min. Program: Mir
Spacewalkers Valeri Korzun and Alexandr Kaleri went outside Mir to attach a Kurs rendezvous radar antenna to the Docking Module. They had difficulties handling cumbersome cable bundles when they installed the new omnidirectional. And before returning inside, they reattached a cable to an amateur radio antenna which they had knocked loose during their first EVA.
Adapted from: David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 123.
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EVA #149
Mission:STS 82 Date: 13 February 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 42 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Astronauts Mark Lee and Steve Smith worked throughout the night in the Orbiter's cargo bay, conducting a spacewalk lasting six hours and 42 minutes to upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope, which now contains new science instruments for an expanded view of the universe.

The first spacewalk of the second servicing mission of the Telescope (HST SM-02) began at 22:34 Central time Thursday night, February 13, when Lee and Smith switched their spacesuits over to battery power. The spacewalk was slightly delayed to enable ground controllers to assess the unexpected movement of one of Hubble's solar arrays, which slewed from a horizontal to a vertical position as the Orbiter's airlock was depressurized. The motion was created by an apparent gust of air from the airlock, but caused no damage to the array which was repositioned horizontally.

Once outside, the spacewalkers went right to work, opening the aft shroud doors on Hubble to remove the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). The telephone-booth sized instruments slid out of their compartments and were replaced by two brand new instruments, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). STIS was installed in Hubble shortly before 1 a.m., followed almost two hours later by the NICMOS. Payload controllers send commands to check the health of the two instruments, which were declared alive and well and ready for calibration over the next several weeks.

The astronauts noted that yellow paint was flaking off HST handrails, raising the possibility that they might contaminate its delicate inner workings.

The aft shroud doors were finally closed as Lee and Smith stowed the old science gear in protective containers for the trip back to Earth. With their work successfully completed, they returned to the Orbiter's airlock at 5:17 to wrap up the first of four planned excursions into the Shuttle's cargo bay.

Adapted from: STS-82 MCC Status Report #07 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 124.
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EVA #150
Mission: STS 82 Date: 14 February 1997 Duration: 7 hr. 27 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Early on Saturday, February 15, astronauts Greg Harbaugh and Joe Tanner completed a 7 hour, 27 minute spacewalk to replace and install several new engineering components in the Hubble Space Telescope.

The spacewalkers have started the second spacewalk of the flight at 21:25 Central time, almost one hour ahead of schedule. They went right to work, replacing a degraded Fine Guidance Sensor and a failed Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with new spares. The new recorder could hold ten times as much data as the original 1970s-vintage unit. Payload controllers verified that the new Fine Guidance Sensor and the new tape recorder were healthy and ready to support the telescope's scientific efforts. The astronauts also installed a new unit known as the Optical Control Electronics Enhancement Kit, which will further increase the capability of the new Fine Guidance Sensor.

During the spacewalk, the astronauts and flight controllers took note of cracking and wear incurred by thermal insulation which protects several areas of the telescope. The part of the telescope which is in the direction of travel and always exposed to the sun has experienced slight cracks and delamination during almost seven years of time on orbit. Flight controllers and Hubble project managers are evaluating whether some repair work might be performed to certain portions of the telescope's insulation during the final spacewalks of the flight.

Adapted from: STS-82 MCC Status Report #09 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 124-125.
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EVA #151
Mission: STS 82 Date: 15 February 1997 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: Space Shuttle
On Sunday, February 16, astronauts Mark Lee and Steve Smith completed a 7 hour 11 minute spacewalk to replace various components on the telescope.

The third spacewalk began at 20:53 Central time Saturday evening. The spacewalkers  removed and replaced a Data Interface Unit which provides command and data interfaces between Hubble's data management system and other subsystems.  They also replaced an old reel-to-reel style Engineering and Science Tape Recorder with a new digital Solid State Recorder (SSR) that will allow simultaneous recording and playback of data

The final task for the spacewalekrs was the changeout of one of four Reaction Wheel Assembly units that use spin momentum to move the telescope toward a target and maintain it in a stable position. All of the new components are reported to be in excellent condition.

(Mission managers the decided to add a fifth spacewalk to refurbish the Hubble Space Telescope to allowflight controllers and the astronauts time to repair tattered thermal insulation on the12-ton observatory.)

Adapted from: STS-82 MCC Status Report #11 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 124-125.
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EVA #152
Mission: STS 82 Date: 16 Februry 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 34 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Following the completion of a 6 hour, 34 minute spacewalk by astronauts Greg Harbaugh and Joe Tanner early on Monday, February 17, the replacement and installation of all the science and engineering components for the Hubble Space Telescope have been completed.

The spacewalkers began their second spacewalk and the fourth of the mission by emerging from the Orbiter's airlock at 21:45 Central time Sunday night. Their first task was the replacement of a Solar Array Drive Electronics package which is used to control the positioning of Hubble's solar arrays. Next, they ventured to the top of the telescope - some 18 metres “above” the payload bay - where they replaced covers over Hubble's magnetometers, which are used to sense the telescope's position in relation to the Earth through data acquired from the Earth's magnetic field. They then placed thermal blankets of multi-layer material over two areas of degraded insulation around the light shield portion of the telescope just below the top of the astronomical observatory. The astronauts had trained for the repair work before the flight in the event such repairs would be needed.

Harbaugh and Tanner returned to Discovery's airlock at 4:19, bringing the total spacewalking time for the mission to 27 hours and 54 minutes over the past four days.

Adapted from: STS-82 MCC Status Report #13 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 126.
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EVA #153
Mission: STS 82 Date: 17 February 1997 Duration: 5 hr. 17 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Early Tuesday, February 18, astronauts Mark Lee and Steve Smith completed a 5 hour, 17 minute spacewalk - the fifth spacewalk conducted over the past five days - to complete the servicing and refurbishment of the Hubble Space Telescope.

They attached several thermal insulation blankets to three equipment compartments at the top of the Support Systems Module section of Hubble which contain key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages.  Following the completion of that work, Lee and Smith briefly returned to the airlock while flight controllers evaluated a possible glitch with one of four Reaction Wheel Assembly units in Hubble used to maneuver the telescope for its scientific observations. After determining that further analysis of the Reaction Wheel Assembly would be required, the astronauts were directed to close out their spacewalk and reentered the airlock for the final time at 2:32 a.m. 

(A spare Reaction Wheel Assembly was available aboard Discovery for a swapout during an additional spacewalk had it been necessary, but a few hours later, after further analysis, payload controllers reported that the Reaction Wheel Assembly was in excellent shape and operating at the proper speed.)

In all, a total of 33 hours and 11 minutes were logged during the five spacewalks to service and refurbish Hubble, about two hours shy of the time recorded during the five spacewalks for the first servicing mission more than three years ago.

Adapted from: STS-82 MCC Status Report #15 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 126.
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EVA #154
Mission: Mir EO-23 (Soyuz TM-25) Date: 29 April 1997 Duration:  4 hr. 57 min. Program: Mir
The first spacewalk for Mir Expedition 24 and a NASA astronaut was successful and without a glich. Vasili Tsibliyev and Mike Linenger opened the hatch of Kvant-2’s airlock on 29 April at 5:10 UT and closed it at 10:08 UT. (Duration: 4 hr. 57 min. and 10 sec.) The fact tht the EVA was much shorter than the planned 5 hr. 30 min. was an indication that the spacewalkers had accomplished their tasks well within the duration which had been foreseen. 

These tasks consisted of the installation of the Optical Properties Monitor at the outer surface of the Kristall’s docking compartment. Having done this, Tsibliev and Linenger moved by the crane Strela to the Kvant-2 where they retrieved the U.S. experiments Partial Impact Experiment and Mir Sample Experiment. These experiments will be brought back to earth by STS 84. The last task was to install on Kvant-2 the Benton Radiation Dosimeter. This instrument will measure the intensity of the radiation between 51.6 deg. North and South. 

Spacewalekrs worked with tranquillizing music in the background. They had a lot of fun and acted fully relaxed. The EVA was successful and they did not meet any problems.  (After returning inside Mir, Linenger described his feelings during the EVA in an email letter to his son: “You are… on a cliff. Crawling, slithering, gripping, reaching… the whole cliff is falling and you are on it… it is difficult to discount the feeling that you are moving away, detached. In the midst of all this, you carry out your work calmly, methodically. You snap a picture or two, and below notice the Straits of Gibraltar…”)

A new type of the Orlan DMA spacesuit was used for the first time and Tsibliyev reported his satisfaction about the improvements. He told that his good experience with this spacesuit during trainings in the hydrolab has been now proven in practice. The suit is very flexible, especially the gloves are very good: it is much easier to use its fingers. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 357, 29 April 1997 & David S. F. Portree and Robert C. Treviño, Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series #7, October 1997, p. 127-129.
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EVA #155
Mission: Mir EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 22 August 1997 Duration: 3 hr. 22 min. Program: Mir
An Internal spacewalk (IVA) by Mir’s Expedition 24 cosmonauts Analoty Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov was accomplished on August 22 from 11:14 to 14:30 UT. Some minor technical irregularities caused a delay of more than 2 hours. 

At 10:15 UT, the pressure in the airlock was 50 mm, but the pressure in Vinogradov space suit decreased due to a leak in his left glove. The crew immediately repressurized the airlock, and Vinogradov could put on a spare glove. At 11:14, the hatch to Spektr had been opened. 

Later on, all went well and Solovyov had joined Vinogradov inside the module. Vinogradov had already connected cables at the connectors of the new hatch and, except for a single cable, he did not met problems. The spacewalkers then inspected the interior of Spektr and retrieved a lot of unspecified items from there. During these activities, they consulted Mike Foale (who stay inside Mir). Vinogradov reported that he saw ventilators and pumps which were still working. He and Solovyov did not find traces of exploded monitors or test-tubes. They did not succeed in finding places where the hull of Spektr had been penetrated.

At last, they left the Spektr to prepare the closure of the hatch. Foale, keeping a logbook, reported that the hatch had been closed at 14:30. In a short statement, he expressed his admiration for the achievements of his crewmates and those on earth who had been working on this operation. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 380, 25 August 1997.
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EVA #156
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 6 September 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 00 min. Program: Mir
The second spacewalk for Mir’s Expedition 24 began on September 6 at 1:07 (hatch open) and ended at 7:07 UT (hatch closed). Everything went well. 

Directed by the old hand Analoty Solovyov (this was his 10th EVA), Mike Foale did all what he was supposed to do. His main job was the operation of the Strela, the crane to transport Solovyov to Spektr. Regularly instructed by Solovyov, he did this in a perfect way. Vinogradov observed the spacewalkers from inside Mir, helped them with advices and made images using video and other cameras.

The inspection of the outer surface of Spektr lasted longer than planned. Solovyov reported about the damages suffered by Spektr. One solar panel and some radiators were severely damaged. Support struts were broken or buckled. He did not find holes or punctures. The planned installation of a cap for the outlet valve for a Vozdukh carbon dioxyde scrubber on the Mor core module has been put back until another EVA. 

During the EVA, everybody was in a good mood. Although Solovyov had a difficult task to perform, even now and then, his gasping could be heard, he was fully in control of the situation. Before entering the airlock, Foale had dismantled an American radiation dosimeter for retrieval. 

At about 7:02 UT, both spacewalkers entered the airlock and, at 7:04, Foale got orders to close the hatch. Initially, the hatch could not be closed, but after using some extra effort, he could report (at 7:07) that he had succeeded. Solovyov confirmed this after seeing an indicator showing the sign 'hatch closed'.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 382, 6 September 1997.
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EVA #157
Mission: STS 86 Date: 1 October 1997 Duration: 5 hr. 01 min. Program: Space Shuttle
For the third time this year, a U.S. astronaut and a Russian cosmonaut walked and worked in space together, on October 1, retrieving scientific experiments from the Mir’s Docking Module while leaving a device behind for future repair work on the damaged Spektr module
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Astronaut Scott Parazynski and cosmonaut Vladimir Titov spent 5 hours and one minute in the Shuttle’s cargo bay and at the Docking Module itself, collecting four suitcase-size packages called MEEPS, the Mir Environmental Effects Payloads, which were left outside the Mir by another pair of Shuttle spacewalkers a year and a half ago to collect data on how the space environment affects an orbiting space station.

They floated out of a hatch on Atlantis’ tunnel adapter shortly after placing their spacesuits on battery power at 12:29 Central time. Working right on the timeline after recovering the MEEPS, they affixed a 55-kg instrument called a Solar Array Cap to the Docking Module for future use by Russian cosmonauts to seal off a suspected breach in the hull of the Spektr Module which was depressurized in the June 25th collision of a Progress resupply ship with the Mir. The most likely location of the breach is underneath the Spektr’s damaged solar array. If Russian flight controllers confirm that suspicion, the cap could be used like a hermetic seal for Spektr to allow additional repair work to be conducted.

Parazynski and Titov wrapped up their work by testing several components of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) jetpacks they wore which are designed to enable spacewalkers to propel themselves back to safe haven in the Shuttle’s payload bay if they become untethered while working. The pair ended their spacewalk at 17:30 Central time as they repressurized Atlantis’ airlock to complete the 39th spacewalk in Shuttle program history. It was the fourth spacewalk for the veteran Titov, who conducted three other spacewalks in 1988 as Commander of the Mir. It was Parazynski’s first spacewalk. It was the first time a non-American had conducted a spacewalk from an American spacecraft in U.S. space history.

Adapted from: STS-86 MCC Status Report # 13.
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EVA #158
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 20 October 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 38 min. Program: Mir
An Internal spacewalk (IVA) occurred on October 20 for Mir Expedition 24 crewmembers. Opening of the hatch occured 45 minutes later than planned, at 9:40 UT. The delay was caused by the fact that it took longer to put on the Orlan-DMA spacesuits and a valve to one of the modulesfailed to close. 

Pavel Vinogradov was the first to enter the Spektr module, followed by Analoty Solovyov who supported him and gave him instructions about his movements and what he had to do. The cosmonauts were surprised by the chaos they found inside Spektr. A lot of goods was floating around: seven bags with experiments and personal belongings of Foale, a bicycle, some covers or lids, one of them belonging to the refrigerator, loose panels, the docking device of the Spektr and a lot of dangling cables. Vinogradov had to be very careful not to get entangled in cables or structures. Solovyov told Vinogradov what he saw and instructed him how to restore order and where to stow away and fasten the goods. 

At last, the cosmonauts began to execute their main task: connecting 3 cables 
between the servo-motors of the solar panels with contacts on the vacuum plate between Spektr and the Mir’s transition section. The task was very difficult but, after consuming a lot of time, Vinogradov managed to connect all three of them. Enormous difficulties was met during the last stage of the work: connecting the 3 cables with the contacts of the vacuum plate.

The stiff, unwilling cables had to be attached firmly to those contacts. To make this possible, Vinogradov used a spanner, manufactured for this operation and recently delivered to the station. The cables regularly popped out. Finally, Vinogradov attached and fastened 2 of the 3 cables, but the third one was so recalcitrant that, after struggling with it for almost 90 minutes, Vinogradov did not succeed. He tried to this with the spanner and even took a long screwdriver to try to reach the bolt and fasten it. The length of the spanner was too short to use while holding it with a spacesuit glove. Later, on Solovyov reported, a second imperfection of this spanner: the coating at the inside of the head was too smooth to get a firm grip on the bolt. 

At 15:24 UT, Mission Control told Solovyov that in 15 minutes, the limit of 6 hours (the guaranteed endurance of the spacesuits) would be reached. If the cosmonauts preferred to continue the 'struggle, they could do this using the emergency oxygen supply. Their eagerness to accomplish the full task was so strong that they decided to go on. After 38 minutes, they returned to the Mir's transition section and closed the hatch, leaving the third cable dangling (and possibly laughing) behind. 

During those 38 minutes, there was no communication between Mir and Mission Control and so controllers did not know what had happened. Great relief when the cosmonauts could be heard again. But they almost could not speak and breathed heavily. They were very disappointed about that third cable. Nevertheless. Mission Control heartily congratulated the spacewalkers with the partial success. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 391, 22 October 1997.
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EVA #159
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 3 November 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 04 min. Program: Mir
The fourth spacewalk for Mir’s Expedition 24 lasted from 3:32:30 (opening hatch) until 09:37 UT (closing hatch), with a duration of 6 hr. 4 min. The EVA began late due to a failure in a telemetry unit of Analoty Solovyov's spacesuit. 

After the opening of the hatch, Pavel Vinogradov launched the Sputnik 40 minisatellite. Then, the spacewalkers dismantled the old solar array on Kvant-1, which originally was installed on Kristall. They parked it at the outside of the Mir core module. The clamps between the segments of the solar array had to be opened electrically from a keyboard inside Mir; David Wolf, who got instructions from Solovyov, took care of this task. He also made video and photo of his colleagues.

Further, Solovyov and Vinogradov installed a cap at the outside of the Mir core module in order to close an outlet for a new Vozdukh carbon-dioxyde scrubber. Now, this outlet has been sealed off, the crew can install a valve on the inside of the core module where a new Vozdukh will be installed. Through that valve, the Vozdukh can blow CO2 and water vapour into space. This valve will be installed on November 4. If the crew succeed, they will be able to remove the cap from the outer surface during the next EVA, schedule for November 6.

After the spacewalkers returned into the the airlock, It took a long time before they could put off their spacesuits. Something made it impossible to pressurize the airlock. The cosmonauts had to open the hatch again to see whether something was wrong with the gasket of the outer ring of the hatch. They saw nothing and they decided to use the nearest compartment (the instrument and scientific compartment) as airlock. (Solovyov did this before: in 1990 due to a damage of the hatch.)

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 402, 3 November 1997 & Mir News. No. 402, 6 November 1997.
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EVA #160
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 6 November 1997 Duration: 6 hr. 12 min. Program: Mir
Although some sealing problems occurred at the end of the previous EVA, Russian controllers decided not to postponed the Mir Expedition 24's fifth EVA. However, the spacewalkers will use the Instrument and Scientifice Compartment (ISC) as an airlock.

The crew had to work hard during the days between the 4th and 5th EVAs. They had to study and train for the new procedure, to repair the telemetry unit of Solovyov's spacesuit, to install a valve inside Mir’s core module for the installation of a second Vozdukh carbon dioxyde scrubber, and to prepare themselves for the spacewalk. 

During the depress of the ISC and Mir’s airlock, the cosmonauts tried to discover the cause of the pressure failure. The EVA hatch swung open on November 6 at 0:12.39 and was closed at 6:24:46 UT.

Dave Wolf stayed inside Mir and he took care for the camera work and the communications. He gave the commands to establish a video-link via Altair-2 and he pushed the controls of the electric remote control during the deployment of the new installed solar array.

The first activity of Analoty Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov was to transfer the new solar array from Kristall’s docking compartment to Kvant-1. They installed it over there and connected the cables. They tried to unfold the panel, but part of the clamps between some sectors did not react to commands given by Wolf. The spacewalkers had thus to do some push and pull work and this helped. The new solar battery can now be inserted into the Power Supply System of the station. 

After removing the cap from the outlet for the Vozdukh valve, which they had installed during the 4th EVA, the spacewalkers returned to the airlock. Vinogradov inspected the rubber gasket on the outer ring of the hatch and he discovered some minor iniquities. 

While closing the hatch, he stated that the mechanism did not react smoothly. The indicator 'hatch closed' was positive. The crew closed the hatch between the Mir’s airlock and the ISC, and used this compartment as airlock. The pressure in the Mir’s airlock was 209 mm of Mercury. In two days, the crew will check whether this pressure decreased or not. (Following the EVA, the pressure in the rest of the space sttion was 637 mm of Mercury.)

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 402, 6 November 1997.
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EVA #161
Mission: STS 87 Date: 24 November 1997 Duration: 7 hr. 43 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Astronaut Winston Scott and Takao Doi began their spacewalk at 18:02 CST Monday, November 25, and quickly moved into position on a support structure in Columbia’s payload bay as Commander Kevin Kregel piloted the Shuttle towards the Spartan solar satellite. After Kregel maneuvered Columbia into close proximity with Spartan, the spacewalker captured it by hand at 20:09. 

The two men then carefully lowered Spartan down onto its support structure, where it was latched in place at 21:23. With the retrieval of Spartan completed, Scott and Doi turned their efforts towards setting up and testing a crane device which will be used to move large Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) during the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station.

After the crane was positioned in its holder on the port side of the payload bay, Doi conducted evaluation tests of the crane operating characteristics while Scott removed a large battery unit and its carrier device located on the starboard wall. The 200-kg battery/carrier unit was then placed on the end of the crane to evaluate the unit’s ability to move with a large mass attached to it.

The spacewalkers then stowed the battery unit and the crane device. Towards the end of their spacewalk, Doi took a few moments to send a message home in Japanese just before re-entering Columbia’s airlock. After Scott joined him, the external hatch was closed and the airlock was repressurized, bringing to an end a 7-hour, 43-minute spacewalk at 1:45 CST. 

Including the spacewalk he did during a Shuttle mission in January 1996, Scott now has 14 hours, 36 minutes of spacewalking time. Doi, who is on his first spaceflight, has the distinction of being the first Japanese person to perform a spacewalk.

Adapted from: STS-87 MCC Status Report #12.
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EVA #162
Mission: STS 87 Date: 3 December 1997 Duration: 5 hr. 00 min. Program: Space Shuttle
A bonus excursion into Columbia’s payload bay was conducted on Wednesday, December 3, to complete tasks originally planned for the mission’s first spacewalk. 

Astronauts Winston Scott and Takao Doi switched their suits to battery power at 3:09 CST, signalling the start of their second spacewalk planned to once again test a manual crane that will eventually make its way to the International Space Station. The crane is designed to help in moving components and tools more easily around the outside of the station. The spacewalk included repeating part of the crane operations, but instead of the large simulated battery for the station, the astronauts worked with a smaller orbital replacement unit simulator which represents small objects it will have to move during station assembly.

The two astronauts also watched as pilot Steve Lindsey remotely piloted a unique, beachball-sized camera around the payload bay to demonstrate its usefulness in providing an extra set of ‘eyes’ to perform remote inspections of the shuttle or station. The tests of the Aercam Sprint, the free-flying video camera, were controlled by Lindsey via a joystick on Columbia’s aft flight deck during the spacewalk. Future versions of the unit will have an autonomous capability to fly to a designated area and perform surveys.

The four-hour, fifty-nine-minute, forty-second spacewalk ended at 8:09. Combined with the first spacewalk duration of 7 hours, 43 minutes, Scott and Doi completed 12 hours and 44 minutes outside Columbia’s crew cabin during the mission. This mission’s two spacewalks are the first EVAs ever performed from Columbia, which has been mostly used as a carrier for Spacelab missions that have not included spacewalks.

Adapted from:  STS-87 MCC Status Report #28.
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EVA #163
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 9 January 1998 Duration: 3 hr. 06 min. Program: Mir
The sixth spacewalk for Mir’s Expedition 24 started on January 8, at 23:08 and ended on January 9 at 2:14 UT. The times were those of the opening an closing of the outer hatch of Mir's Module-D’s airlock. The Russians confirmed the duration: 3 hr. 6 min. 

At the outset, it was clear that the plan of work had been changed. Radio eschange during previous days revealed that it was difficult for Analoty Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov to command the outer hatch of Mir, not knowing what exactly was wrong. They now had orders not to try to repair the hatch, but only to inspect and film the exit port and the hatch. It took a long time beforeMir's airlock was depressurized and the outer hatch could be opened. 

Almost immediately, Vinogradov discovered what was wrong: one of the many locks of the hatch-door was in a bad shape. The reparation of this lock can be accomplished without the need for an extra EVA. He also said that only 5 of 10 locks had been used. So probably the hatch has enough reserve locks to secure a safe airseal. Inspection of the packing of the exit port did not reveal any anomalies. 

After this inspection, the cosmonauts used one of the Strela cranes to go to the outer surface of the docking compartment at Module-T from where they dismantled the American optical monitoring experiment for retrieval. They also checked the connections of some antenna's before returning to the airlock. 

Following the EVA, the crew, as well as ground experts, were very satified about the good results of this operation. The pressure in repressurized and sealed airlock remained stable at 640 mm of Mercury. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 402, 9 January 1998.
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EVA #164
Mission: MIr EO-24 Soyuz TM-26) Date: 14 January 1998 Duration: 3 hr. 53 min. Program: Mir
The seventh spacewalk of Mir’s Expedition 24, by Analoty Solovyov and David Wolf, took place on 14-15 January, from 21:12 to 1:04 UT. (Duration : 3 hr. 52 min.) These times were those of the opening and closuring of the outer hatch 

Solovyov and Wolf had to put on their spacesuits in the Mir’s Instrument-and scientific compartment (ISC) and to use this compartment for vacuuming. After the previous EVA, the outer hatch of the Mir’s airlock was still leaking and so the spacewalkers had to begin the operation in the ISC. Two and a half hours before the planned beginning of the EVA, they already were in that compartment. When Solovyov was in the Mir airlock and ready to open the outer hatch, he met problems: unbolting the defective lock of that hatch lasted longer than expected and, at 21:12 (32 minutes behind schedule), he could finally open the hatch. 

The problems with the hatch made Mission Control decide to change the working schedule for the operation. The inspection with the American photo-reflectometer was restricted to the outer surface of Kvant-2 as that of the Mir’s core module was cancelled. In that way, Solovyov got extra time to work on the defective bolting of the outer hatch. 

Also, the spacewalkers installed a camera for the observation of their activities. The images were transmitted to Vinogradov, who was inside Mir to assist and observe his comrades. Vinogradov could see the images on a screen and now and then, he downlinked these images via Altair-2. The performance of that camera did not fully come up to the expectations due to some 'communication' problems. 

Not all went as wished with the spectrometer. The instrument had to be installed temporarily at different locations, and sometimes it was difficult to do this due to a lack of space between handrails and the surface. Handling the instrument and the reading of data were also very difficult. 

In fact, the main purposes of this EVA were not the experiments with the spectrometer and the camera. The most important was that Wolf made this EVA. The Americans have a great interest that their astronauts gather EVA experience in space station circumstances. Such experience will be valuable for the construction of the Intenational Space Station. Besides: the Russians as well as the Americans indulged Wolf in his desire to make an EVA for he, like his predecessors, was yearning for this adventure. 

Solovyov's task to guide and coach Wolf was far from easy. Wolf had not much training in this field. Solovyov had to keep a sharp watch on Wolf to protect him from mistakes and irresponsible activities. He told Wolf to maintain his concentration: “Look out. Do not damage that sensor. Keep your movements under control. If you want to say something, keep it short, and even: 'Dave, keep quiet!'” Wolf also got orders not to speak English. Solovyov also urged him only to touch things or to take action when instructed to do so. But there was also joy: Vinogradov suggested Wolf to enjoy the sight of the Earth. Wolf told that he saw cities like Cairo, Tel Aviv, the Mediterranean and other beaches, and the emirates. Vinogradov told him that they would have a good sight of Baykonur. 

A short time before 1:00 UT, the spacewalkers entered the air lock and Solovyov closed the hatch behind him at 1:04 UT. Before doing so, he inspected thoroughly the hatch and port, and found no anomalies. The rubber packingring was still in a good shape. 

After closing the hatch, Solovyov continued to work on the locks.  This was a time-consuming activity. When he had done all what he could, the cosmonauts used the Mir’s ISC for repressurizing and to take off their space suits. At 2:33, Solvyov closed the hatch between Mir’s airloc and the ISC. 

In conversations, Wolf expressed his satisfaction about the EVA. He stated that 'the person with the least esperience enormously enjoyed the EVA. It surprised him that he felt himself like a fish in the water: he had no orientation problems, all the time he knew where he was and what he was doing.  His predecessors sometimes had the impression that they were falling into open space, but Wolf did not have that experience. During these and other conversations, Solovyov and Vinogradov also were very positive about this EVA. 

For Solovyov, it was his 16th EVA (and last) spacewalk. It will last a long time before somebody else can beat this record.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 403, 16 January 1998.
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EVA #165
Mission: Mir EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 3 March 1998 Duration: 00 min. Program: Mir
Mir Expedition 25 first spacewalk was cancelled on March 3 due to the impossibility to open the hatch! After EVA preparations, Talgat Musabayev and Nikolai Budarin entered the airlock and tried to open the locks of the outer hatch. The opening of the hatch was planned for 1:30 UT but, by 2:32, the cosmonauts were still in the airlock as their attempts to open the hatch had failed. 

To open the hatch, the cosmonauts had to unlock 10 locks. They unlocked 9 of them, but the last one had been fixed so tightly that Budarin had to use extreme strength to do it. Doing this, he broke all three available spanners. The heads of the spanners broke off and floated away.

Immediately after getting in touch with Mission Control, Musabayev reported that thee last of the 10 locks hampered the continuation of the operation and that Budarin had broken all spanners. He told that the started repressurizing the airlock to enable them to take off their spacesuits. He added that this day was not a festive day at all.

When they were back in the Mir core module, the cosmonauts asked when they could make the next EVA. They said that it was possible to do that successfully if they had the right tools. If necessary, they were prepared to do this immediately. But Mission Control did not give permission and stated that the next EVA could be made after the delivery of new spanners with Progress M-38. 

Then Mission Control ordered Musabayev to prepare a video session for the next window via the Altair-2 relay satellite. Musabayev asked whether TsUP wished to see the hatch, which would be difficult to perform. Instead, Mission Control wished to see the broken spanners. During the TV session, Budarin showed the broken spanners and explained what had happened. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 411, 3 March 1998.
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EVA #166
Mission: MIr EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 1 April 1998 Duration: 6 hr. 40 min. Program: Mir
The first spacewalk of Mir Expedition 25 started 15 minutes later than planned, at 13:35 UT. Nikolai Budarin needed more time to open the locks of the hatch. Also considerably later than planned, the hatch closed behind Talgat Musabayev and Budarin at 20:15 UT. So a duration of 6 hr. and 40 min.

The cosmonauts worked energeticly. Musabayev observed Budarin, instructed him what to do and warned him if he moved too fast or came too close to obstacles. He also now and then spoke with Andy Thomas (who stays inside Mir) to tell him how and from where to make photos and video.

For their transport, Musabayev and Budarin used the Strela crane. The package and handrails which they had to install at the outside of the Spektr module had been placed outside Mir during one of the EVA's by Solovyov. The spacewalkers thus spoke about the “Solovyov package”. Unpacking, deploying and installing the handrails took much longer than was expected and so there was no time left for the reinforcement of the damaged solar panel of Spektr with a beam. They also had to install 2 foot restraints for future work at Spektr. They succeeded in stalling just one of those restraints.

At approximately 19:12, there was a gruesome event: Budarin called Musabayev, but he did not get a reaction. After a few minutes, the voice of Musabayev showed up again. He reported that he had accidentally switched off the power supply of his spacesuit; thus, he lost all functions: cooling, communication, ventilation, destilation, etc. After restoring the power supply, he reported sequently the good functioning of his systems. (“Whether this has been a April 1 prank or not is, I do not know”, noted observer Chris van den Berg who was listening communications during the EVA, “but it made my flesh creep.”) 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 415, 2 April 1998.
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EVA #167
Mission: MIr EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 6 April 1998 Duration: 4 hr. 23 min. Program: Mir
The second spacewalk of Mir's Expedition 25 took place on April 6, between 11:27 and 15:50 UT, by cosmonauts Talgat Musabayev and Nikolai Budarin (duration 4 hr. 23 min.)

The crew accomplished the main task: strengthening the lateral structure of the damaged solar panel on Module Spektr. They succeeded in fastening the 1.5 meters long splint. The cosmonauts had to use every effort and the work lasted longer than planned. They had to work under very unfavourable circumstances: due to a malfunction of a ground facility for the Altair-2 satellite, they did not have this satellite at their disposal and the quality of the communications via tracking stations was bad. 

There were two reasons to cut short the EVA: tired cosmonauts and unwarranted communication gaps. But the cosmonauts did not want to stop and Mission Control  badly needed an EVA which was 100% successful.

And then there emerged a third reason to stop: the roll (movement along the X- axis) of Mir  had to be adjusted to align the space station with the sun. This had to be done with the the external thruster in the Sofora mast (VDU). But the only person who could give the command for this operation - Andy Thomas - was not trained to do so. 

So, the spacewalkers got orders to quickly return to the airlock because they had to be on board to be able to take care of the attitude correction. 

The original plan foresaw works on the Rapana girder and the old VDU, works which was  postpone that until the third EVA. At the end of the EVA, it was clear that the cosmonauts were very tired, since they were breathing heavily and they could hardly speak. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News. No. 416, 7 April 1998.
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EVA #168
Mission: MIr EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 11 April 1998 Duration: 6 hr. 25 min. Program: Mir
The third spacewalk of Mir's Expedition 25 took place on April 11, from 9:55 ot 16:20 UT, with a duration of 6 hr. and 25 min. Everything went according to plan. The cosmonauts started the EVA with the utmost confidence and favourable circumstances since they could rely on Altair-2 relay satellite for communications. 

At 9:55, cosmonauts Nikolai Budarin and Talgat Musabayev opened the hatch and started the successful operation. They reached a positions not far from the Sofora girder. Musabayev continuously advised Budarin about his movements and how he had to steer the Strela boom, but also warned him for obstacles, for instance solar panels. 

A minor glitch was the bad performance of Budarins receiver, but he solved this problem by using his back-up system. Sometimes, the cosmonauts had to unwrap safety lines and cables, but this did not hamper the progress of the EVA. Their mood was excellent and they even had time to enjoy the good sight of the Sahara and other territories on Earth. 

At 12:25, it was clear that they almost achieved the main goal of the EVA: dismantling and pushing away the old VDU (the external thruster in the top of the Sofora boom). At 12:27, Musabayev told Andy Thomas (inside Mir) that he had to be ready to observe and film a very special event: the jettison into space of the VDU. “Don't go away during the next five minutes.” But it took somewhat longer before Mission Contrl gave permission for the actual push, as controllers had to be sure that all cables and safety lines were disconnected. Exactly at 12:35 UT, the permission was given and Musabayev told Thomas at 12.35.20: “We'll push it away: 1, 2, 3, 4. Do you see it moving away?” For a while, Thomas could see the jettisoned VDU, but he was not able to keep the VDU in sight somewhat longer. Musabayev did not like it and did not hide it verbally. (The VDU will decay, possibly in a year or so.)

The plan for this EVA foresaw a second launch. After removing for retrieval
an experiment (an indicator) from the Rapana structure, the spacewalkers had to dismantle the structure and dispatch it into space. But it later became clear that this plan had been cancelled. The cosmonauts also repaired an outlet valve of the Elektron oxygen generator on Kvant-1.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 417, 11 April 1998.
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EVA #169
Mission: Mir EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 17 April 1998 Duration: 6 hr. 32 min. Program: Mir
The fourth spacewalk of Mir’s Expedition 25 was an arduous, but successful EVA made on April 17 between 07.40.22 (opening hatch) and 14.12.30 UT (closing hatch) - a 6 hr. 32 minutes spacewalk. 

The schedule foresaw Hatch opening at 7h25. A few minutes later, Nikolai Budarin accomplished opening of the locks of the exit hatch, but then something went wrong with the transceivers of his spacesuit. Talgat Musabayev could see the moving lips of Budarin and even tried to determine what he was saying, but this is not the way to communicate during an EVA, So, if they would not be able to resolve the problem, the EVA had to be cancelled. But all went well: by switching from the main to the backup radio set and back, and by switching off and on, the contact with Budarin was fully restored. 

From this moment on, the operation proceeded according to plan. Musabayev used a new spacesuit and he had to accustom himself to the other gloves and sleeves. The transfer of Musabayev and the packages with equipment was done with the use of the Strela boom steered by Budarin. The operation started with the dismantling of two truss structures: the Rapana and the so-called third truss. This truss was folded up and installed on the outer surface of the Kvant-1 module. The original plan to jettison the Rapana into space was abandonned and this truss also was parked horizontally on the outer surface. (Obviously, the cosmonauts refrained from this launch to keep the Rapana available for future use.)

Then, they went to the Progress M-38 and unlocked the bolts which had been prevented the new VDU from autonomous operation. Further, the VDU was raised by telecommands from earth. It had to be inclined from Progress to an angle of 35 degrees. The cosmonauts had to help the VDU to reach that angle since the automatic regime did not function during the last few degrees. When the inclination reached 35 degrees, the cosmonauts secured the VDU in that starting point for their work during the fifth EVA. 

After the EVA, everybody was satisfied. The spacewalkers were tired. Musabayev said that their hands and wrists were very tired, but he added that this was quite normal and within the acceptable limits.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 418, 17 April 1998.
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EVA #170
Mission: MIr EO-25 (Soyuz TM-27) Date: 22 April 1998 Duration: 6 hr. 21 min. Program: Mir
At the start of the fifth spacewalk by Mir’s Expedition 25, on April 22, Nikolai Budarin started with the opening of the locks of the exit hatch at 5:34 UT, six minutes earlier than planned.

At 5:46, he, Talgat Musabayev and their instrument package were in open space. They closed the hatch again behind them at 11:55, so a duration of 6 hr. 21 min., somewhat longer than scheduled. All went extremely smooth without setbacks. It was clear that the men enjoyed their work. Now and then, Musabayev asked Andy Thomas (inside Mir) to make video images. Thomas stated that he felt himself like a real cameraman.   Budarin even instructed him how to change a water tank of the Elektron oxygen generator. 

The crew installed the new VDU in the top of the Sofora boom and connected the cables. Between 10:28 and 10:46, Musabayev reported the numbers of the cables he had connected. At 10:48, he told Mission Contrl that they had accomplished their tasks. There had been an order or request to do something else, but controllers told them to do this during a next EVA (so, possibly there will be a sixth one, for instance for the retrieval of experiments from outside.) 

Still in the airlock, Musabayev asked Thomas to rewind the videotape to the 
beginning to be ready to transmit images of the EVA to earth as soon as possible. They did so somewhat later. 

The success of the EVA has been confirmed by praising words of the Head of Mission Control, V.A. Solovyov, who is normally rather scarce with compliments. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News, No. 419, 22 April 1998.
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EVA #171
Mission: MIr EO-26 (Soyuz TM-28) Date: 15 september 1998 Duration: 30 min. Program: Mir
An Internal spacewalk (IVA) inside the module Spektr, by Mir Expedition 26's Gennady Padalka and Sergei Avdeyev, began on September 15 at 20:00 UT (opening hatches between MIr's transition section and the module). The estimated duration of the IVA was 3 hr., but already at 20:30 UT - after only 30 minutes - the cosmonauts closed the hatches behind them. 

The task during the IVA was relatively easy. The cosmonauts had to connect a few cables to an interface for the steering of solar battery number 3 of Spektr. However, the work was not limited to these 30 minutes, for an IVA requires a lot of preparations.  For instance, the crew had to prepare the transport ship Soyuz TM-28 for an eventual emergency departure. And after the IVA, the Soyuz had to be conserved again. 

Officially, it has been reported that experts are almost sure that the IVA was a success. On september 16, the crew will start to execute several tests. If these tests are positive and the solar panel can be aimed to the most effective solar angle the power supply of the complex will be much better than be before the IVA.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News, No. 439, 16 September 1998.
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EVA #172
Mission: Mir EO-26 (Soyuz TM-28) Date: 10-11 November 1998 Duration: 5 hr. 54 min. Program: Mir
The second spacewalk for Mir’s Expedition 26 began on November 10 at 19:24 UT (opening hatch) and finished on November 11, at 1:18 UT (closing exit hatch of Module-D). All went well. 

During this EVA, cosmonauts Gennedy Padalka and Sergei Avdeyev had to accomplish 17 tasks: the launch of the mini-sputnik Spoutnik-41 (which they immediately did when they entered open space), the installment of a number of experiments and the retrieval of mainly Russian experiments. Among the installed experiments was a French “meteorite trap'”, named Leonids and to catch fragments which are expected to pass in a few days. These will come from the dust cloud behingdthe comet Tempel-Tuttle.

For Padalka, this was the first 'real' EVA since he had already made an internal EVA inside the Spektr module.

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 446, 11 November 1998.
EVA #173
Mission: STS-88 Date: 7 December 1998 Duration: 7 hr. 21 min.  Program: Shuttle / ISS
The first U.S. segment of the International Space Station came to life Monday night, December 7, as the Unity module was activated for the first time. Activation followed the connection of electrical and data cables by astronauts Jerry Ross and Jim Newman during a 7-hour, 21-minute spacewalk. 

Working smoothly and ahead of schedule, Ross and Newman mated 40 cables and connectors running 23 meters from the Zarya control module to Unity as the 35-ton station towered over the cargo bay of the Orbiter Endeavour. 

The two veteran spacewalkers began their excursion at 16:10 Central time, quickly pressing ahead with the connection of crucial data and power cables between Zarya and Unity. They also installed handrails and other hardware that will help space walkers move around the station on upcoming assembly missions, completing all of the connections within three hours. At various times, robot arm operator Nancy Currie moved Ross and Newman around the station modules on the end of the shuttle's manipulator system to conduct their work. 

As Endeavour and the International Space Station passed over Russian ground stations, commands were sent from the Russian flight control team to activate a pair of Russian-American voltage converters, enabling power to flow from Zarya to Unity for the first time. International Space Station flight controllers in Houston saw Unity's systems come to life at 21:49, confirming perfect electrical continuity between the two modules. Unity's systems were then activated, including a pair of data relay boxes serving as the brain and nervous system for the U.S.-built component. Near the end of the space walk, Ross removed thermal covers from the relay boxes after Unity's heaters began to control the module's temperature. 

Then, Newman was raised on the robot arm to the Zarya module to take a close look at a pair of Russian rendezvous antennas that did not fully deploy following the module's launch on November 20. The so-called TORU system serves as a backup to the automatic Kurs system on Zarya, providing navigational data for spacecraft approaching the Russian component for docking. Russian flight controllers say the TORU antennas are emitting signal strength, but space station managers wanted additional engineering data so they can decide on a course of action for deploying the antennas. 

Shortly before the spacewalk ended, Ross broke the record for most cumulative extravehicular activity time by a U.S. astronaut of 29 hours and 41 minutes previously held by former astronaut Tom Akers during five spacewalks on STS-49 and STS-61. Ross, who completed his fifth space walk tonight, now has 30 hours and 8 minutes of time spent in the void of space.

Adapted from: STS-88 Mission Control Center Status Report #11
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EVA #174
Mission: STS-88 Date: 9 December 1998 Duration: 7 hr. 02 min Program: Shuttle / ISS
Endeavour's astronauts installed antennas for an International Space Station communications system and helped free a jammed antenna on the station's Russian module, achieving all the objectives planned for the seven-hour space walk. 

Jerry Ross and Jim Newman began the second of three planned spacewalks for the STS-88 mission at 14:33 Central time Wednesday, December 9, and immediately set out to install two boxy antennas on the side of the Unity module that will enable U.S. flight controllers to monitor that component's systems and provide basic videoconferencing for the first permanent occupants of the station in January 2000. The so-called "early" S-band communications system will be completed later today when the astronauts install hardware inside Unity. The system will provide more capability to retrieve data and telemetry from Unity, which otherwise would be available only as the new International Space Station passed over Russian ground stations. 

The spacewalkers pressed ahead with the removal of launch restraint pins on the four hatchways on the body of Unity to which additional station modules and truss structures will be mated on future assembly missions. They also installed a sunshade over Unity's two data relay boxes to ensure that they will be protected against harsh sunlight as the station circles the Earth. 

Near the end of the spacewalk, Newman was hoisted to the Zarya control module on the end of Endeavour's robot arm so that he could use a grappling hook to free a backup rendezvous system antenna. After nudging the antenna with the grappling device, the pole popped out to its fully extended position. The astronauts will attempt to free a duplicate antenna that is jammed on the other side of Zarya during their final space walk Saturday. 

Ross and Newman returned to Endeavour's external airlock and began to repressurize it at 21:35, completing a 7 hour, 2 minute excursion. So far, they have worked outside Endeavour a total of 14 hours and 23 minutes. This was the third space walk for Newman and the sixth for Ross, who now has spent 37 hours, 10 minutes in the void of space, a U.S. record. 

Adapted from: STS-88 Mission Control Center Status Report #15
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EVA #175
Mission: STS-88 Date: 12 December 1998 Duration: 6 hr. 59 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Endeavour's astronauts completed the first assembly work of the International Space Station on Saturday, December 12, securing tools, tethers and cables to the new outpost and freeing a second jammed antenna on Zarya during a 6-hour, 59-minute spacewalk. 

The third and final space walk of the flight by astronauts Jerry Ross and Jim Newman began at 14:33 Central time Saturday, December 12. Working close to the timeline, they accomplished all of the tasks planned for the excursion. The astronauts stowed a tool bag on the Unity connecting module and disconnected umbilicals used to drive the docking mechanisms that mated it with the Zarya control module last week. They also installed a handrail on Zarya for use by future spacewalkers, and made a detailed photographic survey of the station for review by engineers over the next several months. 

Standing at the end of the Shuttle's robot arm, Ross duplicated the accomplishment of Newman last Wednesday, freeing a jammed backup rendezvous system antenna on Zarya with a grappling hook. Ross found the antenna to be a bit stubborn but, after tapping it and nudging it several times, the antenna finally rolled out from its spool to the fully deployed position. 

Before returning to Endeavour's airlock, Ross and Newman also tested out jet-powered backpacks they wore for use in the unlikely event they could become untethered during station assembly work. The jet packs seemed to use a bit more nitrogen gas than had been planned, but flight controllers said the engineering objectives of the brief test were met.

In all, they spent 21 hours and 22 minutes outside Endeavour in the initial assembly of the station. Ross now has completed seven space walks totaling 44 hours and 9 minutes, more than any other American spacewalker. Newman moved into third place on the all-time U.S. space-walking list, with a total of 28 hours and 27 minutes on four excursions.

Adapted from: STS-88 Mission Control Center Status Report #21
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EVA #176
Mission: STS 96 Date: 29-30 May 1999 Duration: 7 hr. 55 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
STS-96 Astronauts Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry completed the second longest space walk in Shuttle history at 5:51 Central time Sunday, May 30, accomplishing all of the objectives mapped out for their excursion as well as a couple of unscheduled activities. 

Thirs space walk - the 45th in Space Shuttle history and the fourth of the International Space Station era - began at 21:56 Central time Saturday night, and concluded at 5:51 Sunday, lasting 7 hours, 55 minutes. The longest spacewalk was conducted by STS-49 astronauts Rick Heib, Pierre Thuot and Tom Akers, which lasted 8 hours, 29 minutes on 13-14 May 1992. 

During the spacewalk, Jernigan and Barry transferred and installed two cranes from the Shuttle's payload bay to locations on the outside of the station. They also installed two new portable foot restraints that will fit both American and Russian space boots, and attached three bags filled with tools and handrails that will be used during future assembly operations. Once those primary tasks were accomplished, they installed an insulating cover on a trunnion pin on the Unity module, documented painted surfaces on both the Unity and Zarya modules, and inspected one of two early communications system antennas on the Unity. 

Throughout the spacewalk, the spacewalkers were assisted by their crew mates as Ellen Ochoa operated the Shuttle's robot arm to maneuver Jernigan around Discovery's cargo bay. 

The excursion raised the total number of International Space Station era space walks to four, with the total time spent on construction activities now standing at 29 hours, 17 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-96, Mission Control Center Status Report # 08.
EVA #177
Mission: Mir EO-26/27 (Soyuz TM-29) Date: 16 April 1999 Duration: 6 hr. 19 min. Program: ISS
The first spacewalk for Mir’s Expedition 27, by commander Viktor Afanasyev and French cosmonaut Jean-Pierre Haignere will start on 16 April 1999 at 4:30 UT, when they open the outer hatch of the airlock of Module-D. The planned duration is 5 hours and 12 minutes. The cosmonauts will install experiments at the outer surface of the complex and retrieve experiments which had been been installed in the past from there. 
Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 459, 13 April 1999.
EVA #178
Mission: Mir EO-26/27 (Soyuz TM-29) Date: 23 July 1999 Duration: 6 hr. 07 min. Program: ISS
During the second spacewalk Mir’s Expedition 27, Viktor Afanasyev and Sergei Avdeyev 'walked' in open space and Haignere stayed inside to lend assistance, act as a liaison between Mission Control and his comrades outside and to make video and photos. 

The exit hatch of the Mir airlock was opened 9 minutes before the scheduled time. So, for a while, some profit of time, but all activities during the EVA lasted longer than planned and so did the EVA. The hatch swung open at 11:06 and was closed behind the cosmonauts at 17:13 UT, for a duration of 6 hr. and 7 minutes, 28 minutes longer than had been foreseen in the original plan. 

The number of tasks was quite substantial and not all of them could be accomplished. One item had been added to the schedule, i.e. the search for an air-leakage in the hull of the module Kvant-2. We still remember how difficult it was to find the leakage in the hull of Spektr during EVA and also with the help of gaseous dyemarkers for observations from departing Shuttles, and so it is not difficult to conclude that this task would be a mission impossible. The fact that the cosmonauts at least had to give it a try clearly indicates that specialists at Mission Control consider the leakage, though very small, to be a serious problem. Ultimately, they did not find the leakage. 

A lot of time was consumed during attempts to deploy a new system for the deployment of antennae for satellites. This antenna was a Russian-Georgean project. The parabolic reflector antenna had to be installed at the Sofora girder and deployed with a remote control. Afanasyev was able to open the antenna for 80 or 90%. During the following EVA, the cosmonauts will try to achieve 100%. If they do not succeed, the antenna will be get rid of. 

During the EVA, the cosmonauts had to retrieve some experiments from the outer surface. They succeeded with the experiments Exobiology and Dvikon. Exobiology is a study to determine the possibility for survival in open space of organic samples wrapped up in meteorite-like materials. Dvikon is a study to determine and measure the effects ot the exhaust of Mir's engines on materials nearby. Due to lack of time, they did not try to retrieve the experiment Spica. 

The EVA ended in a great hurry due to a failure of the thermo-regulation in the  spacesuit of Afanasyev. A filter was overheated. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 463, 24 July 1999.
EVA #179
Mission: Mir EO-26/27 (Soyuz TM-29) Date: 28 July 1999 Duration: 5 hr. 22 min. Program: ISS
The third spacewalk of Mir’s Expedition 27 was made by Viktor Afanasyev and Sergei Avdeyev on July 28, from 9:37 (opening hatch) until 14:59 UT (closure hatch), so 5 hr. and 22 minutes. The simple fact that the EVA could be made within the planned 5 hr and 30 minuters was an indication that all went very well. 

The first task was to resume the attempts to achieve the full deployment of the Georgian-Russian reflector antenna. This was a success. The enormous antenna, a little bit looking like an ellipse, has a diameter between 6.4 and 5.2 metres. The experiment was just an engineering operation to test a new system for the antenna deployment by remote control, but not to use the antenna for communication purposes. In the future, this system has to be implemented for antennae used on navigation satellites. As soon as everybody was convinced that the system was able to be used flawlessly, the antenna was disconnected and pushed away for a short autonomous flight in space. Not without showing some pride, the Georgean specialists stated that this was the launch of the 1st Georgian sputnik. 

The smooth course of this operation enabled the Russians to perform a lot of still awaiting tasks. They installed the experiments Indicator and Sprut-4 and changed the cassettes of the Migmas ione spectrometer. They also retrieved some experiments from the outside of Mir, i.e. the Danko-M and the Ekran-D frame. 

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, Mir News No. 480, 29 July 1999.
EVA #180
Mission: STS 103 Date: 22 December 1999 Duration: 8 hr. 15 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Discovery astronauts completed the two highest priority tasks of their Hubble Space Telescope servicing Wednesday, December 22, with a space walk that was the second longest in history. Astronauts Steve Smith and John Grunsfeld installed six new gyroscopes and six Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kits in the telescope during their 8 hour, 15 minute spacewalk. 

Working deliberately, Smith and Grunsfeld replaced three Rate Sensor Units, each containing two gyroscopes. Four of Hubble’s gyroscopes had failed, making the telescope unable to point itself precisely enough to do science since 13 November 1999. At least three operable gyroscopes are needed to point the telescope with the accuracy required to track its astronomical targets. 

The spacewalkers also installed Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kits on wiring from Hubble’s solar arrays to each of its six batteries. The kits are designed to improve control of the charging of the space telescope’s 10-year-old batteries. 

With Hubble latched upright in the payload bay, Smith and Grunsfeld completed all major tasks scheduled for the first of three spacewalks on three consecutive days. A few minor objectives, including applying lubricant to the door of one of the telescope’s bays and taking close-up photos of the Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kits, were left undone. Flight and telescope controllers decided to cancel the photography job and schedule the 10-minute lubrication job for Thursday’s space walk. The duration of the spacewalk was second only to the 8 hour, 29 minute spacewalk from Endeavour on STS-49 in May 1992. 

A few minor problems helped account for the length of the spacewalk. One of the old gyroscope-containing Rate Sensor Units was a tight fit in the box designed to protect it on its return to Earth, though eventually it was placed inside and the lid closed. Another involved opening valves and removing caps on the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, in preparation for restoring it to operation during the next Hubble Servicing mission. That task too eventually was completed. 

All in all, flight and telescope controllers were delighted with the accomplishments of the day.

Adapted from: STS-103, Mission Control Center  Status Report # 07.
EVA #181
Mission: STS 103 Date: 23 December 1999 Duration: 8 hr. 10 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The Hubble Space Telescope received a new advanced computer Thursday, December 23, from spacewalking Discovery astronauts Mike Foale and Claude Nicollier. Their 8-hour, 10-minute spacewalk, the third longest in history, also saw replacement of a 250-kg fine guidance sensor. 

Flight controllers said all major activities of the spacewalk, the second of three on consecutive days of Discovery’s space telescope repair and improvement mission, had been accomplished. Controllers reported that power was reaching both of the new pieces of equipment. 

“The brains of Hubble have been replaced,” said John Grunsfeld, who worked Thursday in Discovery’s cabin with the spacewalking crew members outside. About 30 minutes later, Hubble began thinking with those new brains. At an evening mission status briefing, John Campbell, Hubble Space Telescope program manager, said the functional checkout of the new computer showed it was functioning well. Checkout of the Fine Guidance Sensor, is continuing. 

The length of Thursday’s spacewalk made it the third longest in history, behind only the 8-hour, 15-minute effort on Wednesday by Steve Smith and Grunsfeld and an 8-hour, 29-minute space walk by three Endeavor astronauts on STS-49 on its Intelsat rescue mission in May 1992. 

Adapted from: STS-103, Mission Control Center Status Report # 09.
EVA #182
Mission: STS 103 Date: 24 December 1999 Duration: 8 hr. 08 min. Program: Space Shuttle
Discovery astronauts completed their third and final space walk Friday evening, December 24, replacing a failed radio transmitter and installing a new solid state recorder. After the successful completion of those tasks, Lead Flight Director Linda Ham announced that the STS-103 mission had met all criteria for complete success.

Astronauts Steve Smith and John Grunsfeld installed a transmitter that sends scientific data from Hubble to the ground. The transmitter replaced one that failed in 1998. A second transmitter had successfully carried the load without any disruption to Hubble scientific operations. Since the transmitters are considered very reliable, they were not designed to be replaced in orbit and special tools were developed to make the job easier. 

The spacewalkers also installed a solid state digital recorder, replacing an older mechanical reel-to-reel recorder version. The digital Solid State Recorder provides more than 10 times the storage capacity of the old unit. They also applied new insulation on two equipment bay doors. Both the transmitter and the recorder checked out normally on early tests by telescope controllers. 

Friday's space walk lasted 8 hours and 8 minutes, ending at 21:25, making it the fourth longest in history. Part of the reason for the length of the spacewalk was difficulty in hooking Grunsfeld’s suit up to orbiter power after he had returned to Discovery’s airlock. This space walk brings the total time of STS-103 extravehicular activity to 24 hours, 33 minutes. This mission's three space walks bring the total amount of time spent servicing Hubble to 93 hours, 13 minutes. Space Shuttle Program spacewalks now total 317 hours, 3 minutes. And Steve Smith now is the astronaut with the second longest combined space walk time, with 35 hours, 33 minutes behind only Jerry Ross, with 44 hours, 11 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-103, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
EVA #183
Mission: Mir EO-28 (Soyouz TM-30) Date: 12 May 2000 Duration: 4 hr. 52 min. Program:  Mir
Cosmonauts Sergei Zalyotin and Alexander Kaleri executed this spacewalk flawlessly and well within the planned time. They entered open space via the Kvant-2 airlock at 10:44 and closed the hatch after their return at 15:36 UT [which mean a 4 hr. 52 min EVA].

The “germatizator-experiment” - the use of a special glue to seal off cracks or damages at the outside surface of the Mir complex - was executed according to plan. 

They then inspected a malfunctioning solar arrayl on the Kvant-1. Problem with this panel was that it was impossible to turn it toward the most favorable Sun angle. The cosmonauts found out that the steering cable to the rotor of the arry was burnt through following a short-circuit. They made images of the the cable. (Thus, the panel is forever unusable; it is no disastrous for there are still 9 well working solar panels.) 

Thereafter, the cosmonauts dismantled an experimental solar array from the outer surface of the Mir docking compartment. This experimental panel consisted of very thin material.

The last activity was the so-called panorama-inspection, making images of the outside of Mir to enable specialist to analyse the effects of aging of the material. The new freighter Progress M1-2 was also inserted in this inspection.

(Uniknown at the time of this 79th spacewalsk outside Mir, it was to be the final extra-vehicular activiry from the space complex.)

Adapted from: Chris van den Berg, MirNews No. 480 12 May 2000.
EVA #184
Mission: STS-101 Date: 22 May 2000 Duration: 6 hr. 44 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Jim Voss and Jeff Williams spent over six hours outside the Space Shuttle Atlantis this morning, completing a variety of planned assembly and maintenance tasks on the International Space Station with ease. 

Voss and Williams started the spacewalk early and remained ahead of schedule throughout. The astronauts secured a United States-built crane that was installed on the station last year; installed the final parts of a Russian-built crane on the station; replaced a faulty antenna for one of the station's communications systems; and installed several handrails and a camera cable on the station's exterior.

The six-hour, 44-minute spacewalk began at 20:48 CDT Sunday, May 21, and was completed at 3:32 CDT today. Assisting with the activities from inside Atlantis' cabin was Scott Horowitz while Mary Ellen Weber operated the Shuttle's robotic arm, which she used to maneuver Voss during much of the spacewalk. 

The extravehicular activity conducted by Voss and Williams marks the fifth spacewalk conducted for construction of the International Space Station; the 49th spacewalk based out of the Space Shuttle; and the 89th* spacewalk in history conducted by U.S. astronauts.

Adapted from: STS-101, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
EVA #185
Mission: STS-106 Date: 11 September 2000 Duration:  6 hr. 14 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronaut Ed Lu and cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko took a 6 hour, 14 minute walk outside the shuttle this morning to complete final connections between the International Space Station's newest module, Zvezda and its first component, Zarya. 

The space walk was the sixth in support of ISS assembly and the 50th in Shuttle Program history. It began at 23:47 on Sunday, September 10, and ended at 6:01 on Monday morning. 

The two crewmembers essentially served as construction workers and electricians while outside, attaching cabling that fully, and permanently, integrate Zvezda to the rest of the ISS.  During the extravehicular activity, Lu and Malenchenko stayed ahead of the timeline with choreography from inside by their crewmate Dan Burbank. By his side on the flight deck was Rick Mastracchio, who deftly maneuvered them around the station using the robot arm. 

They connected nine cables between Zvezda and Zarya, including four 8-metre long cables to permit power usage from future solar arrays provided by the U.S. This will eventually allow the sharing of electrical power as the station grows in size. Another four cables extending 5 metres were secured that will provide video and data transmissions throughout the ISS. A final fiber-optic telemetry cable was installed that will be used to provide Russian spacesuit data to be transferred to the ground during future space walks. 

The final task was to construct and attach a magnetometer that serves as a backup navigation system for the station. This task took the two tethered space walkers the furthest distance from the shuttle than ever before – 33,5 metres above the payload bay. That's twice as far as when astronauts work on the Hubble Space Telescope. 

Adapted from: STS-106, Mission Control Center  Status Report # 07.
EVA #186
Mission: STS-92 Date: 15 October 2000 Duration: 6 hr. 28 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
A key structural element for the International Space Station is now electrically connected to the rest of the station and important communications equipment set up after this successful space walk by astronauts Leroy Chiao and Bill McArthur

In a 6-hour, 28-minute space walk, McArthur and Chiao connected 10 electrical umbilicals to provide power to heaters and conduits located on the Z1 truss, relocated and deployed two communication antenna assemblies and installed a toolbox for use during future on-orbit construction. The EVA began at 9:27 CDT and ended at 15:55 p.m., on October 15. This was the seventh Space Station assembly space walk, the 51st EVA in the Space Shuttle program and the 91st* by Americans in the history of the U.S. space program. 

Astronaut Koichi Wakata was again at the controls of the Shuttle’s robotic arm, using it to move the two astronauts around Discovery’s payload bay and the Space Station. McArthur spent most of the time on the end of the mechanical arm working through the long list of cable connections and other tasks. Chiao worked from the end of the arm late in the space walk as he manually unfolded the large ISS Ku-band antenna to its deployed position. That system will be activated next February. 

Both astronauts spent the first hour of the EVA deploying tools and EVA aids including foot restraints and tethers. Following the setup, they worked to connect the first six umbilical cables between Unity and the truss structure. With the first set of cables attached, McArthur and Chiao removed the S-band Antenna Subassembly (SASA) from its launch position on the Z1 truss and placed it in a temporary location where it will remain until it is moved and activated during the STS-97 mission in late November. The SASA was launched in the position where two power converter units will be installed during the third space walk on Tuesday. 

A second set of four cables was connected before McArthur and Chiao installed the Space to Ground Antenna (SGANT), deploying its antenna dish. The antenna dish was removed from its launch location on the Z1 truss with Chiao standing on the robotic arm as McArthur unbolted the dish assembly. The two space walkers also relocated a tool stowage box, located on the support structure for PMA-3 in Discovery’s payload bay, for use during future on-orbit construction. 

Adapted from: STS-92, Mission Control Center Status Report # 09.
EVA #187
Mission: STS-92 Date: 16 October 2000 Duration: 7 hr. 07 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Discovery astronauts Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria successfully completed the second of STS-92’s four scheduled spacewalks on Monday, October 16, attaching an additional docking port to the growing International Space Station. The two spacewalkers also prepared the Z1 truss for the installation of the huge solar arrays to be launched aboard the next shuttle flight. 

Wisoff and Lopez-Alegria began their spacewalk at 9:15 CDT, about 15 minutes ahead of schedule. Their first job was to release the latches that held the docking port, Pressurized Mating Adapter 3, securely in Discovery’s cargo bay. They helped Koichi Wakata, operating the robotic arm, providing eyes for him as he slowly raised the docking port from its support platform. 

While Wakata maneuvered PMA-3 to its new location on the Unity module, opposite the Z1 truss installed Saturday, Wisoff and Lopez-Alegria released latches atop the Z1 truss and prepared an attach point for the large solar arrays that will be delivered during the STS-97 mission scheduled for launch next month. Next they worked their way back to Unity, again to act as an extra set of eyes for Wakata as he attached the docking port.

After Discovery astronauts saw a series of “ready to latch” indicators, Pilot Pam Melroy used a laptop computer to command latches and bolts to begin to secure the mating adapter to its new home on the station. She commanded only the first of four stages of the bolting process. The flight crew will do the final commanding Tuesday morning, after flight controllers in Houston confirm that the temperatures of seals on the docking port and Unity’s Common Berthing Mechanism have become more nearly equal. 

Monday’s 7 hour, 7 minute spacewalk, which ended at 16:22, was the 52nd EVA in the Space Shuttle program and the 92nd* by Americans in the history of the U.S. space program. It brought to eight the total of ISS assembly spacewalks, with a total time of 55 hours, 50 minutes. With the addition of the 8,185-kg Truss on Saturday and the 1,350-kg mating adapter, the station has gained about 9,500 kg during STS-92. It now weighs about 80 tons. 

Adapted from: STS-92, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
EVA #188
Mission: STS-92 Date: 17 October 2000 Duration: 6 hr. 48 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts  Leroy Chiao and Bill McArthur completed the third successful spacewalk of Discovery's STS-92 mission at 16:18 p.m. CDT Tuesday, October 17, installing two DC-to-DC converter units atop the International Space Station's new Z1 Truss. Those two 58,5-kg converters, called DDCUs, will convert electricity generated by the huge solar arrays to be attached during the next shuttle mission to the proper voltage. 

This spacewalk began at 9:30 and ended at 16:18, almost exactly as planned. Total time of Tuesday's EVA was 6 hours, 48 minutes. That brings to 20 hours, 23 minutes the total time of the three spacewalks performed thus far in Discovery's mission, and the total time of space station construction spacewalks to 62 hours, 38 minutes. A fourth spacewalk is scheduled for Wednesday. It too will prepare the Z1 Truss for attachment of the solar arrays. Chaio and McArthur were helped by the robot arm in moving around the station. Koichi Wakata and Mike Lopez-Alegria split the arm-operation duties on Tuesday, with Lopez-Alegria taking the first half. 

The spacewalkers also completed power cable connections on both the Z1 truss and newly installed docking port, PMA-3. They connected and reconfigured cables to route power from Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 to PMA-3 for the arrival of Endeavour and the STS-97 crew next month. They also attached a second tool storage box on the Z1 truss, providing a place to hold the tools and spacewalking aids for future assembly flights. McArthur stocked the boxes with tools and hardware that had been attached to the Unity module. STS-96 Astronauts Tammy Jernigan and Dan Barry had left the tools on the outside of Unity during a May 1999 spacewalk. 

Adapted from: STS-92, Mission Control CenterStatus Report # 13.
EVA #189
Mission: STS-92 Date: 18 October 2000 Duration:  6 hr. 56 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Jeff Wisoff and Mike Lopez-Alegria each jetted slowly through space above Discovery's cargo bay today, demonstrating a small rescue backpack that could help a drifting astronaut regain the safety of the spacecraft. 

Each astronaut performed one gentle 15-metre flight with the nitrogen powered SAFER (for Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue). Each remained attached to the shuttle with a long tether during the test, and was accompanied by the other astronaut, moving with him on the end of Discovery's robotic arm. 

This was the last of four successful spacewalks over four days that prepared the International Space Station for the arrival of its first crew next month. It also paved the way for future station expansion. The Wednesday, October 18,  spacewalk began at 10 CDT and ended at 16:56, lasting 6 hours and 56 minutes. It brings the total spacewalk time for the STS-92 mission to 27 hours and 19 minutes, and for all 10 space station assembly spacewalks on five shuttle missions to 69 hours and 34 minutes. 

Lopez-Alegria and Wisoff, with Koichi Wakata operating the arm, also completed a series of wrap-up tasks during the EVA. They removed a grapple fixture from the Z1 truss, opened and closed a latch assembly that will hold the solar array truss when it arrives in December, deployed a tray that will be used to provide power to the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, scheduled to be attached to the station early next year, and tested the manual berthing mechanism latches that will support Destiny. 

Wisoff opened and closed the latches on the capture assembly for the P6 solar arrays using a pistol grip tool. With it he made more than 125 turns to open the latches, then closed and reopened them. He left the capture latch, called "the claw," ready to receive the solar arrays, to be installed by the STS-97 crew in December.

An exercise to test techniques for returning an incapacitated astronaut to the air lock was cancelled because of time constraints. 

Adapted from: STS-92, Mission Control Center Status Report # 15.
EVA #190
Mission: STS-97 Date: 3 December 2000 Duration: 7 hr. 33 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
The International Space Station spread one of its wings Sunday night, December 3, as the first half of the P6 solar array was unfurled after Endeavour astronauts installed the 17.5-ton P6 solar array structure. 

The structure housing the arrays and associated electronics was mated to the station’s Z1 truss structure at 13:32 – about an hour into the first of three planned space walks during the mission by Joe Tanner and Carlos Noriega. The space walk began at 12:35 and ended at 20:08 p.m., lasting 7 hours, 33 minutes. Thus far, astronauts and cosmonauts have spent 77 hours, 7 minutes on 11 space walks for space station assembly. 

Using the shuttle’s robot arm, Marc Garneau moved the P6 solar array structure into position above the Z1 truss structure of the Unity module and drove it home to its installation point about 13:32. Tanner and Noriega secured bolts on each of the four corners of the array assembly before Garneau released it from the arm. 

Mike Bloomfield took over arm operations and moved Noriega around the array as he connected nine power, command and data cables. At the same time, Tanner released the two solar array blanket boxes. They put the blanket boxes into the ready to deploy position. But computer commands to release the pins holding the blanket boxes closed initially were not successful. Tanner and Noriega stood by in case they were needed to release the pins manually.  Soon afterward, the commands were repeated, the pins on the starboard blanket boxes released and that solar wing was deployed. 

However, one pin on the portside blanket box remained in the closed position. After the space walk, Commander Brent Jett again sent computer commands for the blanket box pins to close and then reopen, and this time, a little after 20:20, indicators showed all the pins had disengaged. Flight controllers will not deploy the port wing tonight to allow time to understand whether the solar wing that has deployed is properly tensioned. That wing was functioning well and sending electrical power to the P6 structure's systems. 

There is no rush to deploy the port wing and flight controllers want to fully understand the situation with the starboard wing before they attempt to do so. "We did accomplish our No. 1 mission objective, which was to deliver P6 to the International Space Station," said Bill Reeves, lead shuttle flight director. And "We accomplished all the EVA objectives."

Adapted from: STS-97, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
EVA #191
Mission: STS-97 Date: 5 December 2000 Duration: 6 hr. 37 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Endeavour astronauts completed the second of the STS-97 mission’s three space walks Tuesday, December 5, hooking up power and data cables and connecting ammonia coolant lines between the International Space Station’s new solar array truss and the rest of the ISS. They also prepared a docking port for a January move to another area on the space station to get ready for arrival of the U.S. laboratory Destiny. 

Carlos Noriega and Joe Tanner began their space walk at 11:21. Before moving on to the cable connections, they surveyed the starboard solar wing to better understand the condition of the tensioning system that extends one of its two solar array blankets. Engineers, flight controllers and managers continue to develop possible plans for Noriega and Tanner to further tension that blanket on the third space walk, scheduled for Thursday. 

During their 6 hour, 37 minute space walk, Noriega and Tanner moved the S-band antenna assembly to the top of the solar array tower. They also released restraints holding a radiator to the tower’s side. It is designed to help cool Destiny. That radiator was deployed after the space walk. 
 

Destiny is scheduled to be launched to the space station Jan. 18. The docking port, Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, will be moved temporarily from its spot at the forward end of the Unity module, where the laboratory will be attached. The docking port then will be placed on the forward end of Destiny. 

Endeavour Commander Brent Jett, Mike Bloomfield and Mark Garneau supported the space walk.

Adapted from: STS-97, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
EVA #192
Mission: STS-97 Date: 7 December 2000 Duration: 5 hr. 10 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Space walking Endeavour astronauts sailed through an add-on job to tension a solar blanket Thursday, December 7, then completed their other tasks in textbook fashion. They topped off their scheduled activities with an image of an evergreen tree placed atop the P6 solar array structure, the highest point in their construction project. 

Space walkers Joe Tanner and Carlos Noriega also installed a centerline camera cable outside the Unity module. It will transmit television images to help a shuttle crew attach the U.S. laboratory Destiny next month. The last of their scheduled tasks was installation of the Floating Potential Probe. The FPP, atop the P6, measures the electrical potential of plasma around the station. The evergreen tree image was on a transfer bag they attached to the FPP symbolizing "topping out" of the space station - a tradition followed by Earth-based construction workers when a building reaches its final height.  The blanket tensioning task had been quickly and carefully planned. On Wednesday Mission Control sent up to Endeavour descriptions of the task and video of fellow Astronaut David Wolf performing the solar blanket work on the ground. 

The space walk began at 10:13, more than 35 minutes earlier than planned. After the space walkers moved to the top of the P6, crew members inside Endeavour, Commander Brent Jett, Mike Bloomfield and Marc Garneau retracted the mast extending the starboard wing, which had been deployed Sunday, by two or three feet. Noriega pulled the slack tensioning cables through each take-up reel. Tanner turned the spring-loaded tension reels, then let them unwind while Noriega guided the cable onto the reel grooves, tensioning the slack blanket. The 73-metre-long, 11,5-metre-wide solar array continues to function well. 

The scheduled activities went so smoothly that Tanner and Noriega were able to complete some "get-ahead" tasks for the next scheduled space walks outside the space station in January. These included installing a sensor on a radiator, installing small antennas and doing a photo survey. Even so, they were able to conclude their space walk at 15:23, after 5 hours and 10 minutes outside. This brings total space walk time during STS-97 to 19 hours and 20 minutes, and total space walk time outside the station to 88 hours and 54 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-97, Mission Control Center Status Report # 15.
EVA #193
Mission: STS-98 Date: 10 February 2001 Duration: 7 hr. 34 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
The crews of the Space Shuttle Atlantis and the International Space Station successfully installed the U.S. Destiny Laboratory onto the station in a dazzling display of robotics finesse and spacewalking skill. 

Astronaut Marsha Ivins began the work, using Atlantis' robotic arm to remove a station docking port, called Pressurized Mating Adapter 2 (PMA 2), to make room for Destiny. The adapter was removed from the station's Unity module and latched in a temporary position on the station's truss. Then, at 9:50, astronauts Tom Jones and Bob Curbeam began a spacewalk that continued throughout the day, in tandem with Ivin's robotic arm work. Jones provided Ivins visual cues as she moved the adapter to its temporary position, and Curbeam removed protective launch covers and disconnected power and cooling cables between the Destiny lab and Atlantis. 

Ivins then latched the robotic arm onto the Destiny lab at about 11:23. and began lifting it from Atlantis' payload bay. High above the bay, Ivins deftly flipped the 16-ton lab 180 degrees, moving it into position to attach to the station berthing port. At 12:57, the lab was latched into position on the station, and soon a set of automatic bolts tightened to hold it permanently in place for years of space research. The lab adds 110 cubic metres of volume to the station, increasing the onboard living space by 41 percent. The station's mass is now 112 tons. 

After the PMA 2 docking port is attached to the lab's end on Monday, Dec. 12, the station will measure 52 metres long, 27,5 metre high and 73 metres wide. It will have a volume of more than 370 cubic metres, already a larger volume than any space station in history. 

With the Destiny module secured to the station, Jones and Curbeam began connecting electrical, data and cooling lines. While Curbeam was attaching a cooling line, a small amount of frozen ammonia crystals leaked. However, the leak was quickly stopped. The ammonia dissipated and vaporized, and it posed no problems as the crew continued their work. Because of the leak, however, flight controllers followed a decontamination procedure, ensuring no ammonia would enter Atlantis' cabin. Curbeam remained in the sun a half-hour to vaporize any ammonia crystals on his spacesuit while Jones brushed off the suit and equipment. Then, the spacewalkers performed a partial pressurization and venting of the shuttle airlock to flush out any ammonia before a final repressurization. Then, as the airlock began exchanging air with the shuttle cabin, Commander Ken Cockrell, Mark Polansky and Ivins wore oxygen masks in the cabin for about 20 minutes as a protective measure, allowing any residual ammonia to be cleansed from the cabin by shuttle life support systems. In the end, the crew reported no contamination or smell of ammonia when the inside airlock hatch was opened and they were rejoined by Jones and Curbeam. 

The decontamination procedures lengthened the spacewalk to a final duration of seven hours, 34 minutes, more than an hour longer than originally planned, and put the crew behind schedule for the remainder of the day's work.

Adapted from: STS-98, Mission Control Center Status Report #7.
EVA #194
Mission: STS-98 Date: 12 Febraary 2001 Duration: 6 hr. 50 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
The astronauts aboard Atlantis breezed through the second spacewalk of their mission today and attached a docking port to the end of the International Space Station's new Destiny Laboratory, completing all the spacewalk's planned tasks and more. 

Astronauts Tom Jones and Bob Curbeam exited Atlantis' airlock at 9:40 Central on Monday, February 12, to begin the work outside, turning their first attention to moving the docking port. Inside the shuttle, Marsha Ivins operated Atlantis' robotic arm, latching on to the docking port and, with visual cues provided by Jones and Curbeam, removing it from a location on the station truss where it had been temporarily stowed on Saturday. Jones and Curbeam then relocated themselves to the end of the Destiny Lab, where they again provided visual cues as Ivins moved the port into its new position. The port was then latched in place, and ground controllers will send further commands tonight to finish tightening bolts that will secure it to the lab. Called Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, it will become the primary docking port for future shuttle visits. 

The two spacewalkers then moved rapidly through a variety of tasks, including the installation of insulating covers over the pins that had held Destiny in place during launch; attaching a vent to part of the lab's air system; putting wires, handrails and sockets on the exterior of Destiny as aids for future spacewalkers; and attaching a base for the future space station robotic arm, scheduled for launch on an April shuttle flight. 

With all of the tasks planned for today's spacewalk completed, and still time available, the astronauts then moved to tasks that had originally been planned for the third spacewalk of the flight. Ahead of schedule, they connected several computer and electrical cables between the docking port and the lab; unveiled the lab's large, high-quality window and attached an exterior shutter; and repositioned a movable foot platform they had taken inside Atlantis on the first spacewalk for a slight adjustment. 

Jones and Curbeam climbed back into the shuttle airlock and ended the spacewalk at 16:49 Central, giving the outside work a total duration of 6 hours, 50 minutes. The spacewalk was the 99th time in history that U.S. astronauts had ventured outside of a spacecraft, and the 59th spacewalk from a Space Shuttle. 

Adapted from: STS-98, Mission Control Center Status Report #11.
EVA #195
Mission: STS-98 Date: 14 February 2001 Duration: 5 hr. 25 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Tom Jones and Bob Curbeam completed their third and final planned spacewalk outside the International Space Station, pausing to celebrate the mission, which included the 100th spacewalk in United States space history.  Curbeam said as he and Jones held a placard commemorating the spacewalks in Atlantis’ payload bay.

The two astronauts exited Atlantis’ airlock at 8:48 Central on Wednesday, February 14. During five hours and 25 minutes outside, they attached a spare communications antenna to the International Space Station’s exterior; double-checked connections between the Destiny lab and its docking port; released a cooling radiator on the station; inspected solar array connections at the top of the station; and tested the ability of a spacewalker to carry an immobile crew member back to the shuttle airlock. The spacewalk work all went smoothly, and the two reentered Atlantis at 14:13 Central. 

Adapted from: STS-98, Mission Control Center Status Report # 15.
EVA #196
Mission: STS-102 Date: 10 March 2001 Duration: 8 hr. 56 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Susan Helms and Jim Voss donned space suits and stepped outside Discovery late Saturday, March 10, to prepare one of the International Space Station’s berthing ports for the Leonardo transfer module. 

The pair began the 17th station assembly space walk at 23:12 CST Saturday. Inside Discovery, Paul Richards choreographed their activities and served as liaison with Mission Control. 

The space walkers were delayed early in their excursion when a portable foot restraint attachment device became untethered, and Voss had to retrieve a spare from its storage location on the outside of the station’s Unity module. 

Helms and Voss successfully prepared Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 for repositioning from Unity’s Earth-facing berth to its port-side berth to make room for Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module. They disconnected eight cables and removed an Early Communications System antenna from the left-side Common Berthing Mechanism so that shuttle robotic arm operator Andy Thomas could put the mating adapter in its place, freeing up the Earth-facing berthing port for Leonardo. 

The space walkers also removed a Lab Cradle Assembly from the cargo bay and installed it on the side of the Destiny laboratory module, where it will form the base for station robotic arm to be launched on STS-100 in mid-April. Because of the early delay, they were instructed to defer power and data cable connections for the cradle until Monday’s scheduled space walk by Richards and Thomas. Voss and Helms also installed a cable tray to Destiny for later use by the station’s robot arm. 

The pair reentered Discovery’s airlock early Sunday and waited for Thomas to maneuver the docking port to its new location, but remained at the ready to assist if needed. After Commander Jim Wetherbee drove the Common Berthing Mechanism latches home and secured the docking port at 7:43, the airlock was repressurized, ending the space walk at 8:08 Sunday after 8 hours 56 minutes, making it the longest space walk in Shuttle history. 

The space walk brings the total exterior construction time on the station to 117 hours 39 minutes over the course of 17 space walks, and the total EVA time in Shuttle program history to 386 hours, 15 minutes over 61 separate space walks. 

Adapted from: STS-102, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
EVA #197
Mission: STS-102 Date:  12-13 March 2001 Duration:   6 hr. 21 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Paul Richards and Andy Thomas spent six and a half hours outside the International Space Station, continuing work to outfit the station and prepare for delivery of its own robotic arm next month. 

With help from shuttle robotic arm operator Jim Kelly and space walk choreographer Susan Helms, Richards and Thomas installed a stowage platform for spare station parts and attached a spare ammonia coolant pump to the platform. They also finished connecting several cables put in place by Astronauts Jim Voss and Susan Helms during their nearly nine-hour-long space walk Sunday. The cables, on the exterior of the Destiny laboratory module, will provide power and control of the station’s Canadian-built robotic arm. Known as the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, the arm will be delivered and installed by the STS-100 crew in April. 

Richards and Thomas also scaled the station to the top of its 73-metre-wide solar arrays and were successful in engaging a fourth latch for the port-side array’s structural brace. Several other get-ahead tasks also were accomplished during the space walk, including a check of a Unity module heater connection and inspection of an exterior experiment called the Floating Potential Probe that has been operating intermittently. The space walkers reported they did not see any status lights on the probe; investigators on the ground will use that information to continue troubleshooting. 

The second and final planned space walk of the mission began at 23:23, Monday, March 12, and concluded at 5:44, Tuesday. The 6-hour, 21-minute space walk brings the total exterior construction time on the station to 124 hours over the course of 18 space walks, and the total EVA time in shuttle program history to 392 hours, 36 minutes over 62 separate space walks. 

Adapted from: STS-102, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
EVA #198
Mission: STS-100 Date: 22 April 2001 Duration: 7 hr. 10 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Endeavour’s astronauts extended the reach of the International Space Station on Sunday, April 22, successfully installing a 17,6-metre-long Canadian-built robotic arm. 

Scott Parazynski and Chris Hadfield spent 7 hours and 10 minutes working outside the station, installing first an Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) antenna before turning their attention to the station’s new robotic arm. They floated out of Endeavour’s airlock at 6:45, Central time and about two hours later had installed and deployed the UHF antenna on the Destiny module of the station. 

With that complete, they turned their attention to installing the new station robotic arm. The main boom was deployed at 10 a.m. central, and a few minutes later, at 10:10, Hadfield and Parazynski began unfolding the arm as Endeavour and the station flew over the Atlantic Ocean. 

With the new arm secured in its pallet attached to the exterior of the Destiny laboratory, Hadfield and Parazynski connected cables to give the arm power and allow it to accept computer commands from inside the lab. After unfolding the arm, they used a pistol grip tool to properly secure a series of expandable fasteners that keep the booms rigidized in position. The two space walkers experienced some difficulty ensuring an appropriate torque level had been placed on the fasteners. By taking the pistol grip tool from automatic to manual mode, they securely tightened the bolts in place, completing their activities for the day and beginning to clean up the payload bay before returning to Endeavour. 

This spacewalk, which concluded at 13:55, was the 19th conducted to assemble the International Space Station. At 13:53, Susan Helms and Jim Voss, on board the station, commanded the first motion of the new station robotic arm. All indications are that the arm operated perfectly in this initial commanding.

Adapted from: STS-100, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
EVA #199
Mission: STS-100 Date: 24 April 2001 Duration: 7 hr. 40 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Space walkers Chris Hadfield and Scott Parazynski worked as space-age electricians today, completing connections that allowed the new International Space Station robotic arm to operate from a new base on the outside of the Destiny science lab. 

Jim Voss and Susan Helms steered Canadarm2 as it lifted its first payload in space, a 1,350-kg pallet that the 17-metre-long arm had been nestled in for launch in the shuttle’s cargo bay. 

The 7 hour, 40 minute spacewalk began at 7:34 Central time, as Hadfield and Parazynski worked to complete all of the primary goals of the mission, including the connection of the Power and Data Grapple Fixture circuits for the new arm on Destiny, the removal of an early communications antenna and the transfer of a spare Direct Current Switching Unit from the shuttle’s payload bay to an equipment storage rack on the outside of Destiny. 

As the pair rewired power and data connections for Canadarm2, the backup power circuit failed to respond to commanding from Helms, who was operating from a workstation inside Destiny. Hadfield and Parazynski opened a panel to gain access to another connector at the base of the arm and after disconnecting and reconnecting cables, were able to complete the redundant power path to the arm to the cheers of flight controllers in Houston. 

During the removal of the early communications antenna, an electrical connector cover got away from Hadfield and nestled behind a thermal cover in the docking port to which the airlock will be mated in June. After two unsuccessful attempts to locate the errant piece of metal – which required extensive coordination between the shuttle and station flight control teams on the ground -- Hadfield was instructed to stop searching and to move on to other work. The errant component is not expected to have any impact on future operations. 

With all of their work successfully completed, Hadfield and Parazynski completed their space walk at 15:15, bringing the total spacewalk time on STS-100 to 14 hours, 50 minutes. A potential third spacewalk on Thursday likely will not be needed. 

Adapted from: STS-100, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
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EVA #200
Mission: ISS Expedition 2 Date: 8 June 2001 Duration: 19 min. Program: ISS
Yury Usachev and Jim Voss performed their first spacewalk on the International Space Station on Friday, June 8, completing all of their scheduled tasks smoothly and ahead of schedule. 

They entered the small, spherical transfer compartment at the forward end of the Zvezda Habitation Module to begin the first spacewalk at the ISS without the presence of a shuttle. They removed a hatch at the bottom (Earth-facing part) of the compartment to open it to the vacuum of space and officially begin the spacewalk at 9:21, Central. 

After lashing the hatch cover to the top of the compartment, they replaced it with a docking cone assembly that had been temporarily stowed on a transfer compartment wall. Using a rotating handle, they secured it firmly with the twelve roller-like hatches around its perimeter at 9:40, marking the official end of the spacewalk. With help from fellow crewmember Susan Helms, who stayed in the Zarya module and helped coordinate the spacewalk, the activity went very quickly. The 19-minute spacewalk had been expected to take 30 to 40 minutes. The docking cone was installed to prepare for the arrival of the Russian docking compartment, scheduled for later this year. 

Adapted from:  International Space Station Status Report #01-18 
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EVA #201
Mission: STS-104 Date: 14-15 July 2001 Duration: 5 hr. 59 min Program: Shuttle / ISS
The International Space Station received a new airlock early Sunday, an addition that will permit spacewalks without a space shuttle docked to the station. The airlock, named Quest, can accommodate either Russian or U.S. spacesuits and brings the mass of the space station to about 130 tons. 

Susan Helms lifted the airlock from the cargo bay of Atlantis using the station's Canadarm2 at 12:10 CDT on Sunday, July 15. After a slow and carefully planned series of maneuvers with the arm, the airlock was maneuvered to the berthing port on the station's Unity node. 

Spacewalkers Mike Gernhardt and Jim Reilly observed the berthing procedure from above and below, providing additional guidance for Helms. The airlock was berthed to the station at 2:40. Gernhardt then attached cables from the station to its new airlock to provide heating for Quest while Reilly pre-positioned foot restraints for the second spacewalk scheduled for Tuesday. 

The spacewalk, coordinated by Charlie Hobaugh in the shuttle's cabin, began at 22:10 Saturday. After moving into the cargo bay, Gernhardt removed an insulating cover, called the "shower cap," from the airlock's berthing mechanism and other covers from its seals. Reilly installed bars on the 6½-ton airlock which will serve as attachment points for four high-pressure tanks, two oxygen and two nitrogen. The tanks will be installed during the two subsequent spacewalks. The mission's third and final spacewalk will be conducted from the new airlock itself. 

After the airlock was securely attached and after installation of the cable to power its heaters, Gernhardt and Reilly returned to the shuttle's airlock after flight controllers confirmed that the airlock's heaters were functioning.  Official end of the spacewalk occurred with repressurization of Atlantis' airlock at 4:09. The spacewalk lasted 5 hours and 59 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-104, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
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EVA #202
Mission: STS-104 Date: 17-18 July 2001 Duration: 6 hr. 29 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Six arms worked together outside the International Space Station again on Wednesday, July 18, to install supply tanks for the new joint airlock, accomplishing a bonus oxygen tank installation during a 6 hour, 29 minute space walk. 

Four of the arms belonged to space walkers Mike Gernhardt and Jim Reilly. Two robotic arms also were called into service – the shuttle’s Canadarm and its big brother, the station’s Canadarm2. Susan Helms and Jim Voss were at the station arm’s controls, while Janet Kavandi guided the shuttle limb. 

The space walk got off to a slightly delayed start at 22:04 CDT Tuesday after the station’s primary Command and Control computer had to be restarted. The computer, needed to guide the station arm as it lifted the high-pressure oxygen and nitrogen tanks out of the shuttle cargo bay and into position alongside the new airlock, was back in business shortly after 20:00, allowing first motion of the arm by 21:00. 

Gernhardt and Reilly, supported by their six colleagues inside the shuttle and station, latched the first two dog house-shaped tank assemblies into place without difficulty, so shuttle and station Flight Directors Paul Hill and Mark Kirasich decided to move ahead with installation of the third tank at 1:41. 

The second space walk of the mission concluded at 4:33 CDT Wednesday. It was the 66th space walk in shuttle program history, and the 23rd devoted to International Space Station assembly. So far, STS-104 space walks have lasted 12 hours, 28 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-104, Mission Control Center Status Report # 13.
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EVA #203
Mission: Date: Duration: Program: ISS
The first space walk to originate from the International Space Station’s new airlock, Quest, lasted 4 hours, 2 minutes, and established a higher degree of station independence in its own construction and maintenance. 

The space walk also was the first to be supported primarily from the space station Flight Control Room in Houston, and the first demonstration of a new pre-breathing protocol that uses vigorous exercise to help purge nitrogen bubbles from the space walkers’ bloodstreams and prevent what is known as “the bends.” 

Mike Gernhardt and Jim Reilly exited the new airlock at 23:35 CDT, Friday, 20 July, and were back inside by 3:37 Saturday. Working in tandem with the station’s Canadarm2 operator Jim Voss and shuttle arm operator Commander Steve Lindsey, the space-age construction workers attached a nitrogen supply tank to the airlock’s shell. This completed the installation of two nitrogen and two oxygen tanks that will be used to pressurize the airlock and resupply space suits. Charlie Hobaugh and Yury Usachev coordinated the space walk from inside, while Susan Helms supported station arm operations. 

Depressurizing the airlock took longer than expected – about 40 minutes instead of the anticipated 7 minutes. Flight controllers and engineers have not yet identified what caused the pressure equalization valve on the Crew Lock’s hatch to react so slowly, but are continuing to evaluate data and reports from the crew. 

During the mission’s third spacewalk, Gernhardt and Reilly also moved hand-over-hand up the station’s solar array truss to take a look at a gimbal assembly mechanism that allows the arrays to swivel with the Sun. They reported no visible signs that could account for high-current readings being witnessed by flight controllers on the ground. 

The successful construction foray brings the total time for space station-based walks to 4 hours, 21 minutes. There have been 24 space walks devoted to station assembly, a combined total of 155 hours, 39 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-104, Mission Control Center Status Report # 19.
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EVA #204
Mission: STS-105 Date: 16 August 2001 Duration: 6 hr. 16 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Dan Barry and Pat Forrester completed the first of two planned space walks during STS-105 mission to the International Space Station. The excursion lasted 6 hours, 16 minutes and involved installing the Early Ammonia Servicer and the first external experiment on the station’s hull. The servicer contains spare ammonia that can be used in the space station's cooling systems if needed. The Materials ISS Experiment (pronounced ‘missy’ by its acronym) will expose 750 material samples to the space environment for about 18 months before being returned home late next year. 

During the space walk, Commander Scott Horowitz operated the shuttle robot arm, and Pilot Rick Sturckow choreographed the space walk from the orbiter’s flight deck. 

This was the 25th space walk devoted to the construction of the space station and the 12th this year. 

Adapted from: STS-105, Mission Control Center Status Report # 13.
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EVA #205
Mission: STS-105 Date: 18 August 2001 Duration: 5 hr. 29 min. Program: Shuttle/ ISS
Astronauts Dan Barry and Pat Forrester successfully strung two 14-metre heater cables and installed handrails down both sides of the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station during a 5 hour, 29 minute spacewalk, setting the stage for the delivery of a large truss structure to the complex next year. 

The cables would provide backup power to the S0 truss, if needed, in the unlikely event it could not be installed in a timely fashion on the station next spring as the centerpiece for a 100-metre girder, which will serve as the backbone for the orbital outposts external experiments, solar arrays and the future mobile base for the Canadian-built station robotic arm. 

Barry and Forrester began their spacewalk at 8:42, Central time, and ended their final excursion outside Discovery at 14:11, completing the 26th spacewalk devoted to the assembly of the International Space Station, 24 of which were staged from the Shuttle, and the 68th spacewalk in Shuttle program history. 

Other spacewalk statistics following today's activity include: Total spacewalk time in Shuttle program history: 431 hours, 39 minutes. Total spacewalk time to assemble the ISS: 167 hours, 24 minutes. Total Shuttle spacewalk time for ISS assembly: 163 hours, 3 minutes. Total spacewalk time for the two EVAs on STS-105: 11 hours, 45 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-105, Mission Control Center Status Report # 17.
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EVA #206
Mission: ISS Expedition 3 Date: 8 October 2001 Duration: 4 hr. 58 min. Program: ISS
The assembly of the International Space Station passed another major milestone on Monday, October 8, as two Russian cosmonauts executed a 4 hour, 58 minute spacewalk outside the complex to begin to outfit the Station's newest module. 

With Expedition Three Commander Frank Culbertson coordinating activities from inside the ISS, cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov and Mikhail Tyurin opened the hatch on the Pirs Docking Compartment for the first time at 9:23 Central time (1423 GMT) to hook up telemetry and data cables between Pirs and the Zvezda Service Module to which it linked up to three weeks ago, and to install handrails, an access ladder, a cargo crane, a docking target and a automated navigational antenna. 

It was the 27th spacewalk in support of the assembly of the ISS totaling 172 hours, 22 minutes, the third spacewalk staged out of the Station itself, the first external spacewalk from the ISS without the presence of a visiting Space Shuttle and the 101th* spacewalk in Russian spaceflight history. It was Dezhurov's sixth spacewalk spanning two flights and the first for Tyurin, who is midway through his first flight into space. 

Moving with ease, Dezhurov and Tyurin worked leisurely and methodically through their timeline as television cameras on the Canadarm2 Station robotic arm and a camera in the Soyuz return vehicle captured spectacular views of the spacewalk. 

Because the spacewalk ran slightly longer than predicted, Dezhurov and Tyurin were unable to complete one task --- a test of the rigidity of the Strela cargo crane, using Tyurin as a mock payload. Russian flight controllers said the task would be conducted on a future spacewalk by the Expedition Three crew. 

With all of the other work successfully completed, the hatch to Pirs was closed at 14:21, Central time (1921 GMT) and the new compartment was repressurized. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #01-34 
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EVA #207
Mission: ISS Expedition 3 Date: 15 October 2001 Duration: 5 hr. 52 min. Program: ISS
Scientific research moved outside the International Space Station on Monday, October 15, as two Russian cosmonauts mounted a variety of instruments outside the Zvezda service module in a 5 hour, 52 minute space walk. 

Cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov and Mikhail Tyurin opened the hatch on the Pirs Docking Compartment at 4:17, Central time (917 GMT) and installed three separate sets of experiment equipment designed to learn more about the space environment around their orbiting outpost. Expedition Three Commander Frank Culbertson helped from inside, positioning Canadarm2 so that its cameras could provide television pictures of the workmen as they completed their tasks outside. 

Dezhurov and Tyurin moved hand-over-hand to work sites on the Zvezda habitation module, using handrails to get to a site near the back end of the module. At that location, they installed a Russian experiment called Kromka, which is designed to accumulate any contamination caused by Zvezda steering jets for analysis in the design of better thrusters for future spacecraft. 

The duo then moved on to a nearby site, where they assembled a small truss structure and attached three suitcase-sized experiment packages provided by NASDA, the Japanese space agency. The Micro-Particles Capturer will employ aerogel and foam substances to collect naturally occurring micrometeoroids and human-made orbital debris particles. A companion Space Environment Exposure Device will expose a variety of materials such as paint, insulation and solid lubricants to the harsh environment of space. 

On their way back to the Pirs hatch, they removed a placard and exposure experiment with the image of the Russian Federation flag, and replaced it with another exposure experiment as part of a commercial agreement. 

It was the 28th spacewalk in support of the assembly of the station, increasing the total to 178 hours, 14 minutes, the fourth space walk staged out of the station itself, and the 101st space walk in Russian history. It was Dezhurov’s seventh space walk spanning two flights and the second for Tyurin, who is midway through his first flight into space.

With all work successfully completed, Dezhurov and Tyurin re-entered the Pirs compartment and closed the hatch at 10:09, Central time (1509 GMT). 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #01-36.
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EVA #208
Mission: ISS Expedition 3 Date: 12 November 2001 Duration: 5 hr. 04 min. Program: ISS
Expedition Three Commander Frank Culbertson and cosmonaut Vladimir Dezhurov completed the external outfitting of the Pirs Docking Compartment on the International Space Station on Monday evening, November 12, conducting a 5 hour, 4 minute spacewalk outside the orbital outpost. 

Culbertson, making his first spacewalk, and Dezhurov, completing his third spacewalk of this Expedition and his eighth overall, opened the hatch on the Pirs compartment at 15:41 CST (21:41 GMT) and went right to work, successfully hooking up seven telemetry cables between Pirs and the Zvezda Service Module to complete the installation of the Kurs automated rendezvous system, which will be used to guide approaching Russian vehicles for docking to the Pirs in the future. Pirs serves as both a docking port and an airlock for spacewalks out of the Russian segment of the ISS. 

Mikhail Tyurin monitored tonight's activities from inside the ISS and operated the Canadarm2 robotic arm, providing television views for flight controllers in Houston and Moscow and lighting for the spacewalkers as they conducted their tasks. 

Standing in foot restraints on the Zvezda, Culbertson and Dezhurov also conducted an inspection of a solar array panel on the service module which failed to deploy properly during its launch on July 12, 2000. The stuck panel has had no impact on station operations or the electrical capability of the Russian segment. Culbertson snapped a number of pictures of the array for analysis by Russian engineers. 

Culbertson and Dezhurov wrapped up the spacewalk by testing the capability of the newly installed Russian Strela cargo crane, which was attached to Pirs back on October 8. They used a crank to extend the Strela to its fully extended length of some 10 metres, then raised and lowered the crane from an operator's post at the base of the boom. Strela will be used to maneuver cosmonauts and cargo around the Russian modules of the ISS during future spacewalks. 

Finally, the spacewalkers reentered Pirs and closed the hatch at 20:45 CST (2:45 GMT Tuesday) to complete the 29th spacewalk in support of ISS assembly and the firth conducted from the station itself. In all, ISS assembly spacewalk activity has now spanned 183 hours and 18 minutes. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #01-43.
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EVA #209
Mission: ISS Expedition 3 Date: 3 December 2001 2 hr. 46 min. Duration: Program: ISS
Cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov and Mikhail Tyurin cleared the way for the launch of the shuttle Endeavour on December 4 afternoon by removing debris in the form of a rubberized seal from the docking interface between a Russian Progress resupply craft and the Zvezda habitation module at the International Space Station.

With Commander Frank Culbertson watching from inside, Dezhurov and Tyurin worked swiftly to clear the debris during a 2-hour, 46-minute spacewalk, the fourth of the expedition and the 30th devoted to ISS assembly and maintenance. With the seal removed, Russian flight controllers commanded the Progress’ docking probe to retract fully, and a hard mate between the two craft was completed at 8:54 CST. Progress had initially docked with Zvezda last November 28, but hooks and latches between the craft failed to fully engage because of the debris, apparently left on the docking interface when an old Progress resupply vehicle was jettisoned on Nov. 22.

Dezhurov, who was making the 9th spacewalk of his career, and Tyurin, who was conducting the 3rd spacewalk in his first flight into space, exited the Pirs Docking Compartment at 7:20 CST with one goal in mind: clearing the obstruction which prevented the Progress from completing a hard docking and a tight seal with Zvezda last Wednesday, Nov. 28, at the completion of a two-day free flight following its launch. The docking problem postponed last week’s launch of Endeavour to bring the new residents - the Expedition Four crew - to the ISS.

Once they made their way to the aft end of Zvezda, Dezhurov used a tool to cut the seal, which then was easily stripped away from the circumference of the aft docking port of the Service Module. With the debris removed, Russian flight controllers initiated the mating of Progress and Zvezda, completing the repair effort. 

With their work completed, Dezhurov and Tyurin took a number of pictures of the debris and the docking interface between Progress and Zvezda, and returned to Pirs, closing the hatch at 10:06 a.m. CST.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #49.
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EVA #210
Mission: STS-108 Date: 10 December 2001 Duration: 4 hr. 12 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Linda Godwin and Dan Tani completed a four-hour, 12-minute space walk on Monday, Dec. 10, to install insulation on mechanisms that rotate the International Space Station's main solar arrays. 

The space walk went smoothly as Godwin and Tani installed insulation around the two barrel-shaped devices atop the station's five-story tall truss structure. The space walkers also attempted to secure one of four legs that brace the starboard station array, but they were unable to close the latch, which has been open since the array was installed a year ago. The other legs have always been latched securely and are sufficient. 

On their way down from the top of the station, the two space walkers stopped at a stowage bin to retrieve a cover which had been removed from a station antenna during an earlier flight. The cover will be brought back to Earth and may be reused. Godwin and Tani also performed a "get-ahead" task, positioning two switches on the station's exterior to be installed on an upcoming shuttle mission, STS-110, that will deliver a central, 12-metre long truss section this spring. 

Godwin and Tani left Endeavour's airlock at 11:52 CST and they ended the space walk at 16:04 p.m. CST. 

This space walk completes a record year with 18 space walks conducted: 12 originating from the shuttle and six from the station. That number eclipses the previous records for most space walks performed in a single year, a tie between the years 1973, when nine space walks were conducted from the Skylab space station, and 1997, when nine space walks were conducted from the shuttle and from the Russian Mir space station combined. The space walking record set this year is expected to be broken again next year -- in 2002, 22 space walks are planned from the shuttle and station. 

Adapted from: STS-108, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
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EVA #211
Mission: ISS Expedition 4 Date: 14 January 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 03 min. Program: ISS
Commander Yury Onufrienko and astronaut Carl Walz floated outside the International Space Station on the first spacewalk of their expedition and finished installing a second Russian cargo boom, part of which had been delivered to the station two and a half years ago. With coordination help from inside the station by Dan Bursch, the two space walkers also installed an amateur radio antenna on the Zvezda Habitation Module. 

The first space walk Expedition Four crew's five-month tour of duty began on Monday, January 14, at 14:59 CST and ended at 21:02 CST, lasting a total of 6 hours, 3 minutes. 

After exiting the station from the Russian Pirs docking compartment, Onufrienko and Walz assembled an extension for a Russian cargo boom that had been previously installed on Pirs. They used the operational cargo crane, called Strela 1 (Strela is the Russian word for arrow), to get into position to detach and relocate a similar crane temporarily stored on the outside of the Unity-to-Zarya connecting tunnel. Known as Strela 2, this second crane was moved back alongside Pirs and attached to a base point on the opposite side of the docking compartment and airlock at 18:31 CST. 

The first piece of Strela 2 had been delivered and installed in May 1999, and the second piece in May 2000. On future spacewalks, the two cranes may be used to maneuver equipment and spacewalkers. 

Onufrienko and Walz also installed an amateur radio antenna on a handrail at the end of the Zvezda service module. The antenna is one of four that eventually will allow space station crew members to make "ham" radio contacts from the comfort of their living quarters inside Zvezda. Currently, the amateur radio station is inside the Zarya module. 

The spacewalk was the thirty-second in support of space station assembly, the seventh such excursion conducted from the station itself, and the sixth based out of the station's Russian segment. The total amount of time spent on space station-based spacewalks now stands at 29 hours, 04 minutes, and the total spacewalking time spent on station construction at 196 hours, 19 minutes.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #02-3.
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EVA #212
Mission: ISS Expedition 4 Date: 25 January 2002 Duration: 5 hr. 59 min. Program: ISS
Expedition Four Commander Yury Onufrienko and astronaut Dan Bursch completed a five-hour, 59-minute spacewalk outside the International Space Station on Friday, Jan. 25, installing six thruster deflectors at the rear of the Zvezda Habitation Module, retrieving and replacing a device to measure material from the thrusters and installing a ham radio antenna and its cabling. They also installed three materials experiments on Zvezda’s exterior and a physics experiment. 

With Onufrienko and Bursch working outside, Carl Walz served as intravehicular crewmember, helping to coordinate the spacewalk and maneuvering the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2, to allow its television cameras to view the spacewalk. 

Onufrienko and Bursch, wearing Russian Orlan spacesuits, installed six plume deflectors around attitude control thrusters at the rear of the Zvezda module. The deflectors are designed to limit deposits on the outside of the station that result from the firing of those thrusters. 

The spacewalkers also removed an experiment called Kromka situated near one of the thruster groups. The experiment captured material that results from thruster firings. It will be returned to Earth in early May aboard a Soyuz spacecraft. By studying the captured materials, engineers will gain a better understanding of the nature of the deposits. The spacewalkers then installed a virtually identical new Kromka experiment in the same place. Future analysis of the materials it captures will provide information on the effect of the plume deflectors. 

They also installed a ham radio antenna and associated cabling at the rear of Zvezda. The antenna is the second of four that eventually will be situated around the back of the module. They then attached a physics experiment called Platan to Zvezda. Platan is designed to capture low-energy heavy nuclei from the sun and from outside the solar system. 

In addition, they installed three materials experiments, called SKK for their Russian acronym, on Zvezda. The experiments examine effects of the harsh environment of space on a wide range of materials. The spacewalkers also installed fairleads on Zvezda handrails. The fairleads, called pigtails, keep spacewalkers’ tethers from fouling equipment or experiments on the module’s exterior. Throughout the spacewalk, they took photos to document their work. 

This was the 33rd spacewalk for station assembly and outfitting and the eighth conducted from the station itself. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #02-5.
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EVA #213
Mission: ISS Expedition 4 Date: 20 February 2002 Duration: 5 hr. 47 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Carl Walz and Dan Bursch completed a successful 5-hour, 47-minute spacewalk Wednesday, February 20, testing equipment and procedures for the Airlock Quest and performing other tasks to prepare for the STS-110 mission to the International Space Station in April. The spacewalk, which began at 5:38 a.m. and ended at 11:25, notched some firsts. 

It was the first spacewalk from Quest without the presence of an Orbiter at the station, earning it the designation of U.S. EVA 1. It also marked the first U.S. use of an Intravehicular officer, Joe Tanner, working from Houston’s Mission Control Center instead of from onboard the spacecraft, as has been the case up to this point. Also, new procedures were used to expedite airlock depressurization at the start of the spacewalk. 

During the spacewalk, Walz and Bursch deployed two electrical cables from their stowage area on the U.S. Laboratory Destiny and connected them to a cable tray near the base of the Z1 Truss. Plans to disconnect and restow the cables were put on hold while engineers evaluated unexpected readings from current conversion units in the circuit the cables completed. Walz removed four thermal blankets from the Z1 Truss and stowed them inside the truss, while Bursch retrieved tools to be used on STS-110 spacewalks and brought them to the airlock. The two also secured looser-than-expected latches on two oxygen tanks and two nitrogen tanks, on the airlock. 

They also removed adaptors on which a Russian cargo crane had been mounted and attached one of them to the Zarya module’s exterior. They brought the other, U.S.-made, adaptor into the airlock. They also inspected cable connectors outside the station and photographed the MISSE (Materials International Space Station Experiment). Some of the materials samples being exposed to the harsh conditions of space apparently were peeling back off their mountings. 

Scientists used the spacewalk to gather additional data for an experiment looking at the effects of spacewalks and long-term exposure to microgravity on lung function. Also, Walz and Bursch will wear radiation sensors for the EVARM experiment, a study of radiation doses experienced by spacewalking astronauts. 

Each astronaut had made one previous spacewalk from the station last month, and Walz also made a spacewalk on STS-51 in September 1993. During today’s spacewalk, Expedition 4 Commander Yury Onufrienko operated cameras on the station’s Canadian provided robotic arm to document activities. 

Adapted from:  International Space Station Status Report #02-10.
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EVA #214
Mission: STS 109 Date: 4 March 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 01 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The Hubble Space Telescope has a new starboard solar array after a seven hour-one minute long spacewalk by Columbia astronauts John Grunsfeld and Rick Linnehan

During the space walk, which began on Monday, March 4, at 12:37 CST, Grunsfeld and Linnehan removed the old starboard solar array from Hubble and installed in its place a new third-generation solar array and its associated Diode Box Assembly. The old solar array was stored in Columbia’s payload bay where it will be returned to Earth to allow engineers to determine how it fared during its nine years in space. The new arrays are two-thirds the size of the current arrays but will provide 20 percent more power to the telescope. Because of their smaller size, the new arrays also will impart less atmospheric drag, slowing the rate at which Hubble’s orbit decays. 

Throughout the space walk, Nancy Currie used the shuttle’s robotic arm to maneuver the two space walkers around Columbia’s payload bay and the Hubble telescope. Linnehan was on the arm for most of the space walk, with Grunsfeld taking his place about five hours and fifteen minutes into the space walk. 

During the spacewalk, Grunsfeld’s EVA suit did not transmit its normal telemetry signal to the ground, though the Flight Surgeon was able to monitor the astronaut’s biomedical data. After resetting power to the suit later following the spacewalk, EVA officers in Mission Control were able to receive data normally. It is believed a relay in the suit’s communication system needed to be reset. 

Adapted from: STS-109, Mission Control Center Status Report # 08 & STS-109 (EVA).
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EVA #215
Mission: STS 109 Date: 5 March 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 16 min.. Program: Space Shuttle
The crew of Columbia completed the second of five planned spacewalks on Tuesday, March 5, with the successful installation of a new port solar array and a new Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) on the Hubble Space Telescope. 

Spacewalkers Jim Newman and Mike Massimino spent seven hours 16 minutes installing the new equipment. Massimino, on his first spacewalk and Newman, making his fifth spacewalk, began their work at 12:40 CST. They first removed the old port solar array and stowed it in Columbia’s payload bay for a return to Earth. They then installed a third-generation solar array and its associated electrical components, the Diode Box Assembly. When the solar array installation was complete, the spacewalkers moved on to the removal and replacement of the RWA. Nancy Currie once again used the shuttle’s robotic arm to maneuver the spacewalkers to and from the worksite at the port array of the telescope and the RWA in Bay 6. 

Initial validation tests performed by the Space Telescope Operations Control Center in Greenbelt, Md. indicate that the new solar array and reaction wheel assembly are working flawlessly. The new RWA is one of four pointing devices on the telescope that uses its spin to control Hubble’s position, providing a steady view of the universe for the telescope’s sensitive cameras. 

Toward the end of their spacewalk, Newman and Massimino also installed a thermal blanket on Bay 6, door stop extensions on Bay 5, and foot restraints in preparation for tomorrow’s spacewalk by John Grunsfeld and Rick Linnehan. 

The spacewalkers also tested two bolts on the telescope’s aft shroud doors. Those doors protect the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS.) The two spacewalkers determined that the bottom of the two bolts required replacement and an aft shroud latch replacement kit was used to ensure that both bolts keep the door tightly closed. 

Adapted from: STS-109, Mission Control Center Status Report # 10 & STS-109 (EVA).
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EVA #216
Mission: STS 109 Date: 6 March 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 48 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The Hubble Space Telescope received a new “heart” on Wednesday, March 6, during a 6 hour, 48 minute spacewalk by astronauts John Grunsfeld and Rick Linnehan. The two installed a new Power Control Unit (PCU), replacing the original unit launched with the telescope in April 1990. The PCU serves as Hubble’s central power switching station by distributing electricity to all systems, scientific instruments and the Nickel Hydrogen batteries.  In addition to eliminating an intermittent problem with the old PCU, the new unit also is capable of handling the extra 20 percent of power output being generated from Hubble’s newly installed set of solar panels attached during back-to-back space walks Monday and Tuesday. 

Controllers at the Space Telescope Operations Control Center in Greenbelt, MD, powered Hubble down at 3:37 Wednesday for the first time since its launch in 1990. Nancy Currie operated the shuttle’s robotic arm throughout the space walk, moving Grunsfeld and Linnehan to and from various worksites on the telescope and in Columbia’s payload bay.

The space walk started two hours late due to a water leak in Grunsfeld’s spacesuit. After swapping the upper portion of his suit the space walk began at 2:28. Linnehan, working from the shuttle’s robotic arm, began by removing 30 of the 36 connectors on the old PCU. He was then maneuvered by Currie to the shuttle's payload bay where he switched places with Grunsfeld in order to prepare the new PCU for installation. 

At 4:55 Grunsfeld, now working from the robotic arm, unhooked the remaining six PCU connectors, eased the old PCU out of the telescope and carried it to the shuttle's payload bay for return to Earth. He installed the new unit at 5:53. The connectors were mated to the new PCU by 7:19. Shortly thereafter, the new PCU passed its aliveness test at 8:02 and all functional tests were completed at 12:18.

Adapted from: STS-109, Mission Control Center  Status Report #12 & STS-109 (EVA).
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EVA #217
Mission: STS 109 Date: 7 March 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 18 min. Program:  Space Shuttle
Following Thursday, March 7, 7 hours, 18 minutes EVA successful installation of the new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, scientists will be able to see farther into our universe and with greater clarity and speed than ever before. 

Columbia’s spacewalkers, Jim Newman and Mike Massimino, began the first science instrument upgrade of this servicing mission at 3 a.m. central time. The duo, with Newman on the shuttle’s robotic arm, began by removing the last of Hubble’s original science instruments, the Faint Object Camera to make room for the ACS. Newman and Massimino first opened Hubble’s aft shroud doors, removing the Faint Object Camera and temporarily stowing it at the edge of Columbia’s payload bay. After installing the ACS in the Hubble, Newman and Massimino stowed the old camera in the payload bay for its return to Earth. 

Then Massimino, on the shuttle’s robotic arm, installed the Electronic Support Module in the aft shroud, with Newman’s assistance. That module will support a new experimental cooling system to be installed during tomorrow’s fifth and final scheduled spacewalk of the mission. That cooling system is designed to bring the telescope's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) back to life. Finally, Newman and Massimino completed some remaining cleanup tasks from yesterday’s Power Control Unit installation. 

Adapted from: STS-109, Mission Control Center Status Report #14 & STS-109 (EVA).
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EVA #218
Mission: STS 109 Date: 8 March 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 32 min. Program: Space Shuttle
The crew of the space shuttle Columbia completed a 7 hours, 32 minutes spacewalk, the last of its five ambitious spacewalks on Friday morning, March 8, with the successful installation of an experimental cooling system for Hubble’s Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). The NICMOS has been dormant since January 1999 when its original coolant ran out. 

Astronauts John Grunsfeld and Rick Linnehan began their third spacewalk of the mission at 2:46 CST. Linnehan was given a ride on the shuttle’s robotic arm to the aft shroud doors by Nancy Currie, working from the aft flight deck of Columbia. After the shroud doors were open, he was moved back to Columbia’s payload bay to remove the NICMOS cryocooler from its carrier. 

The spacewalkers then installed the cryocooler inside the aft shroud and connected cables from its Electronics Support Module. That module was installed yesterday during a spacewalk by Jim Newman and Mike Massimino. 

Next, with Grunsfeld on the end of the shuttle’s robotic arm, the Cooling System Radiator was retrieved from its carrier in Columbia’s payload bat and installed on the outside of Hubble. Linnehan fed wires from the radiator through the bottom of the telescope to Grunsfeld, who made the necessary connections to NICMOS. After ensuring that all the cables were properly connected and stowed, the pair closed both aft shroud doors and performed the final activities of the spacewalk to prepare the shuttle payload bay for landing. 

Initial tests of the new cooling system by the Space Telescope Operations Control Center in Greenbelt, Md. have all gone very well. NICMOS was originally installed on the second servicing mission to Hubble in 1997. The camera requires extremely low temperatures, but its solid-nitrogen cooling block was depleted earlier than expected. Engineers hope the new neon gas cooling system will restore the cold temperatures necessary for the camera to operate. 

Adapted from: STS-109, Mission Control Center Status Report # 16 & STS-109 (EVA).
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EVA #219
Mission: STS-110 Date: 11 April 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 48 min. Program: ISS
The expansion of the International Space Station continued Thursday, April 11, with the installation of the 13½-ton S0 (S-Zero) truss segment on the orbital outpost. Assisted by Expedition Four Dan Bursch, Atlantis astronaut Ellen Ochoa gently lifted the truss out of the shuttle's payload bay at 5:30 Central time through the use of the station’s robotic arm and maneuvered it onto a clamp at the top of the station's Destiny Laboratory. It took just under four hours to complete the delicate procedure. The truss will serve as the backbone for future station expansion to the length of a football field. 

Astronauts Rex Walheim and Steve Smith left the station's Quest Airlock at 9:36 Central time to begin the first of four spacewalks of the mission to electrically and structurally mate S-Zero to the station. 

They first unfurled and firmly attached two of four mounting struts on the truss to Destiny before deploying trays of avionics equipment and cables on the truss which include power, data and fluid lines connecting Destiny to the S-Zero. 

They also attached an umbilical system from the truss to the Mobile Transporter housed on the forward face of the huge girder. The umbilical will enable the Transporter, which is the first railcar in space, to move up and down the length of the station to position the ISS robotic arm for future assembly work. 

Working deliberately to connect all of the critical power connections, Walheim spent the day working at the end of the station’s Canadarm2, the first time the large arm has been used as a form of cherry picker to maneuver astronauts during assembly work at the ISS. Smith operated as a so-called “free-floater”, tethered to the station and to various work sites around the truss itself. 

With all but two tasks successfully completed, Smith and Walheim returned to Quest late this afternoon and ended their spacewalk at 17:24 Central time, completing a 7 hour, 48 minute excursion. Time ran out before Smith and Walheim could install two circuit breakers on the truss, but that task will be picked up on a subsequent spacewalk. 
 

As Smith and Walheim wrapped up their work, flight controllers reported that the activation of the S-Zero Truss had begun and that all of the initial systems appear to be in excellent shape. 

It was the 35th spacewalk devoted to station assembly and the 10th staged from the station itself.

Adapted from: STS-110, Mission Control Center Status Report # 07.
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EVA #220
Mission: STS-110 Date: 13 April 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 30 min. Program: ISS
Two grandfathers completed the structural attachment of the newest component of the International Space Station on Saturday, April 13, mating two large tripod legs of a 13 ½-tons truss to the station’s main laboratory during a 7 hour, 30 minute spacewalk.

Dubbed the “Silver Team” by their colleagues because of their age, 54-year old Jerry Ross and 49-year old Lee Morin of Atlantis’ crew had little trouble extending and bolting the final two struts of the new S-Zero (S0) truss to the Destiny Laboratory, insuring that the centerpiece for the future expansion of the station would be permanently secured to accept additional trusses and solar array towers over the next year. The station will ultimately span some 105 metres from end to end, the length of a football field. 

Morin worked at the end of the ISS’ Canadarm 2 throughout the day during his first spacewalk, while Ross, America’s most experienced spacewalker and the most flown space traveler in history, remained tethered to the station to provide “free-floating” support during the eighth spacewalk of his career.

After the truss struts were bolted in space, Ross and Morin removed a series of panels and clamps that provided structural support for the truss during its launch in Atlantis’ cargo bay. 

The spacewalkers then began work to install a backup device containing an umbilical reel for the Mobile Transporter railcar on the truss that will provide redundancy to a similar device mounted on the truss Thursday. The two sets of umbilicals for the Mobile Transporter, which is designed to move the robotic arm up and down the length of the completed station truss, provide power, data and video capability for the system, which will be tested for the first time in orbit Monday.

Ross tried to remove a restraining bolt on the mechanism which, if required, can cut the umbilical cable should it snag during its operation, but the bolt proved to be a bit balky and did not back out of its socket as planned. Flight controllers decided not to spend additional time troubleshooting the stubborn bolt today after engineers determined that the cable cutter cannot inadvertently fire in its current configuration. The backup umbilical system is operating normally and the stubborn bolt will be dealt with on one of the mission’s two remaining spacewalks. The primary umbilical system installed Thursday is also operating normally. 

The spacewalk, which was conducted out of the station’s Quest Airlock, began at 9:09 Central time and concluded at 16:39 as Ross and Morin repressurized the outer compartment of the two-chamber module. 

Adapted from: STS-110, Mission Control Center Status Report # 11.
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EVA #221
Mission: STS-110 Date: 14 April 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 27 min. Program: ISS
Two astronauts rewired the robotic arm on the International Space Station on Sunday, April 14 and released locking bolts on the first space railcar during a 6 hour, 27 minute spacewalk, the third of Atlantis’ assembly flight to the international complex.  The stage is now set for the inaugural run Monday of the so-called Mobile Transporter, a flatcar designed to transport the space station’s robotic arm up and down an integrated truss system that will span the length of a football field. 

Within minutes after starting their spacewalk at 8:48 Central time, Steve Smith and Rex Walheim released a claw-like device on the top of the Destiny Laboratory to which the new 13 ½ ton S-Zero (S0) truss was initially attached on Thursday. With the truss’ four large struts now securely bolted to Destiny, the claw was no longer needed. 

Smith and Walheim then reconfigured a number of connectors providing electricity to the 18-metre-long Canadarm2 robotic arm on the station so it can be powered from the S-Zero truss rather than Destiny. The arm has two sets, or “strings” of avionics equipment for its operation. As Smith and Walheim worked deliberately, one set of avionics was rewired and tested, followed by a separate set of redundant avionics. 

Smith spent most of the day riding at the end of the shuttle’s robotic arm, which was operated by Steve Frick during the rewiring of its companion station arm. Walheim was the so-called “free-floating” astronaut, tethered to the station to assist Smith. It was the seventh spacewalk of Smith’s career. He is the second most experienced U.S. spacewalker behind crewmate Jerry Ross, who helped choreograph today’s excursion from inside Atlantis with the help of Lee Morin. It was Walheim’s second spacewalk. 

With Canadarm2 successfully rewired and both of its electrical, data and video circuit sets checked out, Smith and Walheim pressed ahead to release clamps which secured the Mobile Transporter to the S-Zero truss during its launch last week. The railcar, which weighs about 860 kilograms, will be commanded Monday by ground controllers to move about 10 metres up and down the truss at a glacial speed of a little less than two centimeter per second in the first test of its computers, drive motors, suspension unit, video and data umbilicals and the first section of rails on the S-Zero. 

The railcar, and an associated Mobile Base System device to be installed on the transporter in early June on the next shuttle assembly flight to the ISS, will ultimately enable the robotic arm to travel to various worksites on the expanding trusses of the station for future construction. The Mobile Base System will be the platform upon which the Canadarm2 will attach itself to be driven up and down the length of the ISS. 

The only task not completed today was the attachment of a 4-metre ladder called the Airlock Spur from the S-Zero truss to the Quest Airlock designed to simplify the path for future spacewalkers moving back and forth from the truss to the airlock itself. 

As the spacewalk neared its completion, final diagnostic tests of the newly wired station arm were taking longer than planned, and because the Canadarm2 is required for the airlock ladder to be pivoted away from the truss to Quest, flight controllers decided to defer its installation until the final spacewalk on Tuesday. 

Smith and Walheim finally returned to Quest and completed their spacewalk at 15:15 Central time with the repressurization of the airlock. 

Adapted from: STS-110, Mission Control Center Status Report # 13.
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EVA #222
Mission: STS-110 Date: 16 April 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 37 min. Program: ISS
Jerry Ross and Lee Morin completed the outfitting of the new S-Zero (S0) truss on the International Space Station on Tuesday, April 16, during a 6 hour, 37 minute spacewalk, installing a ladder, testing electrical switches for upcoming truss expansion and attaching external lights and equipment to be used in future assembly work. 

Ross and Morin began the fourth and final spacewalk of the STS-110 mission and the 38th devoted to space station construction at 9:29 Central time, first pivoting a 4-metre beam called the Airlock Spur from the S-Zero truss to the Quest Airlock to provide a quick pathway for future spacewalkers working on truss assembly. 

Ross then conducted tests of switches on both sides of the 13-metre long truss to insure they will work properly later this year in confirming the attachment of additional truss segments to the S-Zero. The main truss of the ISS will eventually stretch more than 105 metres, longer than a football field. 

The two spacewalking grandfathers pressed ahead to install floodlights on the station’s Unity connecting module and the Destiny Laboratory which will provide illumination for future spacewalkers as they move around the expanding outpost. 

They then affixed a work platform on the station for future construction work, installed electrical converters and circuit breakers, dressed up a piece of insulation around one of the four navigational antennas on the truss and attached shock absorbers to the new Mobile Transporter railcar. The shock absorbers will prevent vibrations to the station’s robotic arm from the future use of carts on the truss which will be used to move spacewalkers from one end of the station to another. 

The only tasks not accomplished were the removal of a balky bolt from a backup cable cutting device on one of two umbilical systems for the Mobile Transporter, which was successfully tested on Monday and the installation of a gas analyzer on the truss which proved to be faulty. 

The bolt will have no impact on the operation of the flatcar, upon which a Mobile Base System platform will be mounted in June as the ultimate base for the transport of the station’s robotic arm up and down the length of the ISS. The gas analyzer was considered the lowest priority of the flight. 

With all of their major work completed, Ross and Morin returned to the Quest Airlock and concluded the spacewalk at 16:06 Central time. 

Ellen Ochoa and Dan Bursch operated the station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm to move Ross around the ISS during the spacewalk while Morin operated as the “free-floating” spacewalker, tethered to the station to assist Ross in the final tasks of the mission. 

For Ross, America’s most experienced spacewalker, it was his ninth excursion to conduct work in the void of space during his career, totaling 58 hours and 18 minutes of spacewalking time. Only Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyev has performed more spacewalks in human spaceflight history. Today’s spacewalk was the second for Morin. 

Adapted from: STS-110, Mission Control Center Status Report # 17.
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EVA #223
Mission: STS-111 Date: 9 June 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 14 min. Program: ISS
Franklin Chang-Díaz and Philippe Perrin completed all scheduled International Space Station assembly tasks on Sunday, June 9, during a 7-hour, 14-minute spacewalk, the first ever for the duo. 

They ventured outside the station’s Quest airlock at 10:27 Central time. With the help of Paul Lockhart, who guided the spacewalk from inside the shuttle, Chang-Díaz and Perrin first installed a Power and Data Grapple Fixture to the station’s P6 truss. The fixture will be used to relocate the P6 truss structure to its final location on the station. 

Attached to a foot restraint at the end of the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2, operated by Peggy Whitson and Valery Korzun, Chang-Díaz gathered six micrometeoroid debris shields from the shuttle cargo bay and, with help from Perrin, temporarily stored them on Pressurized Mating Adapter-1 which links Unity to Zarya. Whitson and Korzun will install the shields on the Zvezda Service Module during a spacewalk set for late July. 

Chang-Díaz then conducted a visual and photographic inspection of one of the station’s four control moment gyroscopes on the station’s Z1 truss, a task that was added to today’s spacewalk after the gyroscope experienced a mechanical failure yesterday. The photos may help ground controllers better understand why the gyroscope failed. 

Removal of thermal blankets from the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System was the final task of the spacewalk. At 17:21 p.m. Endeavour Commander Ken Cockrell commanded the release of latches that had secured the MBS to its carrier in the payload bay. Whitson and Carl Walz then latched onto the MBS with Canadarm2, removed it from its carrier, and maneuvered it to a position about a metre above the station’s railcar, the Mobile Transporter. Canadarm2 will be left in a parked position overnight to thermally condition the MBS before it is mated to the railcar Monday. 

Later, the Canadarm2 robotic arm will be commanded to “walk off” its position attached to the Destiny Laboratory onto a Power and Data Grapple Fixture atop the MBS. The arm will then be able to move up and down along the station truss for use in future assembly operations. 

Following an inventory of the tools they used during the spacewalk, Perrin and Chang-Díaz re-entered Quest. Airlock repressurization began at 17:41 p.m. Central time, signaling the end of the spacewalk. 

Adapted from: STS-111, Mission Control Center Status Report # 10.
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EVA #224
Mission: STS-111 Date: 11 June 2002 Duration: 5 hr. 00 min. Program: ISS
In a 5-hour spacewalk on Tuesday, June 11, Franklin Chang-Díaz and Philippe Perrin completed installation of the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System, or MBS, on the International Space Station’s railcar, the Mobile Transporter. With those tasks completed, they established a moveable base for future use by the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2. 

They ventured outside the station’s Quest airlock at 10:20 Central time. With the help of Paul Lockhart, who guided the spacewalk from inside the shuttle, they first connected primary and backup cables for video and data, and primary power cables between the Mobile Transporter railcar and the MBS. Once the connections were made, ground controllers sent commands for the MT to remotely plug in its umbilical attachments to receptacles on the S0 (S-Zero) truss railway. 

With that complete, Chang-Díaz and Perrin then deployed an auxiliary grapple fixture on the MBS called the Payload Orbital Replacement Unit Accommodation, or POA, and placed it in its final configuration. Identical to the end effectors on Canadarm2, the fixture can grapple payloads and hold them as they are moved along the station’s truss atop the MBS. 

Continuing to run ahead of schedule, the two spacewalkers then secured four bolts between the MBS and the railcar, completing installation of the new MBS platform. Later this month or next, Canadarm2 will “walk off” the Destiny Laboratory and mate its free hand to any one of four power and data fixtures on the new platform so it can be driven up and down the length of the station’s truss for use in future station assembly and maintenance operations. 

The spacewalkers then relocated a television camera to its final position on top of a mast atop the MBS. The camera will provide views of station assembly and maintenance operations to ground controllers. Final tasks included adding an extra extension cable for the platform, a wire tie to one of the cables installed earlier during the spacewalk and to photograph connectors near the lower portion of the MBS that tie into the MT. 

Following an inventory of the tools they used during the spacewalk, Perrin and Chang-Díaz re-entered Quest. Airlock repressurization began at 15:20 Central time, signaling the end of the spacewalk. It was the 40th spacewalk in support of ISS assembly and maintenance and the second of the mission, bringing the total spacewalking time for STS-111 to 12 hours and 14 minutes. 

After flight controllers verified that all connections on the Mobile Remote Servicer Base System were working properly, the capture latch on Canadarm2 was released. The arm, which had been supplying power to the MBS, was then repositioned for Thursday’s third and final spacewalk of the mission, which will see replacement of its wrist roll joint.

Adapted from: STS-111, Mission Control Center Status Report # 14.
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EVA #225
Mission: STS-111 Date: 13 June 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 17 min. Program: ISS
In a 7-hour, 17-minute spacewalk on Thursday, June 13, Franklin Chang-Díaz and Philippe Perrin successfully replaced a wrist roll joint on the International Space Station’s robotic arm, restoring the arm to full functionality. 

With Paul Lockhart choreographing the spacewalk from inside Endeavour, they stepped outside the station’s Quest airlock at 10:16 Central time.

The space walkers first removed the arm’s latching end effector, essentially the hand of Canadarm2, and attached it to a handrail on the station’s Destiny Laboratory. Next they released six bolts connecting the wrist roll joint to the adjoining yaw joint and an additional bolt connecting power, data and video umbilicals. Perrin carried the failed unit to Endeavour’s payload bay where it was temporarily stored near the new joint. 

He then released six fasteners to remove the new joint from its launch carrier in the shuttle cargo bay and brought it up to Canadarm2 where Chang-Díaz was positioned. After aligning the new component with the wrist yaw joint at the end of the arm, the duo tightened the six bolts to secure the new joint to the arm and turned the final bolt to connect the power, data and video lines. After they reinstalled the latching end effector, power was turned back on to Canadarm2. The failed joint was then placed in a flight support structure in the cargo bay for return to Earth. 

Working at the robotics workstation inside the Destiny Laboratory, Dan Bursch and Valery Korzun conducted a checkout of the health of the arm once the new joint was installed. At 15:43 Central time, the arm returned to full operational status. 

Following an inventory of the tools they used during the spacewalk, Perrin and Chang-Díaz re-entered Quest. Airlock repressurization began at 15:33 p.m. Central time, signaling the end of the spacewalk. It was the 41st spacewalk in support of ISS assembly and maintenance and the third of the mission, bringing the total spacewalking time for STS-111 to 19 hours and 31 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-111, Mission Control Center Status Report # 18.
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EVA #226
Mission: ISS Expedition 5 Date: 16 August 2002 Duration: 4 hr. 25 min. Program: ISS
Expedition Five Commander Valery Korzun and Peggy Whitson stepped outside the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on Friday, August 16, and installed debris shields on the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module in a 4 hour, 25 minute spacewalk. 

It was the first of two spacewalks for the Expedition Five crew, the third of Korzun’s career and the first for Whitson. This excursion was the 42nd spacewalk in support of ISS assembly and maintenance and the 17th staged from the station itself. 25 spacewalks at the ISS have originated from visiting space shuttles. While Korzun and Whitson worked outside, Sergei Treschev tended to station systems and choreographed the spacewalk from inside Zvezda. 

After a 1 hour, 43 minute delay to the start of the spacewalk because of a misconfigured valve regulating the operation of the primary oxygen bottles in their Orlan spacesuits, Korzun and Whitson opened the hatch to Pirs at 4:23 Central time (923 GMT). Their first task was to set up tools and unfurl a telescoping crane called the Strela boom from the side of the docking module that is attached to the nadir port of Zvezda. 

They pressed ahead to move six micrometeoroid debris shields from a temporary stowage location on the connecting module adapter between the U.S. and Russian segments of the ISS that were delivered in June during the STS-111 mission. 

One by one, the shields were affixed around Zvezda, designed to provide debris protection for the lifetime of the module. 17 additional shields will be flown to the ISS on future missions to complete the job. 

Because of the late start to the spacewalk, Russian flight controllers decided to defer the refurbishment of an experiment on Zvezda called Kromka, designed to collect samples of residue emitted from the module’s jet thrusters. That lower priority task and the swabbing of thruster residue from Zvezda’s hull for analysis will be conducted on a future spacewalk. It was not immediately known whether Korzun and Treschev would perform those tasks next Friday during the second spacewalk of the Expedition. 

After retrieving their tools and stowing the Strela crane, Korzun and Whitson returned to Pirs and closed the hatch at 8:48 Central time (1348 GMT) to wrap up their excursion. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #02-36.
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EVA #227
Mission: ISS Expedition 5 Date: 26 August 2002 Duration: 5 hr. 21 min. Program: ISS
Comonauts Valery Korzun and Sergei Treschev stepped outside the Pirs Docking Compartment of the International Space Station on Monday, August 26, to swap out Japanese space exposure experiments and a Russian experiment measuring jet thruster residue on the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module in a 5 hour, 21 minute spacewalk. 

It was the second of two spacewalks for the Expedition Five crew, the fourth of Korzun’s career and the first for Treschev. Thiss excursion was the 43rd spacewalk in support of ISS assembly and maintenance and the 18th staged from the station itself. 25 spacewalks at the ISS have originated from visiting space shuttles. While Korzun and Treschev worked outside, Peggy Whitson tended to station systems and choreographed the spacewalk from inside Zvezda. 

After a slight delay to track down a small pressure leak across the hatch between Zvezda and the Zarya module, Korzun and Treschev opened the hatch to Pirs at 0:27 Central time (527 GMT). They went to work right away, installing a frame on the Zarya as a “parking place” for modular equipment to be temporarily stowed during future ISS assembly spacewalks and hardware on Zarya which will better route tethers for spacewalkers working around the Russian segment of the station. 

The two Russian spacewalkers then exchanged trays of experiments in suitcase-like devices on Zvezda for NASDA, the Japanese Space Agency, which measure the effect of the space environment on engineering materials.

With that work accomplished, Korzun and Treschev completed a task left over from the previous spacewalk ten days ago. They replaced an experiment on the outside of Zvezda called Kromka, which measures the amount of residue emitted from the module’s jet thruster firings. Deflectors previously installed on Zvezda have significantly reduced the buildup of residue on the hull of the module. 

The final job for Korzun and Treschev was the installation of two additional ham radio antennas on Zvezda to enhance amateur radio operations in the future. ISS residents frequently conduct conversations with “hams” back on Earth. 

After retrieving their tools, Korzun and Treschev returned to Pirs and closed the hatch at 5:48 Central time (1048 GMT) to wrap up their excursion.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #02-38.
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EVA #228
Mission: STS-112 Date: 10 October 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 01 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Dave Wolf and Piers Sellers completed all planned International Space Station assembly tasks on Thursday, October 10, 2002, during a 7-hour, 1-minute spacewalk, an excursion focused on attaching the next segment of the station's backbone- the Starboard One (S1) Truss – to the Starboard Zero (S0) Truss. 

Astronautrs Peggy Whitson and Sandy Magnus used the station's Canadarm2 robotic arm to grapple the 14-metre-long, 14-ton S1 structure, remove it from Atlantis' cargo bay and move it to the starboard end of S0. Motorized bolts locked the two truss segments together at 8:36 CDT. 

Wolf and Sellers ventured outside the station's Quest airlock at 10:21. Their first task was to connect power, data and fluid lines between the S0 and the S1 trusses. As Wolf worked to accomplish this task, Sellers, on his first spacewalk, released the locks on three folded-up radiators mounted to the S1, allowing S1's radiators to be oriented for optimal cooling 

They then worked together to install a new S-band antenna assembly. Wolf, attached to the end of the station robotic arm, moved the antenna into position. He then tightened stanchion bolts to lock the antenna into place near the end of the S1 Truss where it connects to the S0 as Sellers held it in place. The new component will increase the S-band data and voice communications capability from the space station to ground controllers. 

The duo then went to work releasing restraints that had held the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the S1 for launch and configure its brakes. The CETA cart, a handcar that rides along rails on the station's truss, can be used to move spacewalkers and equipment. 

Installation of the S1's outboard nadir external camera was the final major task of the spacewalk. The camera, launched on Atlantis' middeck, is the first of two that will be installed on S1. They will be used as situational awareness tools for spacewalkers and robotic arm operators. 

Following an inventory of the tools they used during the spacewalk and cleanup activities, Wolf and Sellers re-entered Quest. Airlock repressurization began at 17:22, signaling the end of the spacewalk.

Adapted from: STS-112 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #229
Mission: STS-112 Date: 12 October 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 04 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Dave Wolf and Piers Sellers moved smoothly and ahead of schedule through their second spacewalk of the week on Saturday, October 12,, continuing to bring the International Space Station's newest component to life and installing devices to prevent future difficulties with station cooling connections. 

The spacewalk began at 9:31 CDT and ended about a half-hour early at about 15:35 CDT for an official duration of six hours, four minutes. About six and a half hours had originally been allotted for the spacewalk, the second of three ventures outside the station planned for Wolf and Sellers during STS-112 to set up the new station S1 (S-One) truss segment delivered by Atlantis. 

The duo prepared a new handcar system for future use on the station's truss-mounted railway. Called the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid, the car will allow astronauts to propel themselves, maintenance and construction equipment hand-over-hand along what eventually will be a 100-metre railway atop the station's truss. The spacewalkers also installed 22 Spool Positioning Devices (SPDs) on station ammonia cooling line connections, devices that will prevent a possible condition that could lock up those connections, preventing them from being opened if needed. 

Two more such devices were to be installed during the spacewalk, bringing the total to 24, but they were not attached. Due to a different configuration than anticipated on the two line connections in question, the additional two SPDs would not have fit properly. However, space station engineers and managers have determined those two connections are in a satisfactory condition and will not require any further work. 

Other work included the installation of an additional exterior station television camera outside of the Destiny Laboratory; hooking up an ammonia supply for lines to a radiator on the new truss segment that will be deployed Monday afternoon; and checking equipment that will be used to add the next starboard truss segment to the station in the fall of 2003. 

Adapted from: STS-112 MCC Status Report #11
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EVA #230
Mission:STS-112 Date: 14 October 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 36 min. Program: ISS
The third and final spacewalk of the mission concluded at 15:47 on Monday, October 14, 6 hours and 36 minutes after Dave Wolf and Piers Sellers floated out of the Quest airlock of the International Space Station and into the vacuum of space. 

Making quick work of their first task, to remove a bolt preventing activation of a cable cutter on the mobile transporter, Wolf and Sellers moved on to connect ammonia lines and remove structural support clamps that held the truss in place during launch. With Sellers and Wolf working well ahead of schedule, an additional "get ahead" task – installing Spool Positioning Devices on a pump motor assembly – was added to the spacewalk. The pump motor assembly helps to circulate ammonia through the station's cooling system. 

The spacewalk began at 9:11 and was the 46th devoted to assembly and maintenance of the station. 

Adapted from: STS-112 MCC Status Report #15
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EVA #231
Mission: STS-113 Date: 26 November 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 45 min. Program: ISS
On Tuesday, November 26, Endeavour and International Space Station crewmembers completed a smooth installation of the Port One (P1) truss and a spacewalk to hook up connections between P1 and the rest of the station. The spacewalk, by Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington successfully completed scheduled tasks. 

P1 was removed from Endeavour's payload bay at 9:22 CST by the shuttle's robotic arm, operated by Commander Jim Wetherbee. He handed it off to the station's Canadarm2, operated by Expedition 6 commander Ken Bowersox and Peggy Whitson, and released the shuttle arm's grip on P1 a little before 11 a.m. Whitson and Bowersox maneuvered the 14-ton, 14-metre truss segment to its installation position. 

P1 is the third segment of the Integrated Truss Structure to be installed this year. A fourth segment, the P6 truss, supports the 105-metre -long solar arrays atop the station. It was installed there in December 2000 and will be moved later to the left end of the station's backbone. At completion, the integrated truss will consist of 11 segments stretching the length of a football field. 

The spacewalk began at 13:49, about 30 minutes earlier than planned, after the four bolts securing the P1 to the S0 truss centerpiece had been driven home by remote commands. The spacewalk ended a little before 20:35 for a total time of 6 hours and 45 minutes. 

Herrington and Lopez-Alegria hooked up electrical connections between P1 and the station, installed spool positioning devices designed to ensure that quick disconnect devices in fluid lines will function properly, and released launch locks securing the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart, a kind of hand car for the truss railway. 

The two spacewalkers also removed two drag links, large metal rods that had supported P1 during launch, and stowed them in the P1 framework. Finally, after Herrington had topped off his oxygen supply in the airlock, they installed Node Wireless video system External Transceiver Assembly (WETA) antennas allowing reception from spacewalkers' helmet cameras without a shuttle present.

The spacewalk was the 22nd station-based spacewalk, and brought the total time for space station spacewalks to 292 hours, 10 minutes. There have been 25 shuttle-based assembly spacewalks.

Adapted from: STS-113 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #232
Mission: STS-113 Date: 28 November 2002 Duration: 6 hr. 10 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington completed the second of three spacewalks of the STS-113 mission on Thursday, November 28, accomplishing all their scheduled tasks on the International Space Station's new Port One (P1) truss and doing two additional jobs during the 6-hour, 10-minute outing. 

The Thanksgiving Day spacewalk started at 12:36 CST, almost 45 minutes ahead of schedule, and ended officially at 18:46. 

The first task for the spacewalkers was connection of two fluid jumpers between P1 and the Starboard Zero (S0) truss centerpiece. The jumpers link plumbing for ammonia in the station's cooling system. Next they removed the starboard keel pin, a launch support, and using the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid - one of two handcar-like devices on the truss railway - moved it to the proper location and stowed it in the P1 truss structure. 

They then installed a second Wireless video system External Transceiver Assembly (WETA), this one on the P1 truss. They had installed the first WETA on the station's Unity Node during their Tuesday spacewalk. After removal and stowage of the port keel pin, they did the first of the additional jobs, releasing launch locks on the P1's radiator beams. Then they turned their attention to relocation of the CETA cart. 

Herrington, in a foot restraint on Canadarm2, lifted the cart from its tracks and held it while Whitson swung him and his cargo around the front of the station, past Endeavour's cargo bay and to the Starboard One (S1), where he attached the cart to tracks and secured it to its sister CETA, launched with the S1 truss on STS-112 flight in October. The relocation was done to clear the P1 tracks for the Canadarm2 to move along them on its Mobile Transporter and Mobile Base System. 

The CETA move accomplished, the two spacewalkers moved on to the second additional task, reconnection of one of the cables on the WETA installed Tuesday. Both extra jobs took about 20 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-113 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #233
Mission: STS-113 Date: 30 November 2002 Duration: 7 hr. 00 min. Program: ISS
The third and final spacewalk of STS-113 ended at 20:25 central time on Saturday, November 30, as Michael Lopez-Alegria and John Herrington climbed back inside the Quest Airlock. The two spacewalkers spent seven hours outside the International Space Station today, continuing the outfitting of the newly-installed P1 truss segment. 

Today's spacewalk began at 13:25, with Herrington being asked to look for possible obstructions that might have stalled the station's railcar, or Mobile Transporter (MT) that had stopped unexpectedly about 3 metres short of its intended destination. At 10:21, the MT was commanded to move from its position at Worksite 4 near the S-Zero (S0) truss to Worksite 7 where the station's robotic arm would have "walked off" from its mooring on the Destiny Laboratory to the MT and been used to maneuver Herrington through some of his tasks. 

Herrington spotted a stowed UHF communications antenna that had snagged a trailing umbilical mechanism on the MT, halting its motion. He then deployed the antenna, freeing the MT to continue its travel toward Worksite 7. At 16:11, the railcar was in place and just before 18:00, was securely latched into place. 

Flight controllers evaluated the performance of the railcar and possible impacts to the spacewalk schedule as a result of troubleshooting activities, ultimately deciding to reprioritize some of today's tasks to ensure the high priority items were completed. After Herrington informed flight controllers he could complete all his assigned tasks without using the station's robotic arm, flight controllers elected not to perform the "walk off" of the station arm to the MT. 

The spacewalkers successfully completed all of their assigned tasks during their spacewalk, including the installation of 33 spool positioning devices on various locations around the outside of the station.

Adapted from: STS-113 MCC Status Report #15
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EVA #234
Mission: ISS Expedition 6 Date: 15 January 2003 Duration: 6 hr. 51 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Ken Bowersox and Don Pettit continued the assembly of the International Space Station on Wednesday, January 15, and set the stage for a series of complex shuttle construction flights to the complex later this year during a 6-hour, 51-minute spacewalk staged out of the Quest Airlock. 

The spacewalk, which was the first for both Bowersox and Pettit, was the 50th excursion in support of the assembly and maintenance of the ISS, the 25th originated from the Station itself and the 16th conducted from Quest. 

After encountering some difficulty opening the airlock hatch due to a strap on the inside of the thermal hatch cover, the hatch finally swung open and Bowersox and Pettit began their spacewalk at 6:50 Central time by placing their suits on internal battery power. As he did, Bowersox reported a loss of digital data for his suit systems, requiring him to recycle his suit power that cleared up the momentary glitch. 

Once outside, they quickly set up tools and gear, then moved to the recently installed Port One (P1) Truss segment, where they released ten remaining launch restraints from the truss’ radiator system. Eight others had been released when the truss was delivered to the ISS last November on the STS-113 mission. 

Flight controllers then sent commands to unfurl the P1’s center radiator, enabling it to extend to its fully deployed length of 23 metres, preparing the system for its activation later this year to provide cooling for station systems. The deployment took only 9 minutes to complete. 

After inspecting some hardware on the P1 Truss for engineers on the ground, the two spacewalkers made their way to the Unity connecting node, where Pettit used Kapton tape to dab away small amounts of grit from a sealing ring on the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism, leaving the CBM in a pristine condition for the attachment of the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module during the next shuttle flight to the station in March. 

The spacewalkers were unable to complete one minor task, the installation of a stanchion and a light fixture on one of two handcarts located on the Starboard One (S1) Truss which future spacewalkers will use to transport themselves up and down the station’s truss system. The stanchion would not release from its stowed position on the truss, apparently because of a pin interfering with its movement, and the task, considered a low priority for today’s spacewalk, was deferred to a future Expedition excursion. 

As they neared the end of their spacewalk, Bowersox and Pettit returned to the center of the station, as Pettit retrieved tools from a storage box on the Z1 Truss and conducted a health check on an ammonia reservoir that was delivered to the P6 solar array truss structure in 2001. That ammonia system will be used to partially fill the cooling loops of the P1 Truss on an intricate shuttle assembly flight later this year that will occur in the midst of the reconfiguration of station power systems. 

As they reentered the Quest Airlock, Bowersox and Pettit used a scissors to cut away the strap on the hatch cover which interfered with the rotation of the hatch handle at the start of the spacewalk. The hatch closed normally with no further problems expected in the future. 

With their work completed, they completed their spacewalk at 13:41 Central time, raising the total spacewalk time for ISS assembly and maintenance to 312 hours and 11 minutes. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #03-3.
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EVA #235
Mission: ISS Expedition 6 Date: 8 April 2003 Duration: 6 hr. 26 min. Program: ISS
Astronaut Ken Bowersox and Don Pettit reconfigured critical power cables and continued the external outfitting of the International Space Station on Tuesday, April 8, during a 6 hour, 26 minute spacewalk designed to complete a number of get-ahead tasks for future ISS assembly. 

Taking advantage of the final days of a three-man presence on the ISS before the new Expedition 7 crew is launched, Bowersox and Pettit began the second spacewalk of their increment at 7:40 CDT (1240 GMT). It was the second spacewalk for both, the 51st spacewalk for ISS assembly and maintenance and the 17th spacewalk staged from the U.S. Quest Airlock.

Bowersox and Pettit set out immediately to set up tools and tethers, and quickly went to work on separate tasks. Bowersox reconfigured electrical connectors at the interfaces between the Starboard Zero (S0) Truss and the two trusses flanking it, the Starboard One (S1) Truss and the Port 1 (P1) Truss. The connector work will insure that additional protection is in place to prevent the inadvertent release of the truss segments from the S0 Truss through the trusses’ Bolt Bus Controller system. Bowersox also inspected a faulty heater cable on the P1 Truss Nitrogen Tank Assembly but found nothing unusual. 
While that work was being conducted, Pettit replaced a power relay box in the Mobile Transporter railcar system, which has experienced some electrical problems in recent weeks. 

The spacewalkers then made their way to the Z1 (Zenith One) Truss, where they successfully rerouted power cables to two of the four Control Moment Gyros (CMGs) that provide orientation control for the ISS from the U.S. segment. One CMG failed almost a year ago, and the cable reconfiguration to CMGs # 2 and 3 will prevent both from being disabled in the unlikely event a power failure occurs. The ISS can be properly oriented with just two CMGs in operation. A replacement for the failed CMG will be flown to the ISS and installed on the first post-Columbia shuttle mission, STS-114. 

Bowersox and Pettit pressed ahead to install two so-called Spool Positioning Devices on fluid quick disconnect lines for the heat exchanger on the Destiny Laboratory. The devices help keep internal seals and moving parts from experiencing internal leakage as ammonia flows through the station’s cooling system.

With that completed, the two station crewmembers ventured to the S1 Truss to secure a thermal cover on the truss’ Radiator Beam Valve Module, which controls the flow of ammonia to the truss’ heat-rejecting radiators. 

One final task awaited Bowersox and Pettit: the deployment of a balky light stanchion for the handrail cart on the S1 Truss that would not unfurl during the previous spacewalk by the two crewmembers in January. The stanchion proved to be just as stubborn this time, but Pettit used a hammer to tap the stanchion free from its stowed position on the 10th try. A light was then installed on the stanchion, giving the truss the illuminating capability it needs to assist future spacewalkers. 

With all of their work completed, they retrieved some tools for future spacewalks from external locations and returned to Quest to complete their spacewalk at 14:06 p.m. CDT (1906 GMT).

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #03-15.
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EVA #236
Mission: ISS Expedition 8 Date: 26 February 2004 Duration: 3 hr. 55 min. Program: ISS
The residents of the International Space Station conducted on Thursday, February 26, the first ever two-man spacewalk without a crewmember inside, but the planned five and a half hour-spacewalk to support technology experiments and prepare for a future visit from a cargo vehicle was cut short by a cooling system problem with one of the two crewmembers' Russian Orlan suits. 

The spacewalk by Mike Foale and Alexander Kaleri was proceeding smoothly and problem-free for almost three hours until Kaleri reported that drops of water were beginning to form inside his helmet visor and that his suit temperature was a little warm. Within minutes, Russian flight controllers reported an apparent failure of the system that provides cooling for his suit. Initially, Russian suit specialists surmised that the problem existed with the suit's sublimator device, which provides cooling and dehumidifying capability and directed the crew to end the spacewalk. Despite the problem, Kaleri was never in any danger and suit temperatures never rose to uncomfortable levels. 

Back inside the Pirs Docking Compartment from which the spacewalk was staged, Foale removed his suit after Pirs was repressurized so he could conduct an inspection of Kaleri's suit. He quickly detected a kink in one of the tubes in Kaleri's liquid cooling garment that provides the flow of water throughout the suit. The kink was straightened out and water began to flow once again normally in Kaleri's suit. 

Earlier today, after configuring systems, closing module hatches and buttoning up the Station in the unlikely event a problem would prevent them from returning inside, Foale and Kaleri depressurized Pirs and opened the hatch to begin their spacewalk at 15:17 CST (2117 GMT). It was the first time the Station had not been occupied during a so-called "extravehicular activity". U.S. and Russian technical teams had worked for months on procedures to insure the safety of the crew and the complex and reviewed all contingencies to mitigate possible risks with no one inside to respond to potential problems. 
All Station systems operated flawlessly in their autonomous configuration during the abbreviated spacewalk. 

Once outside the Pirs, Foale and Kaleri quickly set up tools and tethers to guide them during the spacewalk that was focused on the exterior of Zvezda. Their first task was the replacement of a cassette container on the Docking Compartment airlock housing sample materials for the study of the harsh effect of long-duration exposure of those materials to the space environment. Foale replaced one of two similar cassettes housed on the outside of Zvezda as the spacewalk drew to a premature close. 

The spacewalkers then removed one of two suitcase-size pallets of Japanese experiments from a bracket on Zvezda and moved a similar experiment package to that bracket. The Micro-Particle Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Devices (MPAC / SEEDS) had been in their current location since October 2001 when they were first installed outside Zvezda to measure micrometeoroid impacts on material specimens. 

Moving smartly through their tasks, they turned their attention to the installation of a Russian experiment called "Matryoshka" onto handrails outside Zvezda. The "Matryoshka" is a torso-like device housed in a container comprised of material simulating human tissue. It is designed to collect data on the absorption of radiation by crews living aboard the Station for long periods of time. 

As Foale and Kaleri completed their work to install the Matryoshka, Kaleri reported his suit problem, at around 18:00 CST (0000 GMT). 

Foale completed the installation of Russian material science experiment container on the Zvezda Habitation Module as Kaleri made his way back to Pirs. They closed the hatch to Pirs at 19:12 p.m. CST (0112 GMT) bringing the spacewalk to a close after 3 hours, 55 minutes. 

It was the 52nd spacewalk in support of Station assembly and maintenance, the 27th staged from the Station itself, the fourth for Foale in his career and Kaleri's fifth. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #04-11.
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EVA #237
Mission: ISS Expedition 9 Date: 24 June 2004 Duration: 14 min. 22 sec. Program: ISS
A spacewalk intended to replace a faulty circuit breaker on the exterior of the International Space Station was cut short when the primary oxygen bottle on Astronaut Mike Fincke’s Russian space suit began losing pressure faster than expected. The overall pressure in Fincke's suit remained stable at all times and he was not in danger. A backup oxygen tank available on his suit was not needed. 

Fincke and Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka opened the Pirs docking compartment hatch at 16:56 CDT. Immediately after Fincke floated out of the airlock, flight controllers in Moscow saw readings that indicated the primary oxygen bottle on Fincke’s suit was losing pressure.

The two spacewalkers returned to the airlock and closed the hatch about 14 minutes later. After conducting preliminary troubleshooting activities, Padalka and Fincke were asked to remove the Orlan-M spacesuits and assist with troubleshooting of Fincke’s suit. Russian flight controllers could not immediately determine the cause of the malfunction. 

Fincke and Padalka then climbed out of the suits, returned to the Station's living quarters and began working with ground controllers to reconfigure the Station’s systems for normal operations. The duration of Fincke and Padalka's spacewalk was 14 minutes, 22 seconds. 

Mission managers in Houston and Moscow agreed to conduct further evaluation of the problem before setting a new target date for the spacewalk. The earliest the spacewalk could now be performed is June 29 based on Russian ground communications coverage. 

Fincke told Mission Control in Houston that he was pleased flight controllers in Moscow had discovered the oxygen tank problem so quickly, and thanked both control teams for their efforts.

The spacewalk's goal is to replace a Remote Power Controller Module (RPCM) which houses a faulty circuit breaker, through which power is routed to one of the Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). There are four CMGs in the Station's Z1 truss. They control the orientation of the ISS in space. CMG 1 failed about two years ago, and will be replaced during the next Shuttle mission. CMG 2 was taken off line by the April 21 failure of the circuit breaker and should be restored by the RPCM's replacement. Meanwhile, two functioning CMGs adequately control the station's attitude. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #04-32.
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EVA #238
Mission: ISS Expedition 9 Date: 30 June 2004 Duration: 5 hr. 40 min. Program: ISS
The second time was the charm for two International Space Station spacewalkers on Wednesday, June 30, as they moved with ease to restore power to a key control system, completed a series of bonus jobs to get ahead on future work, and finished up ahead of schedule. 

The spacewalk went smoothly from the moment Mike Fincke and Gennady Padalka exited the airlock hatch, starting outside 20 minutes early. It was the second spacewalk for the two. An initial attempt was halted last week after only a few minutes due to a balky spacesuit oxygen control handle on Fincke's suit. This time, Fincke and Padalka spent five hours and forty minutes outside of the Station. 

The two space-age electricians completed the primary task - installing a new circuit breaker to restore power to one of four gyroscopes that help orient the complex - an hour ahead of schedule. Mission Control confirmed the gyroscope had power and appeared to be operating well a few minutes later. It is expected to be restored to full operation, assisting in controlling the Station's orientation, as early as Thursday afternoon. 

Communications with the ground and between the two spacewalkers were constant throughout the night. Backup hand signals were never needed. It was the first time that the primary control of a spacewalk had transitioned between controllers in Moscow and Houston periodically in a well-choreographed operation that was conducted seamlessly.

Padalka and Fincke left the Station at 16:19 CDT. The duo moved smoothly from the Russian Pirs airlock along a 15-metre-long cargo crane and a series of handrails, and reached the American-built modules of the outpost at 17:09 CDT. At that time, primary control of the spacewalk transferred from Mission Control, Moscow, to Mission Control, Houston. 

Flight controllers in Houston helped guide the spacewalkers to their worksite on the starboard truss structure and monitored their progress in replacing a Remote Power Control Module (RPCM) that had failed April 21. By 18:52 CDT, Padalka and Fincke had swapped the faulty circuit breaker with a working unit. Fifteen minutes later, Spacecraft Communicator Rex Walheim conveyed the good news that power had been restored to the gyroscope. The gyroscope was tested to a speed of 30 revolutions per minute as a preliminary verification of its health. It is planned to be spun to 6,600 rpm tomorrow, its normal operating speed, and brought on line to assist in stabilizing the Station. 

Fincke and Padalka cleaned up tools and headed back to the Russian segment of the Station and, by 20:11 CDT, Mission Control, Houston, handed primary coordination back to Mission Control, Moscow. Upon returning to the Pirs airlock, the spacewalkers completed get-ahead tasks that had been planned for future spacewalks. They installed two flexible handrails, mounted a contamination monitor to measure Station thruster exhaust, and added end caps to two circular handrails on the airlock. 

The crew closed the hatch and ended the spacewalk at 21:59 CDT. This was the 54th spacewalk in support of Station assembly and maintenance, the 29th staged from the Station itself, the fourth for Padalka in his career and Fincke’s second.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #04-36.
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EVA #239
Mission: ISS Expedition 9 Date: 3 August 2004 Duration: 4 hr. 30 min. Program: ISS
Two International Space Station spacewalkers began rolling out the welcome mat for a new cargo vehicle this morning. Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Mike Fincke spent 4½ hours outside the Station swapping out experiments and installing hardware associated with Europe's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), scheduled to launch on its maiden voyage to ISS next year. 

The ATV is an unpiloted cargo carrier like the Russian Progress supply vehicles, but has a cargo capacity about 2½ times that of a Progress. The ATV is scheduled for its first launch in the fall of 2005 aboard an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana.

During the spacewalk Padalka and Fincke worked smoothly around the exterior of the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module in their Orlan spacesuits. The pair exited the Pirs Docking Compartment airlock on Tuesday, August 3, at 1:58 CDT and began work on the Russian segment immediately. 

The crewmembers moved to the aft end cone of Zvezda, where they found a wide open workspace. ISS Progress 14 had been undocked from the area on Friday. 

Their first task was to replace an experiment, called SKK that exposes materials the space environment with a fresh sample container. They also replaced a Kromka experiment unit that measures contamination from Service Module thruster firings. 

Their attention then turned to preparing the Station for the arrival of ATVs by installing new rendezvous and docking equipment. They installed two antennas and replaced three laser reflectors with three more advanced versions than the ones launched with Zvezda in 2000. One three-dimensional reflector was also installed to replace three other old reflectors the spacewalkers removed. 

While in the area, the crew also disconnected a cable for a camera that has broken and will be replaced on a future spacewalk. The crew also retrieved another materials experiment, Platan-M. The crew returned to Pirs with the Platan-M, Kromka No. 2, SKK No. 2 and the six old laser reflectors in tow. 

At about 16:15 a.m. CDT, the spacewalkers, who were about 40 minutes ahead of their timeline, were asked to clear the area. Once they moved forward, the thrusters on the Service Module were activated to realign the Station's attitude and S-band communication was also restored. 

The spacewalkers then returned to work at the rear of the Service Module. 
The crew closed the hatch and ended the spacewalk at 6:28 CDT. This was the 55th spacewalk in support of Station assembly and maintenance, the 30th staged from the Station itself, the fifth for Padalka and Fincke's third. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #04-43.
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EVA #240
Mission: ISS Expedition 9 Date: 3 September 2004 Duration: 5 hr. 21 min. Program: ISS
Smoothly and ahead of schedule, Expedition 9 Commander Gennady Padalka and Mike Fincke completed the fourth and final spacewalk of their six-month mission on Friday, September 3. They spent five hours, 21 minutes outside completing mainenance tasks and installing antennas to prepare for the initial arrival of a new European cargo ship next year. 

Wearing Russian Orlan spacesuits, Padalka and Fincke began the spacewalk at 11:43 CDT, emerging from the Pirs airlock affixed to the Zvezda Habitation Module. It was Padalka’s sixth career spacewalk and the fourth for Fincke. The spacewalk was supervised by Russian flight controllers at the Mission Control Center in Korolev, outside Moscow. 

After setting up tools and tethers, Padalka and Fincke quickly went to work. On the Zarya module, they replaced a pump control panel that measures the module's coolant levels. They then installed a series of tether guides on four handrails. The guides are intended to prevent future spacewalkers’ tethers from becoming snagged. 

As the Station moved into orbital darkness, the spacewalkers took a rest break. During the break, flight controllers in Houston collected data on the orientation of the outpost. The information will help determine if the cooling systems of the Russian spacesuits contribute to changes in the Station’s orientation. 

Padalka and Fincke spent two and a half hours on the exterior of Zvezda, installing three communications antennas at its aft end. Those antennas, along with other equipment installed during an Aug. 3 spacewalk, will be used next year. They will guide the European Space Agency’s unpiloted Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the "Jules Verne" cargo ship, to its maiden docking with the Station. Three more ATV navigation antennas will be installed by the next Station crew in February. The Expedition 11 crew will install ATV communications gear inside Zvezda as well. 

Padalka and Fincke returned to Pirs and installed protective handrail covers at one of the two airlock hatches. The covers will ensure tethers do not inadvertently wrap around the handrails. 

Fincke also photographed a suitcase-sized tray of Japanese commercial experiments mounted on Zvezda to measure the effect of micrometeoroids on a variety of materials. Called Micro-Particle Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Devices, they were installed on Zvezda almost three years ago.

With their work done, the spacewalkers returned to the airlock and closed the hatch at 17:04 CDT. The spacewalk was the 56th in support of Station assembly and maintenance and the 31st based from the Station. In all, Padalka and Fincke have spent 15 hours and 45 minutes outside the Station during their four spacewalks together. To date, spacewalkers have spent more than 338 hours outside the Station for maintenance and assembly work. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #04-50.
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EVA #241
Mission: ISS Expedition 10 Date: 26 January 2005 Duration: 5 hr. 28 min. Program: ISS
The residents of the International Space Station ventured outside on Wednesday, January 26, for a 5-hour, 28-minute spacewalk to install a work platform, cables and robotic and scientific experiments on the exterior of the Zvezda Habitation Module. 

Clad in Russian Orlan spacesuits, Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Salizhan Sharipov left the Pirs Docking Compartment airlock at 1:43 CST and quickly set up tools and tethers for their excursion. With no one left inside, Station systems were either deactivated or put in autonomous operation for the duration of the spacewalk. Hatches were also closed between the U.S. and Russian segments of the complex in the unlikely event the crew would not have been able to return to the outpost. 

The first order of business was the installation of a Universal Work Platform at the forward end of the large conical section of Zvezda. Atop the platform they mounted a German commercial experiment called Rokviss (Robotics Component Verification on ISS). 

The Rokviss consists of a small double-jointed manipulator arm, an illumination system and a power supply. An antenna for the robotic device to receive commands was also installed by Chiao and Sharipov along with cabling. At first the antenna did not receive the proper power. They returned to the antenna work site and remated two electrical connectors. Russian engineers then reported that the Rokviss system was operating normally. Rokviss will test the ability of lightweight robotic joints to operate in the vacuum of space for future assembly work or satellite repair and servicing. 

Chiao and Sharipov moved a Japanese commercial experiment from one bracket on the outside of Zvezda to an adjacent bracket. The experiment, first deployed on Station by the Expedition 3 crew in October 2001, resembles an open attaché case and is designed to collect data on micrometeoroid impacts and the effect of the microgravity environment on a number of materials housed on witness plates. 

They then moved to another section of Zvezda to inspect nearby environmental system vents that are used for the Elektron oxygen-generator, the Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubber and a particle contaminant purification device. 

Sharipov reported that he saw both a white and brownish residue near the Elektron and Vozdukh ports and what appeared to be an oily substance on insulation surrounding the ports. Russian specialists added the task to the spacewalk a few weeks ago in light of recent technical problems with those systems, and will analyze photos taken by Sharipov to see if any corrosion or clogging of the vent ports may have contributed to periodic problems with those components. 

As the spacewalk drew to a close, Chiao and Sharipov installed a Russian experiment called Biorisk near the hatch to the Pirs airlock. Biorisk consists of several canisters on a bracket that contain microorganisms and materials that will collect data on the effect of the space environment for ecological analysis back on Earth. 

With their work complete, they returned to Pirs and closed the hatch at 7:11 CST to complete their spacewalk. It was the first spacewalk for Sharipov and Chiao’s fifth. The excursion was the 57th in support of ISS assembly and maintenance, the 32nd staged from the ISS itself and the 14th from Pirs. A total of 343 hours and 45 minutes of spacewalking time has been logged in the Station’s lifetime.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #05-4.
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EVA #242
Mission: ISS Expedition 10 Date:  28 March 2005 Duration: 4 hr. 30 min. Program: ISS
The residents of the International Space Station ventured outside on Monday, March 28, for a 4-hour, 30-minute spacewalk to install communications equipment on the exterior of the Zvezda Habitation Module and deploy a small satellite experiment. The equipment installation tasks were preparations for the maiden docking of the European Space Agency’s cargo carrier, the Automated Transfer Vehicle “Jules Verne,” due to launch next year. 

Clad in Russian Orlan spacesuits, Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao and Salizhan Sharipov left the Pirs Docking Compartment airlock at 12:25 CST and quickly set up tools and tethers for their excursion. Sharipov activated the Russian Nanosatellite for later deployment. 

With no one left inside, Station systems were either deactivated or put in autonomous operation for the duration of the spacewalk. Hatches were also closed between the U.S. and Russian segments of the complex in the unlikely event the crew would not have been able to return to the outpost.

The first task was the installation of three space-to-space communications, or so-called WAL, antennas on the forward conical section of Zvezda. The S-band low gain antennas are part of the Proximity Communications Equipment (PCE) to be used for ATV and Habitation Module interaction during the future rendezvous and docking operations. The first three antennas were installed on the aft end of Zvezda during Expedition 9. 

About 2 hours into the spacewalk, from a ladder attached to Pirs, Sharipov deployed the 30-cm, 5-kg Nanosatellite toward the aft end of the Station as Chiao photographed its departure. The experiment contains a transmitter and while it orbits the Earth, is expected to help develop small satellite control techniques, monitor satellite operations and develop new attitude system sensors. Russian experts informed the crew they received a good signal from the satellite two hours after its deployment. 

The spacewalkers gathered the tools and equipment for the next task as Russian flight controllers inhibited the Russian thrusters from firing in the crew’s next worksite area. Once that was complete, the crewmembers were given approval to move toward the aft end of Zvezda. Once in place, they installed a Global Positioning System receiver. The receiver is also part of the ATV communications hardware and will give the approaching vehicle data about its relative position to the Station during rendezvous operations. 

While in the area for the installation of GPS cabling, they also inspected and photographed the location of an antenna used for communications with the Habitation Module to confirm its position for Russian technicians. Chiao then photographed a previously installed laser reflector that will also be used for ATV proximity operations. The crewmembers continued to secure cabling on Zvezda as they worked their way back toward Pirs. 

The two spacewalkers entered Pirs and closed the hatch at 4:55 CST to complete their spacewalk an hour ahead of schedule. It was the second spacewalk for Sharipov and Chiao’s sixth. The pair logged almost 10 hours of spacewalking time during their two Expedition excursions. This spacewalk was the 58th in support of ISS assembly and maintenance, the 33rd staged from the ISS itself and the 15th from Pirs. A total of 348 hours and 15 minutes of spacewalking time has been logged in the Station’s lifetime. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #05-16.
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EVA #243
Mission: STS-114 Date: 30 July 2005 Duration: 6 hr. 50 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Astronauts Steve Robinson and Soichi Noguchi wrapped up a successful 6-hour, 50-minute spacewalk at 11:36 Saturday, July 30, completing a demonstration of Shuttle thermal protection repair techniques and enhancements to the Station’s attitude control system. 

For the repair demonstration, they worked with tiles and reinforced carbon-carbon intentionally damaged on the ground and brought into space in Discovery's cargo bay. They tested an Emittance Wash Applicator for tile repair and Non-Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX) for the reinforced carbon-carbon samples. 

Helped by Astronaut Andy Thomas, who served as a coach and monitor from Shuttle's aft flight deck, they also installed a base and cabling for a stowage platform and rerouted power to Control Moment Gyroscope-2 (CMG-2), one of four 600-pound gyroscopes that control the orientation of the Station in orbit. 

CMG-2 has been healthy, but a faulty circuit breaker interrupted its power supply in March. Since that time the Station had operated successfully on two CMGs. About 9:20, Mission Control told the astronauts they saw power again flowing to CMG-2. Plans call for it to be spun up to its 6,600 rpm operating speed over the next several hours and subsequently put back into the attitude control mix. Another gyroscope, CMG-1 which failed in 2002, is to be replaced Monday on the second of three spacewalks. They also replaced a faulty global positioning system antenna on the Station. 

The spacewalk began at 4:46, after deliberate preparations delayed the planned start. The Station crew, Commander Sergei Krikalev and John Phillips, had moved the orbiting laboratory's Canadarm2 into position to help Noguchi and Robinson's work. Discovery Pilot Jim Kelly and Wendy Lawrence ran the arm, helping the spacewalkers install the stowage platform base. 

The spacewalkers had time for some get-ahead tasks near the end of their spacewalk, bringing in two experiments that exposed a variety of materials samples to the harsh vacuum and extreme temperatures of space. Noguchi also photographed some insulation on the port side of Discovery's cabin. 

Adapted from: STS-114 MCC Status Report #09.
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EVA #244
Mission: STS-114 Date: 1 August 2005 Duration: 7 hr. 14 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Early Monday, August 1, Steve Robinson and Soichi Noguchi replaced a 275-kilo gyroscope on the International Space Station, leaving the orbiting laboratory with a complete functional set of four. Called control moment gyros, or CMGs, the devices maintain the Station's orientation in space, the way it is pointed and which part faces the Earth as it orbits the planet. 

The 7-hour, 14-minute spacewalk began at 3:42 CDT. After leaving the Discovery airlock, Noguchi and Robinson made their way hand-over-hand to the Station's Z1 Truss, atop the Unity Node where the four CMGs are housed. There Noguchi attached himself to a foot platform at the end of the Station's Canadarm2, operated by Discovery Pilot Jim Kelly and Wendy Lawrence. 

Coached and monitored by Andy Thomas on Discovery's aft flight deck, the spacewalkers removed CMG-1, which had failed in June 2002. Noguchi held it as the arm took him back to the rear of Discovery's cargo bay, where he and Robinson, who had moved back on his own, temporarily stowed it. They then took the new CMG from its cradle, and Noguchi held it while the arm moved him back to the Z1 Truss. 

There he and Robinson installed it in the space vacated by the failed device. That completed, flight controllers began the hours-long process of checking out the new CMG-1 and spinning it up to its 6,600 rpm operating speed. 

Adapted from: STS-114 MCC Status Report #13.
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EVA #245
Mission: STS-114 Date: 3 August 2005 Duration: 6 hr. 01 min. Program: Shuttle / ISS
Despite days of anticipation and intense planning, space-walking astronaut Steve Robinson made it look easy as he gently pulled two protruding gap fillers from between thermal protection tiles on Discovery's underside Wednesday morning, August 3,. "It looks like this big patient is cured," Robinson told delighted flight controllers. 

Fellow spacewalker Soichi Noguchi helped Robinson with preparations, and from a perch near the end of a Space Station truss acted as observer and communication relay station between Robinson and Andy Thomas aboard Discovery. Thomas was the onboard coach and monitor for Robinson and Noguchi throughout the 6-hour 1-minute spacewalk. Discovery Pilot Jim Kelly and Wendy Lawrence operated the Station's Canadarm2, which moved Robinson to and from the worksite. The spacewalk, the third of the mission, began at 3:48 CDT and concluded at 9:49. 

Deputy Space Shuttle Program Manager Wayne Hale, in Wednesday’s afternoon briefing, said “The [gap fillers] came out just as we thought they would. It looked easy but was not, which is a tribute to the crew and the team on the ground that planned it, so we’re proud of that.” Gap fillers like those Robinson removed today are thin, coated Nextel fabric. The protruding gap fillers were identified in photos taken by Station crewmembers using telephoto lenses as Discovery did a slow back flip about 600 feet below before docking. 

During the spacewalk, Noguchi and Robinson, helped by the Station's robotic arm, installed an external stowage platform outside the station that will be used to house spare parts. Noguchi also installed another Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). Like its predecessors, MISSE 5 exposes samples of various materials to the harsh space environment for several months.

Adapted from: STS-114 MCC Status Report #17.
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EVA #246
Mission: ISS Expedition 11 Date: 18 Auge 2005 Duration: 4 hr. 58 min. Program: ISS
Expedition 11 crewmembers completing a spacewalk on Thursday, August 18,, just days after the Commander became the most experienced space traveler in history. 

The first job once Commander Sergei Krikalev and John Phillips opened the hatch on Pirs at 14:02 CDT was retrieval of one of three canisters from the Biorisk experiment, a biomedical study of the impact of spaceflight on bioorganisms. Biorisk was installed on the Pirs module by Expedition 10 spacewalkers Leroy Chiao and Salizhan Sharipov in January of this year; the other canisters will be retrieved on later EVAs. 

Next, the spacewalkers moved to the large diameter section of the Zvezda module and prepared two experiment payloads for removal. MPAC, the Micro-Particles Capturer, uses aerogels and foam to collect natural and human-made orbital debris outside ISS; its companion experiment pallet, SEED (Space Environment Exposure Device), exposes samples of possible spacecraft materials like paint, insulation and lubricants, to the environment of low Earth orbit. Matroshka is a biomedical experiment collecting data on radiation absorption by crewmembers on long-duration missions, especially when spacewalking. 

From there, Krikalev and Phillips moved to the aft of Zvezda to install a backup television camera to assist in docking of the European Space Agency’s Automated Transfer Vehicle, a new unmanned supply craft for ISS slated to make its first flight next year. While in the area the spacewalkers photodocumented the condition of an experiment called Kromka, which measures residue from the firing of the nearby jet thrusters, and exchanged sample containers in the materials exposure experiment SKK, the Russian initials for replaceable cassette container. 

By the time the spacewalkers gathered together Matroshka, MPAC and SEED and their cluster of tools and transported them all back for stowage inside Pirs, they were about 45 minutes behind the timeline for the spacewalk. That delay, combined with an estimated two hours it would take to complete the last planned task — relocation of a Strela cargo crane adapter from Zarya to Pressurized Mating Adapter 3 on the Unity node — caused Russian mission managers to decide to forego the last planned task until a later spacewalk. The hatch to Pirs was closed at 19:00 CST for an official spacewalk duration of 4 hours, 58 minutes. 

The spacewalk was the 62nd EVA in support of ISS assembly and maintenance, the 34th conducted from the Station itself, the 16th from the Pirs docking compartment. It was the first in Phillips’ career and the eighth for Krikalev, who collected 36 hours and 10 minutes spacewalking experience on seven EVAs during his two missions to the Russian space station Mir. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #05-40.
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EVA #247
Mission: ISS Expedition 12 Date: 7 November 2005 Duration: 5 hr. 22 min. Program: ISS
The international space station crew completed the first spacewalk using U.S. space suits since April 2003, installing a new camera and discarding an inactive science probe. 

Commander Bill McArthur and Valery Tokarev began their spacewalk from the Quest Airlock on Monday, November 7, at 9:32 CST as they placed their suits on internal battery power. The spacewalk lasted 5 hours and 22 minutes. The spacewalk started about an hour later than planned. The crew had to repressurize the Quest airlock to open a misaligned valve in the interior portion of the two-chambered module. With the valve properly positioned, they again depressurized the outer chamber to begin their work outside. 

Once out the door, McArthur and Tokarev made up the time easily and completed all of their primary tasks as well as some get-ahead jobs. They installed a television camera on the outboard end of the port truss segment. The camera will be an important aid during future assembly work when additional truss segments are added to the port side of the complex. The camera installation job had originally been planned to be performed during the STS-114 space shuttle mission in August. It was not performed during that mission, however, when a job to remove gap fillers from the shuttle heat shield was added in its place. 

They first retrieved the camera’s stanchion from an external tool platform attached to Quest, brought the equipment out to the port truss, installed the camera on top of the stanchion and installed the hardware. The camera was powered up and provided its first views from space just before noon, Central time. 

Next, flight controllers asked the spacewalkers to complete a get-ahead task by removing a failed electronics box called a Rotary Joint Motor Controller (RJMC). The RJMC will be returned on the next shuttle mission so engineers can determine why it failed. The analysis will be used to evaluate future similar hardware to be shipped to the station 

The pair then moved hand over hand to the highest point of the station, the P6 truss, about 15 metres above the U.S. Destiny Lab. There, McArthur removed an old experiment called the Floating Potential Probe from its stand and pushed it away from the station. It floated up and behind the station. It is expected to burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere in about 100 days. 

The experiment was installed during a station assembly mission in 2000 to characterize the electrical environment around the station’s solar arrays. Imagery from STS-114 showed that pieces of the experiment were missing or backing out of place. Since it was no longer used, managers decided to remove the unit and discard it.

The crewmembers then received approval to move ahead with the final get-ahead task before calling it a day. They quickly removed a failed circuit breaker from the Mobile Transporter (MT) and installed a new one. Called a Remote Power Control Module, the breaker provides power for redundant heating on the transporter. The transporter is a type of space rail car that can moves along the station's truss structure. 

With all tasks completed, McArthur and Tokarev entered the airlock and began repressurizing it at 14:54 CST. It was the 63rd spacewalk in support of station assembly and maintenance, the 35th staged from the station and the 18th staged from Quest. It was the third spacewalk for McArthur and the first for Tokarev. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #05-55.
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EVA #248
Mission: ISS Expedition 12 Date: 3 February 2006 Duration: 5 hr. 43 min. Program: ISS
Space station crew members released a spacesuit-turned-satellite during the second spacewalk of their mission on Friday, February 3. Called SuitSat, it faintly transmitted recorded voices of schoolchildren to amateur radio operators worldwide for a brief period before it ceased sending signals. 

Expedition 12 Commander Bill McArthur and Valery Tokarev ventured outside for a five-hour, 43-minute spacewalk to release SuitSat, conduct preventive maintenance to a cable-cutting device, retrieve experiments and photograph the station's exterior. Clad in Russian Orlan spacesuits, they opened the hatch to begin the spacewalk at 17:44 EST. It was the fourth career spacewalk for McArthur and the second for Tokarev. 

After setting up tools and equipment, they positioned the unneeded Orlan spacesuit on a ladder by the station's Pirs airlock hatch. The suit reached the end of its operational life for spacewalks in August 2004. It was outfitted by the crew with three batteries, internal sensors and a radio transmitter for this experiment. 

The SuitSat provided recorded greetings in six languages to ham radio operators for about two orbits of the Earth before it stopped transmitting, perhaps due to its batteries failing in the cold environment of space, according to amateur radio coordinators affiliated with the station program. The suit will enter the atmosphere and burn up in a few weeks. Tokarev pushed the suit away toward the aft end of the station. It initially drifted away at a rate of about a half meter per second, slowly floating out of view below the Zvezda Habitation Module and its attached Progress cargo craft. The suit is now separating from the station at a rate of about six kilometers every 90 minutes. 

The spacewalkers then moved from Pirs to the Zarya module where they removed a hubcap-shaped grapple fixture adapter for the Strela crane. They moved the adapter to Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 on the Unity module. The Strela fixture was moved to prepare Zarya for the future temporary stowage of debris shields. 

They made their way to the center truss segment of the station, where they tried and failed to securely install a safety bolt in a contingency cutting device for one of two cables that provide power, data and video to the Mobile Transporter rail car. The transporter moves along the truss to correctly position the Canadarm2 robotic arm for assembly work. The Trailing Umbilical System cable on the nadir, or Earth-facing side of the transporter was inadvertently severed by its cutter on December 16. 

After several attempts to drive the bolt with a high-tech screwdriver, McArthur wire-tied the cable to a handrail instead. That left the cable out of its cutting mechanism, disabling the Transporter from further movement on the station’s rail system for the time being. The Transporter is not needed for assembly work until the STS-115 mission to install additional truss segments.  The severed cable reel mechanism will be replaced during one of the three spacewalks during the STS-121 mission later this year. 

McArthur and Tokarev moved back to Pirs. Once at the Russian airlock, they retrieved an experiment to study the effect of the space environment on microorganisms. 

As their final spacewalk task, the crew photographed the exterior of Zvezda, including Russian sensors that measure micrometeoroid impacts, handrails, propulsion systems and a ham radio antenna. They then returned to the Pirs airlock and closed the hatch at 23:27 EST. 

It was the 64th spacewalk in support of station assembly and maintenance, the 36th staged from the station, and the 17th conducted from Pirs. In all, station spacewalkers have accumulated 384 hours and 23 minutes outside the facility since December 1998. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #06-5.
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EVA #249
Mission: ISS Eepedition 13 Date: 1 June 2006 Duration: 6 hr. 31 min. Program: ISS
The residents of the International Space Station ventured outside their orbital home Thursday night, June 1, to conduct a 6-hour, 31-minute spacewalk to repair, retrieve and replace hardware on the U.S. and Russian segments of the complex. 

Clad in Russian Orlan spacesuits, Expedition 13 Commander Pavel Vinogradov and Jeff Williams opened the hatch to the Pirs Docking Compartment airlock at 17:48 CDT to begin the 65th spacewalk devoted to station assembly and maintenance. It was the sixth spacewalk for Vinogradov and the second for Williams.

After setting up tools and tethers outside Pirs, Vinogradov and Williams used the telescoping boom, designated Strela and attached to the airlock, to transport them to the forward area of the Zvezda Habitation Module that connects to the Zarya Module. There, Vinogradov installed a new nozzle to a valve that helps vent hydrogen into space from the Elektron oxygen-generator in Zvezda. Elektron uses the process of electrolysis to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water in the system. Oxygen is circulated into the cabin atmosphere while hydrogen is vented overboard. A nozzle on the hull of Zvezda used for that purpose previously had become clogged, reducing Elektron’s efficiency and forcing Elektron to use the same vent line employed by a contamination monitoring device. Two weeks ago, Vinogradov rigged a vent line inside Zvezda as the precursor to the installation of the new vent valve nozzle on the exterior of the module. The refurbished Elektron is scheduled to be reactivated on Monday. 

Next, the two moved to the aft end of Zvezda where they took pictures of one of several antennas designed to provide navigational information for the unpiloted docking of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), scheduled to make its maiden flight next year. Russian engineers suspect the antenna’s cable may have prevented a cover on one of Zvezda’s reboost engines from opening during an aborted test firing earlier this year. 

Later, Vinogradov took up cable slack from another ATV navigation antenna and took pictures for technicians to study. 

While on the Russian segment of the station, Vinogradov removed a device called Kromka from Zvezda’s hull that has collected jet thruster residue while Williams retrieved the third in a series of three canisters from the outside of Pirs in an experiment called Biorisk that studied the effect of the space environment on microorganisms. Both Kromka and Biorisk were brought inside and will be returned to Earth. 

Williams also collected a contamination monitoring unit from Pirs and returned it to the cabin for later analysis. 

With the crew slightly behind schedule, a decision was made to extend the maximum time for the spacewalk. Following that decision, control of the spacewalk was handed from the Russian flight control team at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow to the U.S. flight control team at Mission Control Houston, as planned. 

Vinogradov and Williams maneuvered themselves on the Strela to the juncture of the Russian and U.S. segments of the outpost, and then moved to the station’s truss. They removed a video camera on the Mobile Base System that sits upon a rail car that moves up and down the truss to position the station’s robotic arm for assembly work. They replaced the camera, which failed in February 2005, with a new one. 

Russian flight controllers reassumed responsibility for the spacewalk as Vinogradov and Williams used Strela to move back to the Pirs Docking Compartment. They re-entered the station and closed the hatch at 0:19 CDT to conclude their excursion. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #06-27.
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EVA #250
Mission: STS-121 Date: 8 July 2006 Duration: 7 hr. 31 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts from Space Shuttle Discovery prepared the International Space Station’s rail car for restoration and tested a repair crane during a 7 hour 31 minute long spacewalk on Saturday, July 8. 

Astronauts Piers Sellers and Mike Fossum turned their spacesuits to battery power to officially start the spacewalk at 8:17 CDT. After they configured their tools and safety tethers, they moved to the S0 Truss and installed a blade blocker in the zenith Interface Umbilical Assembly to protect the undamaged power, data and video cable. Then they rerouted that cable through the IUA so the Mobile Transporter rail car could be moved into position on the truss for replacement of the Trailing Umbilical System containing the severed power and data cable during a spacewalk Monday. 

The remainder of today’s spacewalk was devoted to testing the combination of space shuttle robotic arm and Orbiter Boom Sensor System as a platform for spacewalking astronauts to make repairs to a damaged orbiter. Sellers got into a foot restraint on the OBSS, almost 30 metres from where the shuttle arm is attached to the payload bay sill, and performed a set of motions designed to see how the arm/OBSS handled the forces generated by those movements; Fossum stood nearby and reported his observations of the arm/OBSS’ movements. 

Then Fossum joined Sellers on the end of the OBSS for another round of demonstrations, with measurements again taken by a load cell mounted under the foot restraint. For the last measurement the arm maneuvered Fossum into position so he could push against the end of the P1 Truss. 

The spacewalkers re-entered the station and started pressurizing the airlock at 15:48 p.m., concluding the first of three spacewalks planned for the mission. Today’s EVA was the fourth of Sellers’ career, and the first for Fossum.

Adapted from: STS-121 MCC Status Report #09.
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EVA #251
Mission: STS-121 Date: 10 July 2006 Duration: 6 hr. 47 min. Program: ISS
A six-hour, 47-minute spacewalk by Discovery’s astronauts on Monday, July 10, restored the International Space Station’s Mobile Transporter rail car to full operation and delivered a spare pump module for the station’s cooling system. 

Spacewalkers Piers Sellers and Mike Fossum exited the Quest module’s airlock at 7:14 CDT and climbed down into the shuttle payload bay, where they lifted the Pump Module from its stowage platform so Lisa Nowak and Stephanie Wilson could grapple it with the station’s robotic arm. While the arm moved the module to its destination, Sellers and Fossum moved to the S0 Truss segment to begin work on the primary task of the EVA, replacement of the nadir-side Trailing Umbilical System (TUS). 

A TUS contains a power, data and video cable that serves the Mobile Transporter as it moves along the station’s truss; the nadir TUS cable was inadvertently severed late last year and required replacement. As the first step in that process, Sellers replaced the Interface Umbilical Assembly — the component containing the cutter — with a new IUA, one without a blade. 

By that time, Canadarm2 reached External Stowage Platform 2 on the forward side of Quest with the Pump Module; Sellers and Fossum moved to the platform to receive the module from the arm, secured it to the storage platform, and returned to the TUS work site. 

The spacewalkers removed the damaged TUS from within the S0 Truss, and Fossum carried it to the payload bay while riding the station arm. When he arrived, Sellers removed the new TUS from the payload bay platform, and the two swapped cable reels. Sellers stowed the old TUS on the cross-bay carrier while the arm moved Fossum back to the truss work site, where Sellers rejoined his crewmate to complete installation of the TUS and properly route its power, data and video cable through the IUA. 

At two points during the spacewalk Fossum paused to take care of a loose connection of the emergency jet thruster backpack on Sellers’ spacesuit, securing it the first time with a safety tether. 

The spacewalkers closed the hatch and began to repressurize Quest to end the spacewalk at 14:01, to conclude a six-hour, 47-minute excursion; the combined time spent spacewalking on two EVAs on this mission so far is 14 hours, 18 minutes. A third spacewalk, devoted to testing potential repair techniques and materials, is scheduled for Wednesday. 

Adapted from: STS-121 MCC Status Report #13.
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EVA #252
Mission: STS-121 Date: 12 July 2006 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts aboard Discovery gathered valuable new data during the third spacewalk on Wednesday, July 12, as part of an ongoing evaluation of repairing a damaged orbiter. 

Astronauts Piers Sellers and Mike Fossum began the spacewalk at 6:20 CDT and prepared a foot restraint on the end of the International Space Station’s Canadarm2. Sellers rode the arm, commanded by Lisa Nowak and Stephanie Wilson, to the starboard wing of Discovery where he used an infrared camera to shoot 20 seconds of video of selected reinforced carbon carbon panels on the wing’s leading edge. Infrared imagery may aid in identifying damage on the inside of those panels. 

He translated to the aft of Discovery’s payload bay to join Sellers and help prepare a box containing 12 RCC sample panels for the EVA’s primary task of testing a repair material known as NOAX. Non-oxide adhesive experimental is a pre-ceramic polymer sealant containing carbon-silicon carbide powder, and is being evaluated for repairing damage to RCC panels. 

Data gathered from tests on mission STS-114 last year indicated NOAX is most effective when applied while the temperature of an RCC panel is falling between 50° and 0° C, so today’s spacewalkers were directed to apply NOAX to the pre-damaged RCC panels based on the temperatures of the panels. Over the course of almost two and a half hours, Sellers and Fossum completed three gouge repairs and two crack repairs with NOAX, and provided Mission Control a running dialogue describing the repair activity and how the NOAX responded. They also imaged four of the samples with the infrared camera, which Fossum also used to gather video of an area of Discovery’s port wing while riding Canadarm2 back to the airlock. 

Near the end of the EVA, Mission Control added a task to the spacewalk. Since the spacewalkers were on schedule and had plenty of supplies, Sellers carried a Pistol Grip Tool to the Integrated Cargo Carrier in Discovery’s payload bay and removed the fixed grapple bar used during delivery of the Pump Module during the second spacewalk. He carried it to the S1 Truss where Fossum helped him install it on an ammonia tank inside that truss so that the tank can be moved on a later shuttle assembly mission. 

Repressurization of Quest began at 13:31, completing a 7-hour, 11-minute spacewalk, the 68th in support of ISS assembly and maintenance. The cumulative duration of the three spacewalks on this mission is 21 hours and 29 minutes. Sellers’ total spacewalking time of 41:10 on six EVAs ranks him 4th among U.S. spacewalkers and 9th in the world all-time. 

Adapted from: STS-121 MCC Status Report #17.
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EVA #253
Mission: ISS Expedition 13 Date: 3 Augusut 2006 Duration: 5 hr. 54 min. Program: ISS
Space station crewmen Jeff Williams and Thomas Reiter worked quickly through scheduled spacewalk tasks Thursday, August 3, then completed three get-ahead jobs, or extra tasks, and were ready for more. Mission Control assigned two more jobs, which the astronauts also completed. 

Williams and Reiter wrapped up their productive 5-hour, 54-minute excursion and began repressurizing the Quest airlock at 15:58 EDT.  They left the airlock in U.S. spacesuits at 9:04 EDT. Station Commander Pavel Vinogradov helped them with spacewalk preparations and getting into their suits. It was the first time in more than three years a third crewmember had been available for those tasks on the orbiting laboratory. 

They quickly got ahead of their timeline. First, they installed the Floating Potential Measurement Unit. The device measures the electrical potential of the station so procedures can be devised to minimize arcing hazards, or the jumping of current from a conductor to a ground, as the station grows.

Their second job was to install two MISSE containers, or Materials on International Space Station Experiment. The suitcase-like containers are left open to evaluate the long-term effects of space exposure on a variety of materials. The idea is to identify optimal materials for use in future spacecraft. MISSE 3 went on one of the high-pressure tanks around the crew lock, while MISSE 4 was installed on Quest's outboard end. 

The two astronauts then went on to separate jobs. Williams installed a controller for a thermal radiator rotary joint on the S1 truss, while Reiter replaced a computer on the truss. 

Williams then began installing a starboard jumper and spool positioning device (SPD) on the S1 truss. Reiter inspected a radiator beam valve module SPD site where one device was already installed and installed an additional one. He then moved on to install a SPD on a port cooling line jumper. The jumpers are designed to improve the flow of ammonia through the radiators once that coolant is installed. 

Williams began setup for the final major scheduled task, a test of an infrared camera designed to detect damage in a shuttle's reinforced carbon carbon (RCC) thermal protection. The camera highlights damage by showing variations in temperature between clean and damaged RCC test sections. Reiter operated the experiment while Williams went on to one of the additional tasks. 
The first task was installation of a light to help future spacewalkers on the truss railway handcart. Williams then removed a malfunctioning GPS antenna. After Reiter finished the infrared camera experiment, he installed a vacuum system valve on the U.S. laboratory Destiny for future scientific experiments. 

Mission control came up with additional tasks. Williams moved two articulating portable foot restraints to prepare for STS-115 spacewalks and then photographed a scratch on the airlock hatch. Reiter went to PMA1, a pressurized "corridor", to retrieve and inspect a ball stack, which holds hardware during spacewalks. The crew also had additional time throughout the spacewalk to photograph the worksites after their tasks were complete and then snap pictures of each other at the end. With no more quick tasks to add, the spacewalkers re-entered the airlock and closed the hatch early.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #06-36.
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EVA #254
Mission: STS-115 Date: 12 September 2006 Duration: 6 hr. 26 min. Program: ISS
It is home improvement time onboard the International Space Station. Assembly of the orbiting space lab officially resumed on Tuesday, September 12, at 4:17 CDT. 

Astronauts Joe Tanner and Heide Stefanyshyn-Piper focused on bolts, connectors and power tools today as they began the first of three spacewalks to hook-up and activate a 17.5 ton, 14 metres long truss with a set of solar arrays that will increase the station’s power. 

The first spacewalk of the mission began when Tanner and Piper switched their spacesuits to battery power and stepped into the void of space. This was Tanner’s sixth spacewalk and Piper’s first. Piper is the eighth woman, the seventh American woman, to walk in space. 

The two set to work quickly and efficiently, making the tough tasks look simple and easily getting ahead of the planned timeline. After only three and a half hours, they were near completion of the day’s tasks and Mission Control Houston began working on “get ahead” tasks. These are tasks that were originally scheduled for the second spacewalk Wednesday. 

One of these tasks involved removing the launch locks from the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). To access the launch locks, spacewalkers must also remove existing covers. As Tanner removed cover 21, a bolt and washer came off and floated into space. 

Tanner and Piper connected power cables on the truss, released the launch restraints on the Solar Array Blanket Box and on the Beta Gimbal Assembly -- the structure between the truss electronics -- and the Solar Array Wings. The astronauts also configured the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint, which allows the arrays to track the sun, and removed two other circuit interrupt devices to prepare for the upcoming STS-116 mission. 

Adapted from: STS-115 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #255
Mission: STS-115 Date: 13 September 2006 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: ISS
ON Wednesday, September 13, during the second spacewalk of the STS-115 mission, first-time spacewalkers Dan Burbank and Steve MacLean devoted the day to the final tasks required for activation of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). The SARJ is an automobile-sized joint that will allow the station's solar arrays to turn and point toward the sun. 

They released locks that had held the joint secure during its launch to orbit aboard Atlantis. As they worked, the spacewalkers overcame several minor problems, including a malfunctioning helmet camera, a broken socket tool, a stubborn bolt and a bolt that came loose from the mechanism designed to hold it captive. The stubborn bolt required the force of both spacewalkers to finally remove it. 

Burbank and MacLean spent seven hours and 11 minutes outside the station, beginning their spacewalk at 4:05 CDT and completing it at 11:16 CDT. In addition to the SARJ work, they completed several "get-ahead" tasks during their time outside. 

Adapted from: STS-115 MCC Status Report #09.
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EVA #256
Mission: STS-115 Date:  15 September 2006 Duration: 6 hr. 42 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Joe Tanner and Heide Stefanyshyn-Piper finished the third and final spacewalk of Atlantis' mission on Friday, September 15, powering up a cooling radiator for the new solar arrays unfolded Thursday on the International Space Station. 

After about a 45-minute delay in the airlock due to a depressurization pump power problem, Tanner and Piper began the spacewalk at 5 CDT. They completed the excursion at 11:42 CDT. 

In addition to their work with the radiator, they also replaced an S-Band radio antenna. The antenna, which provides backup communication between the space station and the ground, will be needed during the next mission. That flight, set for December, will require a complicated power down of the station to bring the new power systems on line. 

They finished a couple of tasks that will reduce the workload for future spacewalkers, including installing insulation for another communications antenna. Tanner took photos of the shuttle’s wings using an infrared camera to test the camera's ability to detect damage. 

Adapted from: STS-115 MCC Status Report #13.
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EVA #257
Mission: ESS Expedition 14 Date: 22-23 November 2006 Duration: 5 hr. 38 min. Program: ISS
Two residents of the International Space Station ventured outside the complex Wednesday, November 22, for a 5 hour, 38 minute spacewalk to reposition, deploy and relocate equipment and conduct a commercially sponsored activity. 

With Thomas Reiter inside to monitor systems, Expedition 14 Commander Mike Lopez-Alegria and Mikhail Tyurin opened the hatch to the Pirs Docking Compartment airlock at 18:17 CST. They wore Russian Orlan spacesuits for the 19th spacewalk conducted out of Pirs since it was mated to the Russian segment of the station in September 2001 during Tyurin’s first flight as part of Expedition 3. 

The start of the spacewalk was delayed more than an hour after Tyurin encountered a problem with a cooling hose for his spacesuit. He climbed out of the suit to reposition the hose, and uninterrupted cooling for the suit was restored. 

After setting up tools and equipment outside Pirs, Tyurin placed a three-gram golf ball on a spring-mounted tee and clamped it onto the ladder next to the Pirs hatch. Appearing uncomfortable with his feet planted on the ladder, he used a gold-plated six-iron to tap the golf ball safely away from the aft end of the Zvezda Habitation Module. He said he was pleased with his golf shot, and Russian flight controllers chose not to have him hit another ball so the crew could tackle other tasks. 

Tyurin’s golf shot was part of a demonstration for a commercially sponsored endeavor between a Canadian golf company and the Russian Federal Space Agency. The golf club and three balls were flown to the station on recent Russian Progress cargo ships. NASA's safety analysis showed that the balls will re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere and burn up in about three days. The balls weigh only about as much as three one-dollar bills. 

The two spacewalkers then moved to the end of Zvezda where the recently arrived ISS Progress 23 cargo ship is docked. Tyurin released a latch on one of the antennas for the craft’s Kurs automated rendezvous system that failed to retract when the Progress docked on October 26. Tyurin and Lopez-Alegria attempted to move the so-called “orientation” antenna back to its retracted and stowed position with their hands and with a prybar, but the antenna would not budge. Russian flight controllers also sent commands to drive the antenna to its retracted position, but that also failed. 

The spacewalkers took a number of pictures to send to Russian engineers, who will evaluate options for freeing the stuck antenna on a future spacewalk. The engineers surmise something may be frozen in the linkage for the antenna’s drive mechanism, preventing it from moving. 

While at the aft of Zvezda, the spacewalkers spent a few minutes removing and repositioning one of several communications antennas previously installed around the module’s docking port. This will assist the docking of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle that will be launched on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana next year. 

In its previous location, the antenna partially blocked the opening of one of Zvezda’s engine covers. The antenna was reinstalled less than a foot from its original position, out of the way of future operations with the engine. 

Next, they moved to the top of the forward section of Zvezda to install an experiment called “BTN-Neutron” that will measure the volume of neutron particles emitted by solar flares that reach low Earth orbit. The crew wrapped up its work by jettisoning a pair of thermal covers for the experiment that will be tracked by flight controllers to ensure they pose no possibility of hitting the station or the shuttle Discovery that is scheduled for an assembly mission to the station in a few weeks. 

It was the 73rd spacewalk in support of station assembly and maintenance totaling 444 hours and 14 minutes of time outside the outpost and the first of four scheduled during Expedition 14. The spacewalk was the sixth in Lopez-Alegria’s career and the fourth for Tyurin. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #06-51.
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EVA #258
Mission: STS-116 Date: 12 December 2006 Duration:  6 hr. 36 min. Program: ISS
The International Space Station is now two tons heavier, with the installation on Tuesday, December 12, of its newest truss segment during the flight’s first spacewalk. 

Astronauts Bob Curbeam and Christer Fuglesang ventured outside the station to attach the P5 segment of the station’s truss and replace a failed camera needed to support future assembly tasks. They also were able to fit in some extra tasks that will save future spacewalkers time, including plugging the new segment into the existing truss, removing the locks that held it steady during launch and opening a latch that will allow the P6 segment to be attached when it is moved from its current, temporary location to its permanent place at the end of the port truss. 

The spacewalk began at 14:31 CST, and Curbeam and Fuglesang were back inside by 21:07. The truss was officially attached at 16:45, and installation was complete by 17:21 Total duration of the spacewalk was 6 hours, 36 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-116 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #259
Mission: STS-116 Date:  14-15 December 2006 Duration: 5 hr. 00 min. Program: ISS
Two spacewalking electricians completed half of STS-116’s rewiring Tuesday, December 14, and when flight controllers threw the switch, the lights inside the International Space Station turned on again without a hitch. 

Astronauts Bob Curbeam and Christer Fuglesang began their second spacewalk at 13:41 CST. Less than two hours later, they had the first half of the station’s permanent power system – channels two and three – up and running, taking advantage of power generated by the solar arrays delivered in September. 

The second half of the station’s power system – channels one and four – will be reconfigured during the mission’s third spacewalk Saturday. Once that’s done, the station’s power system will be in its assembly complete configuration, ready for the addition of more solar arrays and science modules next year. 

Before the spacewalkers swapped the cable connections, station flight controllers had to shut down about half of the station’s systems, including some lights, communication gear, ventilation fans and back-up computers. They started the power down just before 14:00, and by 15:45, were powering up main bus switching units for the first time ever and activating power channels two and three. By 16:30 p.m., one of two external thermal control system loops was actively shedding excess heat into space, and the direct current-to-direct current converter units were regulating power voltages. 

The spacewalkers headed out the hatch of the Quest airlock about 30 minutes ahead of schedule, and made it through their tasks quickly enough to pick up another thirty minutes. They finished at 18:41, an hour earlier than planned and exactly five hours after they started. 

Before heading back into the station, Curbeam and Fuglesang also relocated two small handcarts that run along rails on the station’s main truss, put a thermal cover on the station’s robotic arm and installed bags of tools for future spacewalkers. 

Adapted from: STS-116 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #260
Mission: STS-116 Date: 16 December 2006 Duration: 7 hr. 31 min. Program: ISS
During a spacewalk partially choreographed as it happened, STS-116 Astronauts Bob Curbeam and Sunita Williams finished rewiring the International Space Station and shook loose a balky solar array so their crewmates inside could retract it almost two-thirds of the way. 

By finishing the electrical work, the spacewalkers set the stage for installation of more solar arrays and science modules, including those being supplied by international partners. 

For a second time, flight controllers shut down about half of the station’s systems, including some lights, communication gear, ventilation fans and back-up computers as the third spacewalk of Discovery’s mission began on Saturday, December 16, at 13:25 CST. Curbeam and Williams finished their rewiring tasks at nearly the same time posted by Curbeam and Mission Specialist Christer Fuglesang on Thursday. By 15:18, controllers were powering up the second half of the station’s new power grid and cooling systems. 

The spacewalkers also installed a robotic arm grapple fixture and positioned three bundles of Russian debris shield panels outside the Zvezda habitation module before moving on to their P6 solar array panel 4B retraction work. The debris panels will be installed on a future spacewalk. 

Then, using maneuvers dubbed the “Beamer Shake” and the “Suni Shake,” the spacewalkers tackled grommets and guide wires that have been preventing a full retraction of the array since Wednesday. Curbeam and Williams stationed themselves on opposite sides of the array and took turns shaking the array blanket box while the crew inside the station reeled in the array one bay at a time. Curbeam shook the blanket 19 times, and Williams shook it 13 times. The crew inside the station, coordinating with flight controllers on the ground, initiated eight retraction cycles. 

As a result of their combined efforts, the array is now 65 percent retracted, with only 11 bays still deployed. The 7 hour, 31 minute spacewalk concluded at 20:56. 

Adapted from: STS-116 MCC Status Report #15.
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EVA #261
Mission: STS-116 Date: 18 December 2006 Duration: 6 hr. 38 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Bob Curbeam and Christer Fuglesang guided the port overhead solar array wing neatly inside its blanket box on Monday, December 18, during a 6-hour, 38-minute spacewalk. 

The coordinated effort with flight controllers finished the retraction begun on Wednesday and set the stage for the shuttle’s spring mission, when the International Space Station’s starboard overhead array will be similarly stowed. The arrays will be moved to the far end of the port truss on STS-120, and redeployed. 

Applause broke out in Mission Control when the arrays glided into the retention box at 17:54 CST. Crewmembers aboard the shuttle-station complex praised the ground support team after latches along the array’s two blanket boxes locked at 18:34. Fuglesang took pictures, including some of the P6 starboard solar wing set to be retracted in March. The photographs will assist in planning for that task. 

The P6 arrays were first deployed on the station in November 2000, when they were delivered on STS-97. On Wednesday, flight controllers retracted the array almost halfway, leaving 17 of its 31 bays extended. Then, on Saturday, at the end of the mission’s third spacewalk, Curbeam and helped flight controllers retract six more bays, leaving 11 exposed. In all, flight controllers initiated 71 commands. 

During the fourth spacewalk of the mission, Sunita Williams and Joan Higginbotham used the station's robotic arm to position Curbeam and Fuglesang near the array. Pilot Bill Oefelein choreographed the spacewalk from inside the spacecraft. The two spacewalkers also firmly secured some multi-layer insulation that had been installed on the robotic arm during an earlier spacewalk. 

Curbeam set a record as he made his fourth spacewalk of the mission -- more than any astronaut has performed during a single shuttle flight -- and his seventh in support of the station. Curbeam has a total of 45 hours, 34 minutes of spacewalking time. Astronaut Mike Fincke also conducted four spacewalks on the station during Expedition 9.  The total time for spacewalks on this STS-116 mission is 25 hours, 45 minutes. 
 

Adapted from: STS-116 MCC Status Report #19
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EVA #262
Mission: ISS Expedition 14 Date: 31 January 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 55 min. Program: ISS
Two residents of the International Space Station stepped outside their orbital home Wednesday, January 31, for a 7-hour, 55-minute spacewalk to begin the connection of recently activated cooling systems from their temporary to their permanent locations and to conduct other station assembly work. 

Wearing U.S. spacesuits, Expedition 14 Commander Mike Lopez-Alegria and Suni Williams began their spacewalk at 10:14 EST. After setting up tools and tethers, they moved to the area that connects the Z1 truss to the S0 truss at the middle of the station’s large girder-like truss system. 

There, in a location known as the “rats' nest,” Williams and Lopez-Alegria conducted laborious work in tight quarters to demate and reroute a series of two electrical cables and four fluid quick disconnect lines from the soon-to-be defunct Early External Active Thermal Control System to a permanent cooling system in the Destiny Laboratory. 

The cooling loop reconfigured today, known as the Low Temperature Loop (Loop A), removes heat from the station’s environmental control systems through a heat exchanger system in the Destiny Laboratory. On the next spacewalk by Lopez-Alegria and Williams on Sunday, a Moderate Temperature Loop (Loop B) rejecting heat from avionics and payloads will be rerouted as well to the permanent system and the heat exchangers in Destiny. The thermal systems officer in Mission Control reported that the reconfiguration of the system was successful. 

Lopez-Alegria began the first of a two-step process to route electrical cable harnesses from the Z1 truss’ power outlets to the S0 truss. The two wire harnesses strung today will be joined on Sunday by two more harnesses that will be connected from the S0 truss to the Destiny Lab and, in turn, to its forward docking port, Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 (PMA-2). 

Once completed, that Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) will enable docked shuttles to draw electrical power from the station to extend their visits to the outpost. SSPTS is scheduled to debut on the STS-118 mission in June, enabling Endeavour to fly for two weeks. Subsequent shuttles will be able to remain aloft for comparable periods.

Lopez-Alegria and Williams then moved on to assist as flight controllers sent commands to retract the starboard heat-rejecting radiator on the P6 truss. It had been used to keep station systems at the correct temperature through the temporary cooling system after the truss was installed in 2000. They helped tie the radiator down with a series of cinches. A second radiator will be retracted during the Sunday spacewalk. A third radiator will be retracted later in the year, the only one of the three radiators on the P6 truss that will be redeployed after the truss is relocated.

The spacewalkers then installed a shroud over the radiator to keep it at the proper temperature for the next few months until it is extended once again. A similar retraction of the aft radiator on the P6 truss will be conducted during Sunday’s spacewalk. 

With time running out, Lopez-Alegria and Williams moved on to another area of the P6 truss to disconnect and stow one of two fluid lines attached to a large reservoir known as the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS). The EAS was designed to replenish ammonia to the temporary cooling system on the station in the event of a coolant leak. No longer required, the reservoir will be unbolted and jettisoned during a spacewalk by the Expedition 15 crew this summer. By stowing the fluid lines the crew preserved the ability to reuse the system, if required. 

The second EAS fluid line will be disconnected and stowed at a later date. 
Because a few “flakes” of ammonia were seen floating away from one of the fluid line connector caps, the crew was directed to conduct preventative decontamination measures to “bakeout” their spacesuits once they returned to the Quest airlock prior to the airlock being repressurized. 

The spacewalk ended at 17:09 CST., tying for 5th for the longest spacewalk in history. It was the seventh spacewalk of Lopez-Alegria’s career, and the second for Williams. The excursion was the 78th spacewalk in support of station assembly and maintenance and the 50th staged out of the station. 

With today’s spacewalk, Lopez-Alegria moved into fourth place on the all-time spacewalking list for most time outside an orbiting vehicle ahead of astronaut Joe Tanner with 47 hours and 31 minutes. Lopez-Alegria will become the all-time U.S. record holder for spacewalking time and second on the all-time spacewalking list behind Russian cosmonaut Anatoly Solovyev during the third in the current series of spacewalks on Feb. 8. 

Williams is now second on the all-time list for female spacewalkers for total time outside with 15 hours and 26 minutes of spacewalking time. 
Lopez-Alegria and Williams will have time to relax Thursday and Friday as they prepare spacesuits and tools for the Sunday spacewalk.

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-6.
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EVA #263
Mission: ISS Expedition 14 Date: 4 February 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: ISS
For the second time in four days, two residents of the International Space Station stepped outside for a spacewalk to complete connecting cooling loops from a temporary to a permanent system. This time the excursion lasted just over seven hours. 

Wearing U.S. spacesuits, Expedition 14 Commander Mike Lopez-Alegria and Suni Williams began their spacewalk on Sunday, February 4, at 7:38 CST, a few minutes ahead of schedule. After setting up tools and tethers outside the Quest airlock, they moved to the area that connects the Z1 truss to the S0 truss at the middle of the station’s large girder-like truss system. This area is known as the "rats' nest.” 

In these tight quarters, they rerouted a series of two electrical cables and four fluid quick disconnect lines from the soon-to-be defunct Early External Active Thermal Control System to a permanent cooling system in the Destiny Laboratory. 

The cooling loop reconfigured Sunday, known as the Moderate Temperature Loop (Loop B), removes heat from the station’s avionics systems and payload racks through a heat exchanger system in the Destiny Laboratory. On Jan. 31, Lopez-Alegria and Williams reconfigured a Low Temperature Loop (Loop A) that rejects heat from the station’s environmental systems. 

The spacewalkers also assisted in the retraction of the aft heat-rejecting radiator on the P6 truss. The radiator had been used since 2000 to keep station systems at the correct temperature through the temporary cooling system. They helped tie the radiator down with a series of cinches. Unlike the starboard radiator, which was retracted January 31, the aft radiator did not require the installation of a protective thermal shroud due to the station's orientation to the sun. During this summer's STS-118 shuttle mission, a third radiator will be retracted, the only radiator on the P6 truss that will be redeployed after the truss is relocated to the far port side of the truss. 

Once the radiator was retracted, Lopez-Alegria and Williams completed Wednesday’s unfinished task of disconnecting and stowing the second of two fluid lines for the Early Ammonia Servicer, a large tank on the P6 truss that is no longer needed. The EAS was designed to replenish ammonia to the temporary cooling system on the station in the event of a coolant leak. The servicer will be jettisoned during a spacewalk by the Expedition 15 crew this summer. 

Lopez-Alegria, at the base of the P6 truss, photographed the starboard solar array and the blanket box into which it folds. Engineers will analyze the photos and finalize plans to retract that array during the STS-117 shuttle mission to the station next month. 

After the photographs were taken, Lopez-Alegria and Williams resumed the stringing of electrical cables from the S0 truss to the Destiny Laboratory and to its forward docking port, Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 (PMA-2), to which visiting shuttles dock. The cables provide electricity for the Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS). The system will enable docked shuttles to draw electrical power from the station to extend their missions. SSPTS is scheduled to debut during STS-118, enabling Endeavour to fly for two weeks. Three of the six cables were connected Sunday. The others probably will be connected during a spacewalk Thursday, February 8. 

Lopez-Alegria removed a sunshade from a data relay box on another pressurized mating adapter that connects the U.S. and Russian segments of the station. Since the shade is no longer needed, it was folded up and brought inside to be discarded either on a future Russian Progress cargo ship or a shuttle mission 

Back in the airlock, Lopez-Alegria and Williams did some precautionary decontamination procedures after a few ammonia flakes were seen early in the spacewalk. 

The spacewalk ended at 14:49 as the crew returned to Quest. It was the eighth spacewalk of Lopez-Alegria’s career and the third for Williams. He surpassed astronaut Steve Smith to vault into third place on the all-time spacewalking list for most hours spent outside. Williams now holds the record for most spacewalking time by a female. Former astronaut Kathy Thornton previously held that honor. Sunday’s spacewalk was the 79th for station assembly and maintenance and the 51st done without a shuttle present. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-7.
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EVA #264
Mission: ISS Expedition 14 Date: 8 February 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 40 min. Program: ISS
With all scheduled tasks accomplished, International Space Station Commander Mike Lopez-Alegria and Sunita Williams wound up a 6-hour, 40-minute spacewalk on Thursday, February 8, at 14:06 CST. 

It was the last in an unprecedented series of three U. S. spacewalks in nine days from the Quest airlock. Major tasks of this spacewalk included removing and jettisoning two large shrouds and installing an attachment for cargo carriers. 

Lopez-Alegria and Williams moved from the airlock out to Crew Equipment Transfer Aid (CETA) carts on the rails of the main truss. Pushing one cart with their equipment, including a foot restraint, they moved to the Port 3 truss segment. Their first job was to remove two thermal shrouds, one from each of two Rotary Joint Motor Controllers (RJMC) on P3. 

Next, they removed two large shrouds from P3 Bays 18 and 20. The shrouds, larger than king-size bed sheets, provide thermal shading. With the station in its present orientation, they are no longer needed and are being removed to avoid trapping heat. 

Each large shroud was packed with one of the smaller RJMC shrouds into a package weighing about 10 kilos. Lopez-Alegria jettisoned them toward the rear of the station. Afterward, an Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Assembly Attachment System (UCCAS) on the upper face of the P3 truss was deployed. That was done in preparation for attachment of a cargo platform on the STS-118 mission to the ISS later this year.

While Lopez-Alegria finished work on the UCCAS, Williams moved to the end of the P5 truss to remove two launch locks in preparation for the relocation of the P6 truss to that segment. 

The final scheduled task of the spacewalk was connecting the final four cables of the Station to Shuttle Power Transfer System (SSPTS) to Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 (PMA-2) at the forward end of the Destiny laboratory where shuttles dock. The SSPTS will allow visiting shuttles to derive power from the station to extend their missions. 

Work began on the system during the Jan. 31 spacewalk, and two of the cables were routed and connected to PMA-2 on the Feb. 4 spacewalk. The astronauts completed one get-ahead task to photograph a suspect connector on the outboard end of PMA-2. It carries station shuttle communications when the shuttle is docked but hatches are closed. Communications have been intermittent during recent shuttle missions. 

Approximately 3 hours, 50 minutes into his ninth spacewalk, Lopez-Alegria set a record Thursday for cumulative spacewalk time by a U.S. astronaut. Jerry Ross previously held the title with 58 hours, 32 minutes accumulated during nine spacewalks. Lopez-Alegria completed the spacewalk with 61 hours, 22 minutes of spacewalking time. 

The three spacewalks from the Quest airlock in U.S. spacesuits and a Russian spacewalk on February 22 are the most ever done by station crew members during such a short period and will mark five spacewalks in all for Expedition 14, a record for any expedition. Starting from scratch, it takes crew members about 100 hours to prepare for a spacewalk. By doing the U.S. spacewalks just a few days apart, considerable crew time can be saved by not having to repeat some of the preparation. 

Thursday's spacewalk was the 80th for station assembly and maintenance. It was the 52nd from the station and the 32nd from Quest. It was the fourth for Williams, the most for any woman. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-8
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EVA #265
Mission: ISS Expedition 14 Date: 22 February 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 18 min. Program: ISS
Expedition 14 Commander Mike Lopez-Alegria and Mikhail Tyurin retracted a stuck antenna on a cargo spacecraft during a 6-hour, 18-minute spacewalk that ended at 10:45 CST Thursday, February 22.

On October 26, the antenna did not properly retract when the Progress vehicle docked to the station's Zvezda Habitation Module. Moving the antenna was necessary to ensure it would not interfere with the Progress undocking in April.

The spacewalkers had planned to release the antenna latch with a punch and a hammer. When clearance issues prevented that, they cut struts supporting the antenna. That enabled them to partly retract the antenna and secure it with wire ties. They reported it had about six inches of clearance from Zvezda, adequate for undocking. 

Early in the spacewalk, Tyurin had problems with his spacesuit's cooling system, which caused his visor to fog up. But he and Lopez-Alegria were able to complete a number of other tasks. They began the spacewalk by photographing a Russian satellite navigation antenna and changing out a Russian materials experiment. They also inspected and photographed an antenna for the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV).

 They photographed a German robotics experiment, inspected, remated and photographed hardware connectors and inspected retention mechanisms and bolted joints on a hand-operated Strela crane that helps transport people and equipment outside Pirs. They also stowed two foot restraints on a ladder at Pirs before ending the spacewalk. 

The spacewalk from the Pirs docking compartment was conducted in Russian Orlan spacesuits. It was the 81st for station assembly and maintenance, the 53rd from the station, the 20th from Pirs and the fifth for this station crew. This was the 10th spacewalk for Lopez-Alegria, a U.S. record, and the fifth for Tyurin. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-11.
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EVA #266
Mission: ISS Expedition 15 Date: 31 May 2007 Duration: 5 hr. 25 min. Program: ISS
On Wednesday, May 30, Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov stepped outside the station and installed five additional debris protection panels on the conical section of the Zvezda Habitation Module, the area between its large and small diameters. The aluminum debris protection panels are designed to shield the module from micro-meteoroids. 

Also during the spacewalk, they relocated a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna cable. They moved the GPS cable to assist the rendezvous and docking of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle later this year. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-30
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EVA #267
Mission: ISS Expedition 15 Date: 6 June 2007 Duration: 5 hr. 37 min. Program: ISS
Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov opened the hatch on the Pirs docking compartment at 9:23 a.m. CDT on Wednesday, June 6, to begin a spacewalk lasting 5 hours and 37 minutes. The cosmonauts installed sample containers on the Pirs module for a Russian experiment. The experiment, called Biorisk, looks at the effect of space on microorganisms. 

Next, they strung a section of Ethernet cable on the exterior of the Zarya module. This completed the installation of a remote computer network that will enable commanding of the station's Russian segment from the U.S. segment, if necessary. 

Yurchikhin and Kotov later moved to the primary task on the agenda, putting up 12 debris shield panels on the conical section of the Zvezda module. Five panels were installed last week, and six others were installed in 2002 to improve the module's protection from micrometeroid debris strikes. The aluminum panels each measure approximately 60 x 90 cm and are 2½ cm thick. 

Almost two and a half hours into the spacewalk, Russian controllers noticed unusual readings in Pirs and asked Yurchikhin to return to the module where he verified that the pressurized oxygen bottles were closed properly. Mission Control Moscow subsequently determined that a small amount of oxygen was flowing from a fluid umbilical that had not closed fully when it was disconnected from the spacesuit at the beginning of the spacewalk. Controllers closed the flow of oxygen to that umbilical to preserve the supply and restarted it during repressurization of Pirs after the spacewalk concluded. 

The spacewalk ended at 15 O’clock when the hatch on Pirs was closed. Both cosmonauts now have 11 hours and 2 minutes experience in the Russian Orlan spacesuits. This was the 83rd spacewalk in support of station assembly and maintenance, the 55th conducted from the station, and the 22nd conducted out of Pirs. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Status Report #07-30.
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EVA #268
Mission: STS-117 Date: 11 June 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 15 min. Program: ISS
The International Space Station grew in size and capability on Monday, June 11 when the S3/S4 Truss became a permanent addition as crewmembers worked inside and outside the complex to complete the final hookups. 

The work culminated in a 6 hour, 15 minute spacewalk by shuttle astronauts Jim Reilly and Danny Olivas, who focused on final attachment of bolts, cables, and connectors to begin the activation of the truss and ready it for deployment of its solar arrays. 

The spacewalk began at 15:02 CDT and ended at 21:17 CDT and was the 84th devoted to station assembly and maintenance totaling 515 hours, 20 minutes. 

The spacewalk was delayed for about an hour after the station temporarily lost attitude control when the station’s control moment gyroscopes went offline due to the mass of the new truss segment in the final stage of its attachment. The loss was not unexpected because of the station’s skewed asymmetry as the 17.8 ton bus-size S3/S4 truss was being moved toward the S1 truss. 

Pilot Lee Archambault, Patrick Forrester and Oleg Kotov tightened the final of four bolts permanently mating the new 14-metre truss to the outboard end of the S1 truss. The installation paved the way for the start of the spacewalk – the fourth for Reilly and first for Olivas. Once completed, the truss will stretch 356 feet from end to end. 

Once the spacewalk began, Reilly and Olivas moved quickly through their tasks of releasing the launch restraints on the four Solar Array Blanket Boxes, which house the folded solar arrays. Their work sets the stage for the deployment of the solar arrays Tuesday.

Adapted from: STS-117 MCC Status Report #07
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EVA #269
Mission: STS-117 Date: 13 June 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 16 min. Program: ISS
Just a few launch restraint bolts stand between the International Space Station’s new solar arrays and rotation, following a seven hour and 16 minute spacewalk by Patrick Forrester and Steve Swanson. Meanwhile, managers approved a repair task for a damaged thermal blanket to be carried out during the next spacewalk Friday. 

During the second spacewalk of tlantis’ mission, Forrester and Swanson on Weenesday, June 13, removed all of the launch locks holding the 3-metre-wide solar alpha rotary joint in place. The spacewalkers had planned to remove the joint’s launch restraints as well, but left them for a later spacewalk. 

They ran into a problem when Forrester tried to install a drive-lock assembly and found that commands being sent to it were actually being received by a drive-lock assembly installed during the mission’s first spacewalk. Flight controllers confirmed that the drive-lock assembly installed earlier was in a safe configuration and are working to confirm that the newly installed assembly is as well. 

Once fully activated, the drive-lock assemblies engage gears permitting the massive joint to rotate allowing the arrays to track the sun as the station circles the Earth. 

To enable it to do so, spacewalkers also had to help retract an older solar array to clear the new array’s path. The process is delicate, as the panels of the solar arrays tend to get caught on their guide wires and fold in the wrong direction. Flight controllers started the retraction before the crew woke up, and were able to get seven and a half of the 31.5 solar array bays folded. Then, on the spacewalk, Forrester and Swanson were able to poke and prod another five and a half bays worth of panels into folding correctly before moving on to other tasks. 

The astronauts also were able to make sure the arrays were in a good configuration for another try by flight controllers on Thursday. If necessary, the spacewalkers could provide more hands-on help during one of the mission’s remaining two spacewalks.

Adapted from: STS-117 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #270
Mission: STS-117 Date:15 June 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 58 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Jim Reilly and Danny Olivas worked outside the station for 7 hours, 58 minutes, on Friday, June 15, and completed all their planned tasks. Olivas spent two hours stapling and pinning down a thermal blanket on Atlantis’ orbital maneuvering system pod. A 10-by-15-cm corner of the blanket peeled up during the shuttle’s launch last week. 

Meanwhile, Reilly installed the hydrogen vent valve of a new oxygen generation system on the Destiny laboratory. The system will separate oxygen from water to provide breathing air, while dumping the remaining component – hydrogen – overboard. 

When those tasks were completed, the two astronauts joined forces with their colleagues inside the shuttle and station and flight controllers in Houston to complete the delicate process of folding an older solar array so that it can be moved from its temporary location to its permanent home during a shuttle mission this fall. 

Armed with lessons learned from last December’s shuttle mission when the other half of the array posed an identical challenge, the STS-117 mission team followed well-trained procedures to retract the array into its protective box. The retraction was completed and latches closed at 19:40 (7 hours, 15 minutes into the spacewalk). Reilly and Olivas provided hands-on assistance throughout the process. The retraction sequence today required 28 commands, bringing the total for the retraction to 45. 
 

Adapted from: STS-117 MCC Status Report #15.
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EVA #271
Mission: STS-117 Date: 17 June 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 29 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Patrick Forrester and Steve Swanson completed the fourth and final spacewalk of Atlantis’ mission at 17:54, on Sunday, June 17 wrapping up all the tasks planned for the mission and finishing some jobs that will reduce the workload for future spacewalkers. 

The astronauts began the spacewalk at 11:25. They made quick work of retrieving a TV camera and its support structure from a stowage platform attached to Quest and installing it on the S/3 truss. They then verified the Drive Lock Assembly (DLA) 2 configuration and removed the last six Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) launch restraints. 

By 15:17, they had cleared the path on S3 for the Mobile Base System by removing temporary rail stops and hardware that had secured the S3/S4 in the shuttle’s payload bay, thus completing the major tasks slated for the STS-117 mission. The spacewalkers then began some of the get-ahead tasks mission managers had hoped to complete. 

The two spacewalkers also installed a computer network cable on the Unity node, opened the hydrogen vent valve on the Destiny laboratory that was installed on Friday’s spacewalk, and tethered two orbital debris shield panels on the station’s service module. 

The spacewalk was the 87th in support of station assembly and maintenance, the 59th staged out of the station and the 36th out of the Quest airlock. Eleven spacewalks have been completed this year and 14 remain. 

Adapted from: STS-117 MCC Status Report #19.
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EVA #272
Mission: ISS Expedition 15 Date: 23 July 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 41 min. Program: ISS
Two International Space Station crew members Monday, July 23, successfully wrapped up a 7-hour, 41-minute spacewalk that saw the removal and jettison of a refrigerator-size ammonia reservoir.  The spacewalk from the Quest Airlock ended at 14:06 EDT. 

Astronaut Clay Anderson was the lead spacewalker with Fyodor Yurchikhin, the space station commander, Cosmonaut Oleg Kotov operated the Canadarm2 from the U.S. laboratory Destiny. 

After leaving the airlock and setting up equipment, the first task was installation of a television camera stanchion. The spacewalkers took it from an external stowage platform and installed it on the Earth-facing side of the station's main truss at the interface Starboard 0-Port 1 (S0-P1) truss segments. 

Next they moved to separate tasks. Anderson reconfigured a power supply for an S-Band Antenna Assembly, and then set up and got on a foot restraint at the end of Canadarm2. Yurchikhin replaced a circuit breaker, called a remote power controller module. It ensures power redundancy for a move of the Mobile Transporter rail car on the station's truss. 

Back together, they removed flight support equipment, where the camera stanchion had been mounted, and an attached Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanism. Together they have a mass of about 100 kilograms. 

While Anderson jettisoned them from the end of the arm, Yurchikhin moved to the Z1 truss, where he disconnected and stowed cabling associated with the ammonia reservoir, called the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS). 

The EAS was installed on the P6 truss during STS-105 in August 2001, as an ammonia replenishment reservoir if a leak had occurred. It was never used, and was no longer needed after the permanent cooling system was activated last December. The EAS has to be removed before the P6 truss can be moved to the end of the station's main truss. 

With Anderson still on the arm, both crew members moved to the P6 Truss and released its remaining connections to the station. Once it was free, Anderson held the EAS while the arm maneuvered him to the jettison point, below the right side of the ISS main truss. 

The EAS weighs a little over 635 kg on Earth. The jettison was much like that of the stanchion equipment. Anderson shoved the EAS opposite the station's direction of travel. 

The final scheduled spacewalk task was cleaning the Earth-facing docking port, or Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the Unity node. That was done to prepare for the relocation of Pressurized Mating Adapter-3 (PMA-3), scheduled for late August. 

The move is being made to clear the PMA-3's present position, on the starboard CBM of Unity, for a series of events that will culminate with the arrival of the Harmony node and its preparation to receive future space shuttles. 

Crew members completed three get-ahead tasks. They removed an auxiliary equipment bag from the P6 Truss and attached it to the Z1 Truss. They also removed a malfunctioning Global Positioning System antenna on the S0 Truss and released bolts on two fluid trays attached to the S0. The trays are to be installed on Node 2, the Harmony node, during STS-120 this fall. 

After cleanup Anderson and Yurchikhin re-entered Quest and concluded the spacewalk. It was the first spacewalk for Anderson and the third for Yurchikhin.

Adapted from: International Space Station Report, 24 July 2007.
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EVA #273
Mission: STS-118 Date: 11 August 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 17 min. Program: ISS
First-time spacewalkers Rick Mastracchio and Dave Williams added a two-ton, 3.3-metre-foot-long spacer to the International Space Station’s backbone today during the mission’s inaugural spacewalk.  With the addition of the new spacer, nicknamed “Stubby” by the STS-118 crew, the station’s truss is now 75 metres long. 

The two Endeavour astronauts ventured outside the station to attach the Starboard 5 (S5) segment of the station’s truss and to retract the forward heat-rejecting radiator from the station’s Port 6 (P6) truss. The retraction was the final step needed before the P6 truss can be relocated to its permanent place at the end of the port truss during the STS-120 mission in October. 

The spacewalk began at 11:28 CDT, and Mastracchio and Williams were back inside by 17:45. The truss was officially installed by 13:26. Total duration of the spacewalk was 6 hours, 17 minutes. The spacewalkers stayed ahead of schedule, and after finishing the planned tasks completed some extra jobs that advanced the station’s assembly. 

 Tracy Caldwell guided the spacewalkers as they eyed clearances for station arm operators Charlie Hobaugh and Clay Anderson. The shuttle pilot and station flight engineer moved the truss segment into place and engaged automatic latches, and then the spacewalkers fastened the primary structural bolts that will hold it in place.

Adapted from: STS-118 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #274
Mission: STS-118 Date:13 August 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 28 min. Program: ISS
The International Space Station has a new control moment gyroscope, which is in the process of being checked out by Mission Control. 

Astronauts Dave Williams and Rick Mastracchio completed a spacewalk on Monday, August 13, that has been in the works since one of the station’s four gyroscopes – which control orientation – failed in October. Williams carried the 275-kg replacement to its new home on the Z1 segment of the station truss, and stored the failed equipment on the outside of the station. It will be returned home on a future shuttle mission. 

The second of four spacewalks scheduled for Endeavour’s mission, this was the 90th spacewalk devoted to station maintenance and construction. Williams and Mastracchio left the station at 10:32 and spent 6 hours and 28 minutes outside. 

Adapted from: STS-118 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #275
Mission: STS-118 / ISS Expedition 15 Date: 15 August 2007 Duration: 5 hr. 28 min. Program: ISS
Endeavour’s third spacewalk prepared the International Space Station for the next step in solar array deployment and voice communications system upgrades despite an early end called because of a damaged glove. 

The spacewalk began on Wednesday, August 15, at 9:38 for Rick Mastracchio and Clay Anderson. At 13:54, during a periodic glove check, Mastracchio noted a hole in the second layer of material on the thumb of his left glove. The suit has five protective layers, and the small hole did not cause any leak or danger to Mastracchio. 

As a precautionary measure, Mastracchio headed back to the Quest airlock while Anderson completed his final task. The spacewalk ended at 15:05, with a total time of 5 hours and 28 minutes. During the excursion, Mastracchio and Anderson relocated the S-Band Antenna Sub-Assembly from Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1), installed a new transponder on P1 and retrieved the P6 transponder. 

The spacewalkers also monitored the station’s robotic arm as Charlie Hobaugh and Oleg Kotov moved two Crew Equipment Translation Aid carts. The move enabled relocation of the solar array segment to its final position during STS-120. 

The only task not completed was the retrieval of two space material sample packages. Materials International Space Station Experiments 3 and 4 will be retrieved on a later spacewalk. 

Adapted from: STS-118 MCC Status Report #15
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EVA #276
Mission: STS-118 / ISS Expedition 15 Date: 18 August 2007 Duration: 5 hr. 02 min. Program: ISS
Two astronauts conducted a five-hour spacewalk on Saturday, August 18, finishing up the last priorities of Endeavour’s mission. 

Astronauts Dave Williams and Clay Anderson left the station’s airlock at 8:17. By the time they returned at 13:19, they’d completed all of the tasks scheduled for the replanned spacewalk, which was trimmed by two hours to allow for a day-early hatch closing today. 

Williams and Anderson installed the External Wireless Instrumentation System antenna, attached a stand for the shuttle’s robotic arm extension boom and retrieved the two materials experiment containers to be brought home on the shuttle. Two other tasks originally planned for the spacewalk – cleaning up and securing debris shielding and moving a tool box to a more central location – were deferred to a future spacewalk.

Adapted from: STS-118 MCC Status Report #21
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EVA #277
Mission: STS-120 Date: 26 October 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 14 min. Program: ISS
In just over six hours, STS-120 Astronauts Scott Parazynski and Doug Wheelock installed the Harmony module in its temporary location on the International Space Station, readied the P6 truss for its relocation on Sunday, retrieved a failed radio communications antenna and snapped shut a window cover on Harmony that opened during launch on the space shuttle. The station’s newest pressurized module adds 75-cubic metres of volume, increasing the station’s living space by nearly 20 percent (from 455 to 500 cubic metres). 

Parazynski and Wheelock began the spacewalk at 5:02 and wrapped up at 11:16. First, the two removed and stowed the S-band Antenna Structural Assembly which is being returned to Earth on Discovery. Next, they secured a Payload and Data Grapple Fixture onto Harmony that could not be in place during launch, removed contamination covers and disconnected the power cables linking Harmony to Discovery. 

Once the spacewalker’s preparations were complete, Stephanie Wilson, Clay Anderson and Daniel Tani used the station’s robotic arm to remove Harmony from the payload bay and move it to its position on the port side of Unity. Nespoli coordinated spacewalk activities. 

Harmony will be relocated to the front of the Destiny laboratory after the shuttle departs. It will provide the docking ports for laboratory modules from the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency that are to arrive late this year and early next year. Outfitting of the station’s newest module will continue throughout the mission. 

Adapted from: STS-120 MCC Status Report #8.
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EVA #278
Mission: STS-120 Date: 28 October 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 33 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Scott Parazynski and Dan Tani successfully completed all major tasks during STS-120's second spacewalk, the 17th this year and the 94th dedicated to the International Space Station's assembly and maintenance. 

During the 6 hour and 33 minute spacewalk, Parazynski and Tani teamed to disconnect cables from the Port 6 (P6) truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Once completed, Stephanie Wilson and Doug Wheelock used the station’s robotic arm to move the P6 and park it overnight. The space walk began at 4:32 CDT and ended at 11:05 CDT. 

Tani also visually inspected the station’s starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint and gathered samples of “shavings” he found under the joint’s Multi-Layer Insulation covers. The task was added so engineers could gather additional information on possible causes of increased friction detected for the past month and a half as the joint rotated for solar array positioning. 

In addition to detaching the P6 truss, the spacewalkers outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. 
 

Adapted from: STS-120 MCC Status Report #12
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EVA #279
Mission: STS-120 Date: 30 October 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 08 min  Program: ISS
The crew of space shuttle Discovery and the International Space Station executed a flawless spacewalk on October 30, but ran into some unexpected issues afterward. 

Scott Parazynski and Doug Wheelock left the space station at 4:45 to begin what would be a 7 hour, 8 minute excursion to complete all of their scheduled tasks and a few get-ahead items for future spacewalks. 

They were able to install the port 6 – or P6 – truss segment with its set of solar arrays to its permanent home and install a spare main bus switching unit on a stowage platform for future use if needed.

Additionally, Parazynski took a look at the port Solar Alpha Rotary Joint to gather comparison data for the starboard rotary joint, which has been experiencing increased friction over the past month and a half. Parazynski described the joint as being “pristine,” unlike its starboard counterpart, which was found to have some debris inside the joint during a similar inspection on the mission’s second space walk.

As the spacewalk ended, the P6 solar arrays were deployed with one experiencing a tear in a blanket as it reached the 80 percent deployed point. The crew immediately halted the deploy as engineers in Mission Control began a detailed forensics analysis to determine what the next steps would entail.

The current configuration is safe and there is no urgency to solve the problem immediately allowing station managers and engineers plenty of time to understand the problem before taking any action. The other half of the array deployed perfectly with no issues.

After reentering the station, Wheelock noticed a small hole in the outer layer of his right glove thumb. Further analysis will dictate the options as he prepares to join Parazynski on the fourth spacewalk Thursday.

Adapted from: STS-120 MCC Status Report #16
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EVA #280
Mission: STS-120 Date: 3 November 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 19 min. Program: ISS
With a few pieces of aluminum and a little bit of wire, Scott Parazynski  repaired on November 3 a damaged solar array during a spacewalk that lasted 7 hours, 19 minutes. 

Parazynski and fellow spacewalker Doug Wheelock left the International Space Station at 5:03 and spent about an hour and a half riding the station’s robotic arm out to the torn array – about 50 metres down the station’s truss and 27 metres up to the damage. 

Once there, Parazynski cut a snagged wire and installed homemade stabilizers designed to strengthen the array’s structure and stability in the vicinity of the damage. Wheelock helped from the truss by keeping an eye on the distance between Parazynski and the array.

They completed the repair just after 10 a.m., and then stood back to watch for complications as flight controllers on the ground finished the deploy, which began on Tuesday. The delicate deploy sequence called for the array mast to be deployed one half bay at a time. Fifteen minutes and 13 computer commands later, the array was fully extended.

Parazynski and Wheelock then made their way back to the station’s airlock, to end the spacewalk at 12:22.

The array repair became the priority of space shuttle Discovery’s mission on Tuesday, after two tears were noticed during the array’s unfurling. Teams on the ground worked around the clock to develop a plan for the repair, and the crew spent much of the past two days studying and making tools.

Adapted from: STS-120 MCC Status Report #24
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EVA #281
Mission: ISS Expedition 16 Date: 9 November 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 54 min. Program: ISS
A spacewalk on November 9 by ISS Commander Peggy Whitson and Yuri Malenchenko was completed fully successfully in 6 hr. 54* min, accomplishing all objectives. One get-ahead task was left for a future excursion. Official start time of the spacewalk was 4:54 EDT and ended at 11:49 EDT. During the spacewalk, they: 
Stowed Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System Cabling; 
Stowed PMA-2/Lab Umbilicals, prepping PMA-2 for its relocation on November 12; 
Retrieved a Lab CETA (Crew & Equipment Translation Aid) Light; 
Temporaly stowed Node-2 Port & Starboard Tray Avionics; 
Installed Node-2 Power & Data Grapple Fixture Horseshoe Connectors & harness; 
Removed & replaced Remote Power Controller Module 4B-C on S0 truss; 
Removed Active Common Berthing Mechanism Cover & surveyed the CBM; 
Mated S0/Node-1 SM Power Cable; 
Configured PMA-1/FGB H-Jumpers; 
Retrieved a Baseband Signal Processor; and 
Relocated the Nitrogen Vent Tool Extender bag.
Not done: Installing a Node-2 handrail (a get-ahead task).

It was the 97th spacewalk for ISS assembly & maintenance and the 69 th from the station (28 from Shuttle, 49 from Quest, 22 from Pirs, plus one inside Zvezda.) 

Adapted from: ISS On-Orbit Status 9 November 2007.
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EVA #282
Mission: ISS Expedition 16 Date: 20 November 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 15 min. Program: ISS
A spacewalsk on November 20, by ISS Commander Peggy Whitson and Dan Tani was completed fully successfully in 7 hr. 15* min., accomplishing all objectives plus several get-ahead tasks. Official start time of the spacewalk was 5:10EST, and it ended at 12:26. During the spacewalk, they connected and configured one half of the Node-2 fluid, power, and cooling jumpers. The other half will be 
done on November 24 (Saturday). 
Specifically, the spacewalkers: 
Removed the Starboard ammonia Shunt Jumper; 
Configured Vent Tools; then vented & stowed the Starboard ammonia Shunt Jumper; 
Released Node-2 Fluid Caps, reconfigured P1 radiator Squib Firing Units, fired on November 9, and released the Node-2 Loop A Fluid Tray; 
Relocated the Loop A Fluid Tray, then attached it, deployed/mated it, and vented nitrogen from it; 
Mated & opened hinge Quick Disconnects (QDs), S0 Fluid QDs, and Node-2 Fluid QDs; 
Connected 6 Node-2 Fluid Line Heater Cables; 
Connected 11 Node-2 Port Avionics cables to Node-2; and 
Mated Primary PMA-2/Node-2 Umbilicals. 

In addition, they accomplished three get-ahead tasks:
Connected 5 stbd avionics umbilicals to Node-2; 
Connected PMA-2 redundant umbilicals; and 
Deployed Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System)cabling. 

Adapted from: ISS On-Orbit Status 20 November 2007.
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EVA #283
Mission: ISS Expedition 16 Date: 24 November 2007 Duration: 7 hr. 03 min. Program: ISS
A spacewalk on November 28 by ISS Commander Peggy Whitson and Dan Tani was completed fully successfully in 7 hr. 3* min., accomplishing all objectives & get-ahead tasks. Official start time of the spacewalk was 4:50 EST, 70 minutes ahead of the timeline, ending at 11:54. As a consequence, Node-2 Harmony was fully activated by the ground, one day earlier than originally planned, enabling interior activations by the crew tomorrow.

The spacewalkers connected and configured the second half of the Node-2 fluid, power, and cooling jumpers (the first half was accomplished on November 20).  Specifically, they: 
Removed the portside S0 truss ammonia shunt jumper; 
Configured vent tools, removed Node-2 fluid quick disconnect (QD) caps and vented & stowed the Port ammonia shunt jumper; 
Relocated an Articulating Portable Foot Restraint from Lab (Worksite Interface Fixture 11 to Lab WIF-12;
Relocated the 136-kg, 5.6-m Node-2 Loop B fluid tray to the Lab, attached it and deployed its hinged section; 
Mated S0 fluid QDs, then opened S0 valves and 2 fluid QDs; 
Connected two Node-2 fluid line heater cables; 
Connected five Stbd avionics cables to Node-2;
Released Node-2 Stbd Common Berthing Mechanism petal launch locks (8 latches); 
Released Node-2 Port CBM petal launch locks (8 latches)
Mated backup Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System umbilical to PMA-2 
Installed Lab/Node-2 gap spanner between two handrails (Lab & Node 2); 
Removed Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Cover 7 and two MMOD shields for inspection & photography; 
Re-installed the CETA (Crew & Equipment Translation Aid) Light Fixture that had been temporarily moved out of the way; and 
Cleaned up a Lab micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield installed on an earlier EVA.

Adapted from: ISS On-Orbit Status 24 November 2007.
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EVA #284
Mission: ISS Expedition 16 Date: 18 December 2007 Duration: 6 hr. 56 min. Program: ISS
Expedition 16 astronauts Dan Tani and ISS Commander Peggy Whitson wrapped up a 6-hour, 56=minute spacewalk focused on International Space Station solar array issues at 11:46 EST Tuesday, December 18. 

The spacewalkers looked for the cause of partial loss of electrical power to one of the station's two Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGAs) for starboard solar wings. They also examined damage to the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). The SARJ enables the arrays to rotate in a paddlewheel-like fashion to follow the sun as the station orbits the Earth. The BGA lets the solar wings tilt along their long axis to point more directly to the sun.

After leaving the U.S. airlock Quest and setting up equipment, Tani and Whitson moved to the station's main truss and then out to near the end of its starboard side. There they inspected BGA 1A without seeing apparent 
damage. They disconnected two cables to facilitate ground tests.

On December 8, the BGA's primary power was lost after three circuit breakers tripped. A backup power source still functions, but because of the loss of redundancy, the device was latched with the wing in a position suitable for docking of Atlantis on Shuttle mission STS-122.

With the cables disconnected the circuits remained closed, apparently clearing the cables as suspects. Whitson reconnected them late in the spacewalk. 

For the BGA inspection, the spacewalkers entered the truss from opposite sides, but remained together to be able to warn one another of obstructions in that confined area. That inspection took about 45 minutes. 

Next the spacewalkers moved to the SARJ. Working together, they removed two large drive lock assembly covers and inspected the race rings and bearings beneath them. Then they removed and inspected beneath most of the 22 covers. 

That SARJ was locked after vibrations were noted and increased power consumption was seen. Inspection findings Tuesday showed various degrees of contamination under the individual covers. Generally it was similar to what had been seen previously. 

Tani and Whitson described what they saw, took photos and used tape and a scraper to collect samples of debris in the SARJ. That debris included metal shavings and "dusting" in the SARJ race ring. 

Finally, they removed trundle bearing assembly No. 5, one of the 12 trundle bearing assemblies that move along the race ring, and returned it to the station's interior. 

After cleanup they entered the Quest airlock and closed its hatch. The beginning of repressurization marked the official end of the spacewalk. 

The starboard array continues to produce some power, and no station operations have been affected. But managers want to resolve the SARJ and BGA problems before launch of the Japanese Kibo laboratory next year. 

The spacewalk was the 100th for the construction and maintenance of the station. During the spacewalk, Whitson set a new record for cumulative spacewalk time by a woman. About halfway through today's spacewalk she surpassed the mark set by Sunita Williams, a station crew member during Expeditions 14 and 15, who had a total of 29 hours and 17 minutes during four spacewalks. Whitson's new mark is 32 hours, 36 minutes in five spacewalks. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Report, 18 December 2007.
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EVA #285
Mission: ISS Expedition 16 Date: 30 January 2008 Duration: 7 hr. 10 min. Program: ISS
Expedition 16 Commander Peggy Whitson and Dan Tani finished their spacewalk at 12:06 EST Wednesday, January 30. They spent 7 hours and 10 minutes outside the International Space Station on the starboard side of the truss structure. 

They removed and replaced a Bearing Motor Roll Ring Module (BMRRM) that experienced electrical failures in early December. The BMRRM, or “broom”, drives the solar arrays as they tilt towards the sun maximizing power generation. 

While the spacewalkers were still outside, Mission Control switched on the new BMRRM and rotated the solar arrays attached to the Beta Gimbal Assembly. 

Whitson and Tani then inspected the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). The SARJ experienced electrical spikes last year and previous inspections revealed contamination and debris. Also, video inspections of the SARJ took place over the weekend providing data for engineers on the ground. 
 

Adapted from: International Space Station Report, 30 January 2008.
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EVA #286
Mission: STS-122 Date: 11 February 2008 Duration: 7 hr. 58 min. Program: ISS
ON February 11, after an almost eight-hour spacewalk by astronauts Stanley Love and Rex Walheim, the Columbus module officially became a part of the International Space Station.  “The European Columbus module is now part of the ISS,” Expedition 16 astronaut Leopold Eyharts radioed to Mission Control in Houston at 15:44 CST.

Astronauts Rex Walheim and Stanley Love worked during the day to install a grapple fixture on Columbus while it rested inside the shuttle’s payload bay. They also worked to prepare electrical and data connections on the module. Once this work was complete, Leland Melvin, Dan Tani and Eyharts operated the space station’s robotic arm to grab on to Columbus, lift it out of the orbiter and begin the 42-minute journey to its final attachment onto the starboard side of the station.

As Columbus was moving into place, Walheim and Love began work to replace a large nitrogen tank used for pressurizing the station's ammonia cooling system. This work will be completed during the second EVA.

Columbus is the cornerstone of Europe’s contribution to the International Space Station. With this addition, the station is now 57 percent complete in terms of mass.

Adapted from: STS-122 MCC Status Report #09 & ISS On-Orbit Status 11 February 2008.
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EVA #287
Mission: STS-122 Date: 13 February 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 45 min. Program: ISS
 The second spacewalk of the STS-122 mission was completed on February 13 by astronauts Rex Walheim and Hans Schlegel.

They stepped outside the International Space Station’s Quest airlock at 8:27 CST, and during the next six hours and 45 minutes they worked to replace a nitrogen tank used to pressurize the station’s ammonia cooling system. Once the tank was replaced, Walheim, mounted on the station’s robotic arm, maneuvered the spent tank into Atlantis’ payload bay for return. 

Once the task was completed, Walheim and Schlegel made some minor repairs to the Destiny laboratory’s debris shield and worked on some tasks in advance of the third and final spacewalk of the mission. 

Adapted from: STS-122 MCC Status Report #13
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EVA #288
Mission: STS-122 Date: 15 February 2008 Duration: 7 hr. 25 min. Program: ISS
On February 15, astronauts Rex Walheim and Stanley Love spent seven hours and 25 minutes completing the third and final spacewalk of the STS-122 mission. They worked to transfer the first of two external experiment facilities – an observatory used to monitor the sun, called SOLAR – to the Columbus module for installation. 

After the installation of SOLAR, the crew transferred a failed gyroscope that controls the orientation of the ISS into Atlantis’ payload bay so it can be returned to Earth. The two astronauts completed the final major objective of the mission by installing a second experiment onto the outside of Columbus, the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). This experiment will allow scientists to expose experiments to the vacuum and elements of space. 

Once this work was completed, Walheim and Love examined a damaged handrail on the outside of the station’s Quest airlock. They used an improvised tool covered with spacewalk overglove material to rub the area to see if it could be the source of some glove abrasions that have been noticed on recent activity outside the station. Mission managers in Houston will discuss the results to determine if the area is indeed the source of the issue. 

Adapted from: STS-122 MCC Status Report #17
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EVA #289
Mission: STS-123 / ISS Expedition 16 Date: 13-14 Mar ch2008 Duration: 7 hr. 08 min. Program: ISS
The newest international component of the orbiting International Space Station has officially reached its home in space. After being prepared for its move by two spacewalkers, the Japanese Logistics Module – Pressurized Section (JLP), the first component of the Japanese Kibo laboratory, was installed on the station early Friday morning, March 14.

With Takao Doi at the controls and assisted by Dominic Gorie, the JLP was gently attached to its interim location on the Harmony Node 2 module at 3:06 CDT. The module, which primarily will be used for storage space atop the larger Kibo Laboratory, will be relocated to its permanent location after the arrival of Kibo on space shuttle Discovery’s STS-124 mission in May.

Preparations for the move were among the tasks accomplished in today’s spacewalk, the first of five planned for the mission. Astronaut Rick Linnehan and Garrett Reisman ventured out of the pressurized confines of the station at 20:18, on Thursday, March 13. to begin the 7-hour, 1-minute spacewalk, which ended at 3:19 Friday morning.

Once outside the Quest Airlock, they first removed a thermal cover to reveal the Centerline Berthing Camera System on top of the Harmony module. The system provides live video to assist with docking spacecraft and modules together and was used for the attachment of the Japanese Logistics Module - Pressurized Section.

Once in the shuttle's payload bay, they removed contamination covers from the JLP docking mechanism. They also disconnected other power and heater connections, preparing it for its removal.

Next, the two headed to the port truss segment where they worked on the initial assembly of the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator, known as “Dextre.” They installed both the Orbital Replacement Unit/Tool Changeout Mechanisms (OTCMs) – the “hands” of Dextre’s arms. The OTCMs are parallel jaws that can hold a payload or tool. They each also have a retractable motorized socket wrench to turn bolts and mate or detach mechanisms, as well as a camera and lights.

Friday’s spacewalk marks the 105th devoted to assembly and maintenance of the station with a total cumulative time of 660 hours. The second spacewalk is scheduled for Saturday night.

Adapted from: STS-123 MCC Status Report #07
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EVA #290
Mission: STS-123 Date: 15-16 March 2008 Duration: 7 hr. 08 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Rick Linnehan and Mike Foreman spent more than seven hours outside the International Space Station on March 16 attaching the two arms of the Canadian Space Agency’s Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator, or Dextre. 

Dextre’s arms, each 3.3 metres long, provide the robot with the ability to work outside the station to install small orbital replacement units and conduct other maintenance tasks. Dextre can operate on the end of the station’s robotic arm or ride independently on the Mobile Base System. 

Linnehan and Foreman completed the second spacewalk of the mission removing some of the thermal covers that had been protecting Dextre during its installation. 

Linnehan and Foreman ventured outside the space station at 18:49 CDT Saturday, March 15 to begin the 7-hour, 8-minute spacewalk, which ended at 1:57. The spacewalk was the second in a series of five scheduled for the STS-123 mission. 

Adapted from: STS-123 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #291
Mission: STS-123 Date: 17-18 March 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 53 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Rick Linnehan and Bob Behnken completed a 6 hour 53 minute spacewalk Tuesday, March 18, finishing the assembly and installation of the International Space Station’s newest robot, Dextre. 

Linnehan and Behnken focused on installing Dextre’s tool holder assembly and a Camera Light Pan Tilt Assembly (CLPA), which will serve as Dextre’s eyes. The spacewalkers also prepared the Spacelab Logistics Pallet, on which the robot was assembled, for its return to Endeavour’s cargo bay Tuesday evening. 

The astronauts also installed spare equipment for the station on an external platform on the Quest airlock, including a yaw joint for the station’s robotic arm, Canadarm2, and two spare direct current switching units. 

The spacewalkers attempted to install the MISSE 6 experiment onto the Columbus module, but were unable to properly engage latching pins used to hold the experiment packages onto the hull of Columbus. MISSE 6 is designed to expose experiments to the space environment for six months and measure how materials and coatings are affected by the extreme environment. 

The spacewalk was the third of five planned for the STS-123 mission and was the 107th spacewalk dedicated to the assembly of the station.

Adapted from:  STS-123 MCC Status Report #15.
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EVA #292
Mission: STS-123 Date: 20-21 March 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 24 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Bob Behnken and Mike Foreman completed the fourth spacewalk of Endeavour’s STS-123 mission early Friday, March 21. The duration of the spacewalk was 6 hours 24 minutes, and it was the 108th spacewalk in support of the construction of the International Space Station. 

They replaced an electrical circuit box called a Remote Power Controller Module (RPCM) on the station's truss. One of the goals of the task was to restore redundant power to control moment gyroscope (CMG) 2, but the astronauts were unable to remove one of the connectors from the Z1 truss. CMG-2 will continue to operate on its primary RPCM until that connector is removed. 

The major focus of today’s spacewalk was a demonstration of the Tile Repair Ablator Dispenser – a caulk-gun-like device – and the application of a substance called Shuttle Tile Ablator-54 (STA-54) into intentionally damaged heat shield tiles. The astronauts applied the STA-54 into various molds, including a few that were created to resemble damage seen on previous shuttle missions and damaged tiles from prior flights. The test samples will be returned to Earth to undergo extensive testing on how STA-54 performs in both a microgravity and vacuum environment. 

Behnken and Foreman also removed a cover from Dextre, the station’s new robotic attachment, and some of the launch locks that were still attached to the Harmony module. Those locks were removed in preparation for the arrival of the pressurized Japanese Kibo laboratory aboard Discovery in May. 

Adapted from: STS-123 MCC Status Report #21.
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EVA #293
Mission: STS-123 Date: 22 March 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 02 min. Program: ISS
Capping a series of five spacewalks, astronauts Capping a series of five spacewalks, astronauts Robert Behnken and Mike Foreman completed the final spacewalk of the STS-123 mission at 21:36 CDT on Saturday, March 22. Their 6-hour, 2-minute excursion was highlighted by the positioning of robotic boom to its temporary home on the space station, as well as installation of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) and inspection of the station’s right Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). 

This was the 109th dedicated to the assembly of the space station. Because the two made quick work of the major tasks, they also were able to remove trunnion covers on the Japanese Logistics Pressurized Module. 

Behnken and Foreman, on the third spacewalk for each, first stored the Orbiter Boom Sensor System -- or OBSS -- on the station’s truss. Normally, the OBSS is returned on the space shuttle but this time it is being left on the station because there is not enough room in the cargo bay of space shuttle Discovery to house the next Japanese component to the station – the massive Kibo science laboratory. Discovery will bring the OBSS back to Earth at the end of the STS-124 mission. 

After the OBSS was stored, the two spacewalkers split up for other tasks. Behnken installed the MISSE-6 on the outside of the Columbus laboratory while Foreman inspected the SARJ. 

The 3-metre -wide, 1,135-kg joint, which rotates the station’s starboard solar arrays to track the sun, began showing increased vibrations and power usage last fall. Previous inspections have found metal shavings under the rotary joint’s insulation covers, and Foreman again looked at an area previously photographed to better characterize an apparent pockmark. 

This time around Behnken had no trouble with MISSE-6 thanks to a few troubleshooting methods developed by engineers on the ground. He and Mission Specialist Rick Linnehan had attempted to install the MISSE-6 experiment during the mission’s third spacewalk, but were unable to engage latching pins used to hold the experiment packages onto the hull of Columbus.
completed the final spacewalk of the STS-123 mission at 21:36 CDT on Saturday, March 22. Their 6-hour, 2-minute excursion was highlighted by the positioning of robotic boom to its temporary home on the space station, as well as installation of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) and inspection of the station’s right Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). 

This was the 109th dedicated to the assembly of the space station. Because the two made quick work of the major tasks, they also were able to remove trunnion covers on the Japanese Logistics Pressurized Module. 

Behnken and Foreman, on the third spacewalk for each, first stored the Orbiter Boom Sensor System -- or OBSS -- on the station’s truss. Normally, the OBSS is returned on the space shuttle but this time it is being left on the station because there is not enough room in the cargo bay of space shuttle Discovery to house the next Japanese component to the station – the massive Kibo science laboratory. Discovery will bring the OBSS back to Earth at the end of the STS-124 mission. 

After the OBSS was stored, the two spacewalkers split up for other tasks. Behnken installed the MISSE-6 on the outside of the Columbus laboratory while Foreman inspected the SARJ. 

The 3-metre -wide, 1,135-kg joint, which rotates the station’s starboard solar arrays to track the sun, began showing increased vibrations and power usage last fall. Previous inspections have found metal shavings under the rotary joint’s insulation covers, and Foreman again looked at an area previously photographed to better characterize an apparent pockmark. 

This time around Behnken had no trouble with MISSE-6 thanks to a few troubleshooting methods developed by engineers on the ground. He and Mission Specialist Rick Linnehan had attempted to install the MISSE-6 experiment during the mission’s third spacewalk, but were unable to engage latching pins used to hold the experiment packages onto the hull of Columbus.

Adapted from: STS-123 MCC Status Report #25.
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EVA #294
Mission: STS-124 Date: 3 June 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 48 min. Program: ISS
Closely choreographed spacewalking and robotics work led to the installation of a new, and the largest, laboratory on the International Space Station. 

Using the station’s robotic arm, astronaut Akihiko Hoshide and Karen Nyberg removed the lab from Discovery’s payload bay at 15:49 on Tuesday, June 3. It was latched in place on the Harmony node at 18:01 and the installation procedure was complete at 18:42.

During a six-hour and 48-minute spacewalk, Mike Fossum and Ron Garan prepared the Kibo lab for installation on the station by disconnecting cables and removing covers while it was still in the payload bay. 

They also assisted with transfer of the orbiter boom sensor system (OBSS) back to the shuttle from the station, where it has been stored since the last shuttle visit. Now the OBSS is attached to the shuttle robotic arm and can be used for a later inspection of Discovery’s heat shield on flight day 12.

The spacewalkers also demonstrated a technique that may be used to clean debris from the station solar alpha rotary joint, which has known debris degrading its operation. Garan installed a new bearing in the joint and during an inspection of a race ring within the joint, Fossum reported that a spot that had been identified on earlier spacewalks is indeed a divot. Station managers will use that information to continue researching the origin of the damage. 

Today’s spacewalk was the first of three scheduled for the mission. It was the first for Garan and the fourth for Fossum. It began at 11:22 and concluded at 18:10.

Adapted from: STS-124 MCC Status Report #07.
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EVA #295
Mission: STS-124 Date: 5 June 2008 Duration: 7 hr. 11 min. Program: ISS
After a seven-hour spacewalk, the newly installed Kibo laboratory is closer to its final configuration. 

Astronauts Mike Fossum and Ron Garan exited the space station at 10:04 on Thursday, June 5, nearly 30 minutes ahead of schedule, to begin the second spacewalk, which focused on external outfitting of the new module. They also worked on preparations for the exchange of a Nitrogen Tank Assembly, retrieved a failed camera and inspected an array mechanism. 

Once the two left the airlock, they made their way to the Kibo laboratory module where they installed cameras that will help monitor external robotic and payload operations. While in the vicinity, the two added insulating material to some areas of the module and removed thermal covers and insulation from others, specifically the Japanese robotic arm and the hatch on top of the module. A smaller component of the Japanese Experiment Module will be repositioned to that hatch location Friday. 

With the Kibo tasks behind them, the two proceeded to tasks in preparation for their next spacewalk. They loosened bolts holding two Nitrogen Tank Assemblies in place on the station’s truss. Those tanks will be swapped during Sunday's spacewalk. They also retrieved a failed external television camera from the port truss. That camera’s power supply will be replaced once inside the space station and the camera will be returned to its external location during Sunday's third spacewalk. 

Fossum then performed an inspection of the left Solar Alpha Rotary Joint, which has been performing perfectly. He relayed to the ground team that he did not see any shavings or debris, but took photos which will be sent to the ground for engineers to review. The spacewalk ended at 17:15 after seven hours, 11 minutes. 

Adapted from: STS-124 MCC Status Report #11.
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EVA #296
Mission: STS-124 Date: 8 June 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 33 min. Program: ISS
Astronauts Mike Fossum and Ron Garan completed the third and final spacewalk of Discovery’s mission to the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 33-minute spacewalk, they accomplished all of the planned objectives as well as many extra tasks. It began at 8:55 and concluded at 15:28. 

Together they replaced a nitrogen tank on the station’s starboard truss with a new one. Garan worked from the end of the station robotic arm, operated by astronauts Karen Nyberg and Akihiko Hoshide. 

From there the spacewalkers moved onto separate tasks. Fossum returned to the port Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) that he had inspected during the second spacewalk. He took samples of particulate matter from inside the joint, using a strip of tape that will be returned to Earth for engineers to analyze. 

He then removed thermal insulation from the Kibo robotic arm's wrist and elbow cameras and launch locks from one of the Kibo windows. He deployed debris shields on Kibo and, while in the area, tightened a bolt holding a television camera in place since Japanese flight controllers had noticed unexpected movement while operating the camera. 

Garan retrieved a video camera that had been removed from the port truss during the second spacewalk. It was repaired Saturday and Garan re-installed it. Video from the camera was sent to Mission Control almost immediately. 

The pair finished the spacewalk with extra tasks. Fossum installed a thermal cover on connectors on the outside of Harmony and relocated a foot restraint aid. Garan removed a launch lock on the starboard SARJ. Three of four locks were removed during this mission’s spacewalks.

Adapted from: STS-124 MCC Status Report #17.
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EVA #297
Mission: ISS Expedition 17 Date: 10 July 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 18 min. Program: ISS
International Space Station Commander Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko made a spacewalk on Thursday, July 10 to inspect and retrieve an explosive bolt from their Soyuz TMA-12. The bolt will be returned to Earth for examination. 

The spacewalk comes in the wake of two consecutive ballistic entries by the previous Soyuz spacecraft, entries that resulted in high-G rides for the crews and landings hundreds of miles short of the planned recovery area. Russian engineers say they have evidence that failed explosive bolts that help separate two modules likely are responsible. 

The spacewalk lasted 6 hr. 18 min. It focuses on the area between the Soyuz return and propulsion modules. 

Volkov and Kononenko leave the Pirs docking compartment and move to the Strela hand-powered crane mounted nearby. They mount a foot restraint on the end of Strela. Kononenko gets into the foot restraint and Volkov maneuvers him to the Soyuz, docked to the Earth-facing port on Pirs.

After installing covers to protect nearby thrusters, Kononenko cuts and secures insulation and inspects and photographs the area. Then Volkov moves along the Strela to join Kononenko, who installs a handrail on the Soyuz and a cover to protect fluid lines. 

Volkov cuts a wire tie between adjacent pyrotechnic bolts in the suspect position and demates an electrical connector. Next he unscrews and retrieves the pyro bolt and stows it in a protective cylindrical case. He reinstalls the insulation cover and removes the thruster covers, taking photos after each step. 

The spacewalkers move back to the Strela controls and both maneuver the crane back to its stowage position on Pirs. They stow a bag with the blast-proof container holding the pyro bolt in the airlock.

The cosmonauts return to Pirs, enter the airlock and close the hatch. 
The spacewalk began 30 minutes late, with EVA hatch open at 14:48 EDT, ending at 21:06. ForVolkov and Kononenko, it was the first EVA. 

Adapted from: International Space Station Report, 10 July 2008.
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EVA #298
Mission: ISS Expedition 17 Date: 15 July 2008 Duration: 5 hr. 53 min. Program: ISS
A 5 hr. 53 min. sdpacewalk on July 15 by Commander Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko achieved all its objectives. The spacewalkers:
Installed a new docking target on Zvezda Habitation Module Transfer Compartment for zenith port docking of the new Russian MRM2 module; 
Took post-installation photography of the new docking target; 
Inspected & photographed two mounting holes for an adapter of a Kurs antenna on Habitation Module Working Compartment, small diameter section) for MLM; 
Transferred one "Yakor" foot restraint (of two) from the Pirs EVA ladder to the Zvezda and installed it in an attachment socket at a handrail;
Installed the VSPLESK ("Burst") science payload (for studying cosmic radiation bursts) on a handrail on Zvezda’s large diameter section; 
Removed the BIORISK-MSN (BIO-2) experiment container 1 (of three) from the Pirs for return to the station, plus 
Straightened out a bent amateur radio antenna (an impromptu add-on task). 

The spacewalk began 6 min early, with hatch open at 13:08 EDT, and ended at 19:02. It was the 114th EVA in support of ISS assembly, outfitting & maintenance.

Adapted from: ISS On-Orbit Status 15 July 2008.
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EVA #299
Mission: Shenzhou 7 Date: 27 September 2008 Duration: 22 min. Program: China
Adapted from: 
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EVA #300
Mission: STS-126 Date: 18 November 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 52 min. Program: ISS
ON Tuesday, November 18, Astronauts Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steve Bowen completed the first of four spacewalks scheduled for Endeavour’s mission to the International Space Station. The spacewalk was the 115th in support of ISS construction. 

They began the spacewalk at 12:09 CST and ended it at 19:01 p.m. They spent six hours and 52 minutes outside the station working on several tasks, including removing a depleted nitrogen tank from a stowage platform on the outside of the complex and moving it into Endeavour’s cargo bay. They also moved a flex hose rotary coupler from the shuttle to the station stowage platform, as well as removing some insulation blankets from the common berthing mechanism on the Kibo laboratory. 

The majority of the spacewalk was spent focusing on one of the station’s Solar Alpha Rotary Joints (SARJ). These joints are the large, circular devices that allow the complex’s solar arrays to automatically rotate and track the sun as the station orbits the Earth. Piper and Bowen worked to clean and lubricate part of the joint and to remove two of the joint’s 12 trundle bearing assemblies. This work will continue during the rest of the mission’s scheduled spacewalks. 

About halfway into the spacewalk, one of the grease guns that Piper was preparing to use on the SARJ released some Braycote grease into her crew lock bag, which is the tool bag the spacewalkers use during their activities. As she was cleaning the inside of the bag, it drifted away from her and toward the aft and starboard portion of the International Space Station. Inside the bag were two grease guns, scrapers, several wipes and tethers and some tool caddies. Piper and Bowen spent the remainder of the spacewalk sharing a duplicate set of tools from the other crew lock bag they had with them. 

Adapted from: STS-126 MCC Status Report #09
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EVA #301
Mission: STS-126 Date:  20 November 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 45 min. Program: ISS
Building on Tuesday’s spacewalk experience, Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper and Shane Kimbrough headed out of the International Space Station’s Quest Airlock on Thursday, November 20 at 11:58 CST to continue the process of removing debris around the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and applying lubrication in an effort to eventually restore it to full functionality. The EVA ended at 18:43, for a total time of six hours and 45 minutes. As the spacewalkers were finishing up their activities, ground controllers noticed that Kimbrough’s carbon dioxide levels were increasing, so he made his way back to the airlock a few minutes ahead of Piper. 

Piper and Kimbrough began the second spacewalk by relocating two equipment carts in preparation for February’s installation of the final pair of solar arrays. Once that task was completed, the two applied lubrication to a balky snare on the end of the station’s robotic arm before concentrating on repair of the rotary joint designed to automatically track the sun as the station circles the Earth. The balance of the spacewalk was focused on replacing four more of the 12 trundle bearing assemblies (TBA). One of them was over-torqued during installation, so Piper installed one of the two back-up TBAs instead. 

Adapted from: STS-126 MCC Status Report #13.
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EVA #302
Mission: STS-126 Date: 22 November 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 57 min. Program: ISS
On Saturday, November 22, astronauts Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steve Bowen completed the third spacewalk of Endeavour’s mission to the International Space Station. The spacewalk began at 12:01CST and ended at 18:58 p.m. for a total time of six hours and 57 minutes. 

They focused their efforts on the continued cleaning of the station’s starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) and the removal and replacement of the remaining trundle bearing assemblies (TBA). Today, Piper replaced three TBAs and Bowen replaced two. Five have been replaced during the mission’s prior two spacewalks, and one was replaced on the STS-124 mission this past summer. The two astronauts also cleaned the area around the SARJ’s drive lock assemblies, which help the joint to rotate and lock into place. 

Adapted from: STS-126 MCC Status Report #17.
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EVA #303
Mission: STS-126 Date: 24 November 2008 Duration: 6 hr. 07 min. Program: ISS
On Monday, November 24, astronauts Steve Bowen and Shane Kimbrough wrapped up the final spacewalk of the mission. It began at 12:24 CST and lasted six hours, seven minutes, ending at 18:31 CST. The first priority was to complete all the remaining tasks associated with lubrication of the Solar Alpha Rotary Joints as well as other station assembly tasks. Thin lines of lubricant were observed on the port SARJ race ring with some minor wear where the trundle bearing assemblies are riding. Additional lubrication was added as a preventive measure against further degradation despite the unit working normally.

Bowen returned to the starboard SARJ to install the final trundle bearing assembly. All 12 now have been replaced. On Tuesday morning, the ground team plans to initiate an auto track of the newly cleaned and lubricated starboard SARJ to assess the performance and overall health. 

Bowen retracted a berthing mechanism latch on the Japanese Kibo Laboratory and reinstalled its thermal cover. He also installed a video camera on the Port 1 truss and attached a Global Positioning System antenna on the Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Section. 

Adapted from: STS-126 MCC Status Report #21.
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EVA #304
Mission: ISS Expedition 18 Date: 22-23 December 2008 Duration: 5 hr. 37
min.
Program: ISS
A spacewalk by Mike Fincke and Yuri Lonchakov, from Pirs airlock, lasted 5 hr. 37* min. It was partially successful; some objectives were not achieved. The spacewalkers:
Installed the Langmuir probe on Pirs to measure electrical/plasma fields close to the docked Soyuz TMA-13 in support of the ongoing pyro bolt anomaly investigation);
Removed/returned the BIORISK-MSN payload container #2 from Pirs; 
Installed and connected the IPI-SM monobloc unit of the Russian IMPULSE space experiment on the Zvezda habitation module, and
Made a photographic survey of the ISS Russian Segment exterior and structure components

The spacewalkers also installed the European EXPOSE-R payload on the Zvezda shell but had to remove it again for return inside the station when it failed to activate and transmit telemetry on ground command.

The following tasks were then deferred for lack of time:
Inspection and photography of the Progress 31P antenna; 
Removing fasteners near docking target and antenna areas on Pirs; 
Closing Multi-Layer Insulation flap on Zvezda connector patch panel, and 
Repositioning the SKK #9 removable cassette container to nominal position. 

The spacewalk began at 19:51 EST, 36 minutes late due to the pressure equalization valve in the hatch between the spherical Zvezda Transfer Compartment and Pirs’ Transfer Vestibule not opening on electric command. The EVA ended at 1:29 am. Subsequent repressurization of the Pirs airlock failed when a valve remained closed, even on an attempt by Sandy Magnus to open it manually from inside. The spacewalkers had to repressurize the airlock from one of the backup tanks. The hatch could then be opened. The valve suddenly became electrically functional again shortly before hatch opening
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[It was the 119th spacewalk for ISS assembly and maintenance and the 91st from the station (65 from Quest, 25 from Pirs, 1 from Zvezda plus 28 
from Shuttle) and the 19th this year. 

Adapted from: ISS On-Orbit Status 23 December 2008.
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EVA #305
Mission: ISS Expedition 18 Date: 10 March 2009 Duration: 4 hr. 489min. Program: ISS
A spacewalk from Pirs airlock by Mike Fincke and Yuri Lonchakov concluded successfully well ahead of time, achieving all objectives. The spacewalkers:
Mounted the EXPOSE-R hardware on the Zvezda habitation module exterior. it was later activated by the ground and is operating nominally);
Photographed the EXPOSE-R monoblock and cables, ROBOTIC hardware, IPI-SM hardware and routed cables;
Removed fasteners in the installation areas of the docking target and oof anantennas on Pirs;
Closed Multi-Layer Insulation flap on the Zvezda connector patch panel; 
Re-installed the SKK #9 removable cassette container in nominal position on Zvezda; 
Inspected & photographed Progress antenna from Pirs handrail; and 
Inspected & photographed the conditions of ISS Russian Segment exterior and structural elements. 

The spacewalk began 2 minutes late, with EVA hatch open at 12:22 EDT, and ended at 17:11, lasting 4 hrs 48* min. It was the 120th EVA in support of ISS assembly, outfitting & maintenance.

Adapted from:  ISS On-Orbit Status 11 March 2009.
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EVA #306
Mission: STS-119 Date: 19 March 2009 Duration: 6 hr. 07 min. Program: ISS
The International Space Station’s 102-metre-long truss, or backbone, is complete after astronauts aboard Discovery and the station teamed with Mission Control to install the final 14-metre-long segment to the farthest starboard point of the station. 

With spacewalkers Steve Swanson and Ricky Arnold at the ready outside the station, John Phillips and Koichi Wakata remotely controlled the station robotic arm with the 14=tons S6 truss into its final position. The spacewalkers immediately went to work bolting the segment in place and connecting the power and data cables allowing station flight controllers to remotely command the segment to life. 

Swanson’s third spacewalk and Arnold’s first began at 12:16 and ended at 18:23 p.m. totaling 6 hours, 7 minutes. The 121st spacewalk brings the total for station assembly and maintenance to more than 762 hours.

Adapted from: STS-119 MCC Status Report #09.
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EVA #307
Mission: STS-119 Date: 21 March 2009 Duration: 6 hr. 30 min. Program: ISS
STS-119 ‘ssecond spacewalk prepared the International Space Station for future assembly flights and arrival in the fall of a new cargo-carrying spacecraft: Japan’s H-II Transfer Vehicle. 

Steve Swanson and Joe Acaba floated out of the Quest airlock at 11:51 for the six hour, 30 minute spacewalk completing the highest priority tasks that included preparing a worksite for new batteries that will be brought up on the STS-127 mission. They also installed a Global Positioning System antenna on the pressurized logistics module attached to the Kibo laboratory. 

During installation of a cargo carrier attach system, a misaligned bracket proved too difficult to reposition and the crew was called off to pursue other tasks, including imagery documentation of station radiators. 

With the 122nd spacewalk devoted to station assembly and maintenance complete, astronauts now have spent more than 768 hours outside the station. Swanson completed his fourth spacewalk and Acaba, his first.

Adapted from: STS-119 MCC Status Report #13.
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EVA #308
Mission: STS-119 Date: 23 March 2009 Duration: 6 hr. 27 min. Program: ISS
The third and final planned spacewalk of the mission by Joe Acaba and Ricky Arnold began with the most important task: to relocate one of two crew equipment carts from one side of the Mobile Transporter to the other. That provides clearance margin for STS-127 assembly tasks, including attachment of the exposed facility onto the Japanese science laboratory. 

As on the second spacewalk Saturday, the astronauts had trouble freeing a stuck mechanism to allow deployment of a spare equipment platform and deferred that to a future spacewalk. Because of that problem, Mission Control made a conscious decision to forego work on a similar payload attach system on the opposite side of the truss in case the problem was generic. 

The six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk also included lubricating the end effector capture snares on the station’s robot arm – similar to what was done to the other end on an STS-126 spacewalk in late 2008. This has been proven to prevent the snare from snagging or not returning snugly into its groove inside the latching mechanism.