Home 2007 Summary
2006 Spacecrafts 2008 Spacecrafts
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Spacecrafts launched in 2007 :
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1) CARTOSAT-2 2) SRE-1 3) LAPAN-TUSsat 4) PEHUENSAT-1 / PehuenSat-OSCAR-63 (PO-63)
5) Progress M-59 / ISS 24P 6) NSS 8 7) Beidou 4  8) THEMIS P1
9) THEMIS P2 10) THEMIS P3 11) THEMIS P4 12) THEMIS P5
13) IGS Radar-2 14) IGS Optical-3V 15) STPSat-1 (Orbital Express) 16) ASTRO / OE-ASTRO
17) NextSat / OE-NextSat 18) MidSTAR-1 19) CFESat 20) FalconSat-3
21) MEPSI Picosat 4A 22) MEPSI Picosat 4B 23) Skynet 5A 24) Insat 4B
25) DemoFlight 2 26) Soyuz TMA-10 / ISS 14S 27) Anik F3 28) Haiyang 1B / HY-1B
29) Beidou 5  30) EgyptSat 1 / Misr 1 (MirsSat 1) 31) Saudisat 3 32) SaudiComsat-3
33) SaudiComsat-4 34) SaudiComsat-5 35) SaudiComsat-6 36) SaudiComsat-7
37) MAST - GADGET 38) MAST - TED 39) MAST - RALPH 40) CAPE 1
41) Aerocube 2 (Object S) 42) CSTB 1 / CubeSat TestBed 1 (Object R) 43) CP 3 / CalPoly 3 44) CP 4 / CalPoly 4 (Object T)
45) Libertad 46) AGILE 47) AVM 48) NFIRE
49) AIM 50) Astra 1L 51) Galaxy 17 52) Progress M-60  / ISS 25P
53) Nigcomsat 1 54) Yaogan 2 / JB-5 2 55) MEMS-Pico / Zheda Pixing 1 56) Globalstar FM65
57) Globalstar FM69 58) Globalstar FM71 59) Globalstar FM72 60) Xinnuo 3 / SinoSat 3
61) Kosmos 2427 / Yantar-4K2M #3 / Kobalt-M #3 62) COSMO-Skymed 1 / COSMO-1 63) STS-117 / ISS 13A 64) ITS S3/S4
65) 'Ofeq 7 ('OFEK 7) 66) TerraSAR-X 67) NROL-30 / NOSS 3-4A (USA 194) 68) NROL-30 / NOSS 3-4B
69) Genesis II 70) Kosmos 2428 / Tselina-2 71) SAR-Lupe 2 72) ZX 6B / Zhongxing 6B (ChinaSat 6B)
73) DirecTV 10 74) Progress M-61 / ISS 26P 75) Phoenix / Phoenix Mars Mission 76) STS-118 / ISS 13A.1
77) ITS-S5 78) SPACEWAY 3 79) BSAT-3a 80) Insat 4CR
81) JCSAT 11 82) Kosmos 2429 / Parus 83) SELENE / Kaguya 84) Rstar / Relay Satellite 
85) Vstar / VRAD 86) Foton M-3 87) YES-2 / Fotino 88) WorldView 1
89) CBERS-2B 90) DAWN 91) Intelsat 11 92) Optus D2
93) Soyuz TMA-11 / ISS 15S 94) WGS SV-1 / WGS F1 (USA 195 95) Navstar 56 (USA 196) 96) Globalstar FM66
97) Globalstar FM67 98) Globalstar FM68 99) Globalstar FM70 100) Kosmos 2430 / US-RS 73D6
101) STS 120 / ISS 10A 102) Node 2 “Harmony” 103) Chang'e 1 104) Kosmos 2431 / Glonass-M 718
105) Kosmos 2432 / Glonass-M 719 106) Kosmos 2433 / Glonass-M 720 107) SAR-Lupe 3 108) DSP-23 (USA 197)
109) Yaogan III 110) Skynet 5B 111) Star One C1 112) Sirius 4
113) Kosmos 2434 (Raduga 1-8) 114) COSMO SkyMed-2 115) NROL-24  (USA 198) 116) Radarsat 2
117) Navstar 57 (USA 199) 118( RASCOM-QAF1 119) Horizons-2 120) Progress M-62 / ISS 27P
121) Kosmos-2435 / Uragan-M No. 21 122) Kosmos-2436 / Uragan-M No. 22 123) Kosmos-2437 / Uragan-M No. 23
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CARTOSAT-2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #1 ; 2007-001B ; 6,492nd spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch: 10 January 2007 at 3h53 UTC, from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (LC-1), by a PSLV.
Orbit: Initial: 621 km x 641 km x 97.9° x 97.3 min.
Mission: CARTOSAT 2 is a 680-kg photo-imaging spacecraft that provides panchromatic images at one-meter resolution to aid civil planning and other cartographic needs. It is an advanced remote sensing satellite capable of providing scene-specific spot imagery. It is the twelfth spacecraft in the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite series, it joins the other six IRS satellites which are in service: IRS 1C, IRS 1D, OceanSat 1, TES, ResourceSat and Cartosat 1. CartoSat-2 carries a Panchromatic camera to provide imageries with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. The satellite can be steered up to 45 degress along as well as across the track. The data from the satellite are used for cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as applications in Land Information System and Geographical Information System. 
Launch: ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C7) lifted off from the first launch pad at SDSC SHAR, at 9h23 (local time) with the ignition of the core first stage and four of the six strap-on motors. This four-stage launch is 44 meters tall and has a lift-off mass of 295 tonnes. The remaining two strap-on motors were ignited 25 seconds after lift-off. This tenth flight conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota, successfully launched four satellites. For the first time, a Dual Launch Adopter (DLA) was used in PSLV to accommodate two primary satellites in tandem.  The main payload, CARTOSAT-2, was the first satellite to be injected into orbit 981.3 seconds after lift-off at an altitude of 639 km. About 45 seconds later, DLA with the PEHUENSAT-1 mounted on it, was separated. 120 seconds later, the Space capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-1) mounted inside DLA was separated and finally, 190 seconds later, the LAPAN-TUBSAT, mounted on the equipment bay of PSLV fourth stage was separated. The four satellites have been placed in a polar orbit at an altitude of 637 km with an inclination of 97.9 degrees with respect to the equator.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 ; Spacewarn No. 639 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-001B ; Skyrocket's Cartosat-2 ; ISRO's Cartosat-2 & 10 Jan 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 10 Jan 07 ;
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SRE-1
Spacecraft: Space capsule Recovery Experiment 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #2 ; 2007-001C ; 6,493rd spacecraft.
Type: Material Processing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch: 10 January 2007 at 3h53 UTC, from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (LC-1), by a PSLV.
Orbit: Initial: 486 km x 643 km x 97.9° x 95.9 min.
Recovery: 22 January 2007 at 4h14 UTC
Mission: Space Recovery Experiment 1 (SRE 1) is India's first recoverable capsule. The 550 kg (or 615 kg) capsule intended to demonstrate the technology of an orbiting platform for performing experiments in microgravity conditions. It is also a technology demonstrator for the planned 2010 launch of a lunar mission, with adequate heat shield, deceleration and floatation systems. The mission provide valuable experience in such important fields like navigation, guidance and control during the re-entry phase, hypersonic aero-thermodynamics facilitating the development of reusable thermal protection system, recovery through deceleration and floatation besides acquisition of basic technology for reusable launch vehicles.  It carries out microgravity experiments: an Isothermal Heating Furnace and a Biomimetic (Biomineralisation of Inorganic materials). The first experiments is related to study of metal melting and crystallisation under micro gravity conditions. The second experiment is intended to study the synthesis of nano-crystals under microgravity conditions. This experiment can help in designing better biomaterials having closest proximity with natural biological products.  The capsule, made of mild steel, has a sphere-cone-flare configuration with a spherical nose of about 0.5 meter radius, base diameter of 2 meters and 1.6 meters height. 
     During its 12 days in orbit, the two experiments on board SRE-1 were successfully conducted. The craft was placed into a 620 x 640 km polar orbit that was lowered to 485 x 643 km on 20 January. Its capsule re-entered in the Bay of Bengal precisely as planned at 150 km east of Sriharikota, and was hauled by a helicopter from a coast guard vessel. The 10-minute deorbit burn began at 3h30 UTC on 22 January, with entry at 4h07 and splashdown at 4h16 UTC. The main parachute was deployed at about 2 km altitude and finally, SRE-1 splashed down in the Bay of Bengal with a velocity of 12 m/sec (about 43 km per hour) at 9h46. The flotation system, which immediately got triggered, kept the capsule floating. Recovery operations were supported and carried out by the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy using ships, aircraft and helicopters. 
     The successful launch, in-orbit operation of the on board experiments and reentry and recovery of SRE-1 has demonstrated India’s capability in important technologies like aero-thermo structures, deceleration and flotation systems, navigation, guidance and control. SRE-1 is an important beginning for providing a low cost platform for micro-gravity experiments in space science and technology and return specimen from space. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 ; Spacewarn No. 639 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-001C ; Skyrocket's SRE 1 ; ISRO's SRS-1& 10 Jan 07 & 22 Jan 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 10 Jan 07 ;
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LAPAN-TUBSat
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #3 ; 2007-001A ; 6,494th spacecraft.
Type: Earth imaging
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) and Technical University of Berlin (TUB)
(LAPAN stands for Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional)
Anatomy of LAPAN-TUBSAT (Source: TUB)
Launch: 10 January 2007 at 3h53 UTC, from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (LC-1), by a PSLV.
Orbit: Initial: 620 km x 638 km x 97.9° x 97.3 min.
Mission: LAPAN-TUBsat is Indonesia's first research satellite and a technology demonstrator that carries two color cameras. It is a cooperative venture between the Technical University of Berlin and the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space. This 56-kg microsatellite is an Earth observation satellite besides a technical demonstrator in control systems. The 45 x 45 x 47 cm craft carries two Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras with ground resolutions of 5 meter and 200 mete, as well as an experiment for message store and forward system. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 ; Spacewarn No. 639 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-001A ; Skyrocket's LAPAN-Tubsat ; ISRO's LAPAN-TUBSAT & 10 Jan 07 ; TUB Satellites ; Spaceflight Now's 10 Jan 07 ;
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PEHUENSAT-1 / PehuenSat-OSCAR-63 (PO-63)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #4 ; 2007-001D ; 6,495th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: University of Comahue of Argentina, Amateur Satellite Association of Argentina and Argentina Association for Space Technology
Launch: 10 January 2007 at 3h53 UTC, from Sriharikota's Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (LC-1), by a PSLV.
Orbit: Initial: 621 km x 641 km x 97.9° x 97.3 min.
Mission: PEHUENSAT-1 is a 6.1-kg picosatellite that is intended to enable experience building and tracking satellites. Developed by University of Comahue of Argentina, Amateur Satellite Association of Argentina and Argentina Association for Space Technology, it is intended to provide an experiment platform to perform amateur radio experiments between colleges and universities. The craft remained attached to the PSLV’s Dual Launch Adapter.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 ; Spacewarn No. 639 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-001D ; Skyrocket's PehuenSat 1 ; ISRO's PEHUENSAT-1 & 10 Jan 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 10 Jan 07 ;
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Progress M-59 / ISS 24P
Spacecraft:  Progress M (7K-TGM) No. 359
Chronologies: 2007 payload #5 ; 2007-002A ; 6,496th spacecraft.
Type: Cargo delivery to the International Space Station  (463rd piloted spaceship)
Families: 114th Progress cargoship (24th to ISS) ;
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Federal Space Agency

Source: NASA
Source: RSC Energia Source: RSC Energia Source: RSC Energia
Launch: 18 January 2007 at 2h12 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by a Soyuz U.
Orbit: Initial: 193.3 km x 246.4 km x 51.65° x 88.6 min.
322 km x 352 km x 51.6° x 91.3 min.
Deorbited: 1 August 2007 at 18h42 UTC"
Mission: Progress M-59 is a Russian automatic cargo carrier that was launched toward the International Space Station. It delivered 2.56 tons of various cargoes, including 1,120 kg of propellant, 51 kg of oxygen, 266 kg of food, 344 kg of atmospheric revitalization system equipment (including Electron system oxygen generators and solid fuel oxygen generators), 100 kg of crew health care aids, parcels for the crew. Following a two-day free flight, the craft docked with the Pirs module of the ISS at 3h03 UTC on 20 January. The approach and docking were performed in the automatic mode. The ISS orbital complex, weighing about 217 tonnes,  is in an orbit of 326.4 km x 370.4 km, accomplished in 91.2 min.
   The Progress M-59 cargo ship undocked from the Pirs module on 1st August 2007 at 14h07 UTC and was deorbited over the Pacific at 18h42 UTC. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 & 583 ; Spacewarn No. 639 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-002A ; Skyrocket's Progress M-59 ; RSC Energia's 18 Jan 07 & 20 Jan 07
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NSS 8
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #6 ; 2007 1st loss ; 6,497th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: SES New Skies

Source: Boeing
The Zenit launcher preparations on the Odyssey plaftform. (Source: Boeing)
Launch: 30 January 2007 at 23h22 UTC, from Odyssey launch platform, by a Zenit 3SL.
(The Odyssey Launch Platform was stationed  at 154° West Longitude on the Equator.)
Orbit: None.
Mission: The sixth satellite in the SES NEW SKIES fleet, NSS-8 was a 5,920 kg high-power craft that would had provide coverage to two-thirds of the world’s population, serving countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Asia. It was a Boeing 702 spacecraft that carries 56 C-band and 36 Ku-band transponders designed to replace the existing NSS-703 satellite as the centerpiece of NEW SKIES’ strategic Indian Ocean contribution to SES’ global communications network. NSS-8 would had support a wide range of functions, including corporate communications, government and military operations, broadband Internet services and broadcast applications  Designed for a 15-year lifespan, NSS-8 was to had been placed into geosynchronous orbit at 57° East Longitude. (A successful launch of NSS-8 would had subsequently allow for NSS-703 to be re-deployed to the Atlantic Ocean region at 340° East, further boosting the global coverage and connectivity provided by the 40 plus strong fleet of satellites in the SES Group. The launch failure of NSS-8 means that NSS-703 will now stay at 57° East in order to continue to serve existing customers until at least 2009. ) 
Launch: The Zenit-3SL launch vehicle suffered a dramatic launch pad explosion when it failed just after ignition and fell back onto its floating launch platform, destroying the NSS 8 communications satellite payload. Video showed the launch platform enveloped in a spectacular explosion, but Sea Launch reports that the damage is not critical. (See video.)
     In the final five seconds, the launch team announcer was heard calling out "main engine start command" and then "go inertial" as typically expected. But as the smoke and steam billowed from the RD-171 engine firing to life, the rocket didn't begin its normal quick rise skyward. Instead it fell out of the camera view as the entire platform was enveloped in the explosionl, triggering a hellish fireball that engulfed the floating Odyssey platform. Whether the rocket tipped over, fell downward from the platform or collapsed was inconclusive from the video seen live. Sea Launch immediately switched its broadcast to a company graphic and then signed off. A brief Sea Launch statement said that "all personnel are safe and accounted for." The platform was cleared of all workers before the rocket was fueled, with the launch team stationed aboard a command ship three miles away.
     A preliminary assessment of the Odyssey Launch Platform indicates that, while it has sustained limited damage, the integrity and functionality of essential marine, communications and crew support systems remains intact. The vessel is operating on its own power and is currently manned by the full marine crew. This team is performing a comprehensive assessment of all aspects of the vessel, including its structural integrity and sea-worthiness, in anticipation of identifying and planning the next steps. The team on the Sea Launch Commander is in excellent condition and is supporting these activities. The Commander incurred no damage during yesterday's launch attempt, as it was positioned four miles from the Launch Platform at the time of lift-off. 
     This flight would have been the 24th for Sea Launch since debuting in 1999. It was the second total failure for the Zenit 3SL vehicle configuration. The first occurred on 12 March 2000 during Sea Launch's third mission when a mis-configured valve caused a pressure loss in the second stage. The vehicle was unable to reach orbit and fell back to Earth, destroying an ICO mobile communications satellite. There also was an incident in June 2004 when the Block DM-SL upper stage shut down early, leaving the Telstar 18 satellite in a lower than planned orbit. But the satellite was able to overcome the shortfall.  Sea Launch had planned to conduct six commercial satellite deployment missions in 2007, with Tuesday's flight being the first. The schedule included the Thuraya 3 mobile communications satellite, direct-to-home broadcasting spacecraft for DirecTV and EchoStar, plus the Spaceway 3 broadband satellite and Galaxy 19 for Intelsat. 
     Investigators traced the cause of the failure to a piece of metallic debris lodged inside the engine's liquid oxygen turbopump, according to a Sea Launch. "This object ignited and burned as a result of friction-induced heat," the statement said. "The combustion set off a string of events that led to the destruction of the (liquid oxygen) pump, RD-171M engine and ultimately the Zenit 3SL." 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 576 ; Skyrocket's NSS 8 ; Sea Launch's 1 Feb 07 ; SES New Skies's 15 Jan 07 & 30 Jan 07 ; Boeing's NSS-8 ; Spaceflight Now's 30 Jan 07 & 1 Feb 07 ; Dwayne A. Day Essay ;
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Beidou 4 
Spacecraft:  Beidou 2A, Beidou 1D, Beidou G1 
(“Fourth Beidou”)
Beidou means Big Dipper
Chronologies: 2007 payload #7 ; 2007-003A ; 6,498th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China Academy of Space Technology 
Launch: 2 February 2007 at 16h28 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 3A
Orbit: Geostationary
Mission: According to China press reports, China successfully launched its fourth Beidou experimental navigation satellite. The spacecraft is serving as a backup satellite for the Beidou navigation system and may replace the first Beidou satellite when necessary. 
     Beidou 2A was the first of a series of improved Beidou geosynchronous navigation satellites, following the Beidou 1 series launched during 2000-2003. A Long March 3A launch vehicle successfully placed the spacecraft into a geosynchronous transfer orbit of approximately 195 km by 41,775 km with an inclination of 25°. The spacecraft, with a dry mass of about 1100 kg and 1200 kg of propellant, appears to have suffered a failure at about the time of its first apogee late on 2 February, when its’s liquid-propellant main engine would be expected to ignite. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN) detected 70-100 debris soon after the breakup. Later, China reported that the failure had not been catastrophic, and the spacecraft eventually reached geosynchronous Earth orbit.
     On 11 April 2007, China Daily (Xinhua) reports that “Chinese scientists and technicians have fixed a glitch on the Beidou satellite number 4 after 60 days of hard work, according to the Xi'an Satellite Control Center.”  The satellite was unable to deploy its solar panels correctly after launch, but the control center now reported that it is once again functioning normally. This 4th Beidou finally reached geostationary orbit in early April 2007 following deployment problems with its solar panels and reports of US detection of a debris cloud at the time of the original expected apogee firing.
     The Beidou satellites provide all-weather and all-day navigation and positioning information. According to Chinese press, the system is operating well and has played a significant role in cartography, telecommunications, water conservation, transportation, fishery, prospecting, forest fire monitoring and national security. The three previous Beidou satellites were sent in space on 31 October 2000, 21 December 2000 and 28 May 2003 respectively. 
     China is thus establishing a Compass Navigation Satellite System wuich will in 2008 fully meet the demand of satellite navigation for clients in China and neighboring regions.  The system will gradually extend to be a global navigation and positioning system after network building and experiments, experts said.  It will be mainly used for economic purposes, providing efficient navigation and positioning services in transportation, meteorology, petroleum prospecting, forest fire monitoring, disaster forecast, telecommunications and public security.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 & 579 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-003A ; Skyrocket's BD 1D ; Spaceflight Now's 2 Feb 07 ; NASA Orbital Debris Quaterly News, April 2007 ; China Daily Online's 3 Feb 07 & 11 Apr 07
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THEMIS P1
Spacecraft:  Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (MIDEX 5A)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #8 ; 2007-004A ; 6,499th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Sciences
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 17 February 2007 at 23h01 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17B, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit: Initial: 470 km x 87,330 km x 16.0° x 1,870 min.
Mission: THEMIS are a fleet of five 126-kg magnetospheric satellites that carries identical instrumentation to measure particles and fields to study magnetospheric storms. The mission is a NASA MIDEX Explorer led by University of California at Berkeley. Built by Swales Aerospace, each craft is 0.8-meter across with booms spanning 40.2 meter and a 76-kg dry (125 kg fully fuelled) mass. 
     The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the five THEMIS will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the apogee of THEMIS 1 will be at 30 RE, of THEMIS 2 at 20 RE, of THEMIS 3 and 4 at 12 RE, and of THEMIS 5 at 10 RE. The orbits will continue to be in the dawn-dusk plane, approximately. Because of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, during the third phase (also known as the Tail Phase) the orbits will be in the noon-midnight plane, with all apogees on the night side at the same altitudes as during the second phase. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side, and at the same altitudes as in the third phase. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side. In all phases the perigee will remain at around 450 km, and inclination at about 16°.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-004A ; Skyrocket's THEMIS P1 ; NASA's THEMIS & Press Kit;
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THEMIS P2 / ARTEMIS P1
Spacecraft:  Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (MIDEX 5B)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #9 ; 2007-004B ; 6,500th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Sciences
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 17 February 2007 at 23h01 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17B, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit: Initial: 470 km x 87,330 km x 16.0° x 1,870 min.
Mission: THEMIS are a fleet of five 126-kg magnetospheric satellites that carries identical instrumentation to measure particles and fields to study magnetospheric storms. The mission is a NASA MIDEX Explorer led by University of California at Berkeley. Built by Swales Aerospace, each craft is 0.8-meter across with booms spanning 40.2 meter and a 76-kg dry (125 kg fully fuelled) mass. 
     The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the five THEMIS will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the apogee of THEMIS 1 will be at 30 RE, of THEMIS 2 at 20 RE, of THEMIS 3 and 4 at 12 RE, and of THEMIS 5 at 10 RE. The orbits will continue to be in the dawn-dusk plane, approximately. Because of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, during the third phase (also known as the Tail Phase) the orbits will be in the noon-midnight plane, with all apogees on the night side at the same altitudes as during the second phase. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side, and at the same altitudes as in the third phase. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side. In all phases the perigee will remain at around 450 km, and inclination at about 16°.
     In 2009, the second and third THEMIS spacecrafts were coopted for ARTEMIS lunar mission, following the end of their primary magnetospheric research missions. Their onboard propulsion systems were used to raise their orbits starting in July 2009 and, in the Spring of 2010, they were both operating beyond the orbit of the Moon. The second THEMIS made lunar flybys on 31 January and 13 February 2010, and third THEMIS made a lunar flyby on 28 March 2010. The THEMIS and ARTEMIS missions are led by a team at University of California-Berkeley. The spacecraft studied the solar wind, the distant magnetotail, and the lunar wake, and will end up in lunar orbit.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577, 628 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-004B ; Skyrocket's THEMIS P2 ; NASA's THEMIS ;
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THEMIS P3 / ARTEMIS P2
Spacecraft:  Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (MIDEX 5C)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #10 ; 2007-004C ; 6,501st spacecraft.
Type: Earth Sciences
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 17 February 2007 at 23h01 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17B, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit: Initial: 470 km x 87,330 km x 16.0° x 1,870 min.
Mission: THEMIS are a fleet of five 126-kg magnetospheric satellites that carries identical instrumentation to measure particles and fields to study magnetospheric storms. The mission is a NASA MIDEX Explorer led by University of California at Berkeley. Built by Swales Aerospace, each craft is 0.8-meter across with booms spanning 40.2 meter and a 76-kg dry (125 kg fully fuelled) mass. 
     The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the five THEMIS will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the apogee of THEMIS 1 will be at 30 RE, of THEMIS 2 at 20 RE, of THEMIS 3 and 4 at 12 RE, and of THEMIS 5 at 10 RE. The orbits will continue to be in the dawn-dusk plane, approximately. Because of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, during the third phase (also known as the Tail Phase) the orbits will be in the noon-midnight plane, with all apogees on the night side at the same altitudes as during the second phase. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side, and at the same altitudes as in the third phase. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side. In all phases the perigee will remain at around 450 km, and inclination at about 16°.
     In 2009, the second and third THEMIS spacecrafts were coopted for ARTEMIS lunar mission, following the end of their primary magnetospheric research missions. Their onboard propulsion systems were used to raise their orbits starting in July 2009 and, in the Spring of 2010, they were both operating beyond the orbit of the Moon. The second THEMIS made lunar flybys on 31 January and 13 February 2010, and third THEMIS made a lunar flyby on 28 March 2010. The THEMIS and ARTEMIS missions are led by a team at University of California-Berkeley. The spacecraft studied the solar wind, the distant magnetotail, and the lunar wake, and will end up in lunar orbit.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577, 628; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-004C ; Skyrocket's THEMIS P3 ; NASA's THEMIS ;
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THEMIS P4
Spacecraft:  Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (MIDEX 5D)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #11 ; 2007-004D ; 6,502nd spacecraft.
Type: Earth Sciences
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 17 February 2007 at 23h01 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17B, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit: Initial: 470 km x 87,330 km x 16.0° x 1,870 min.
Mission: THEMIS are a fleet of five 126-kg magnetospheric satellites that carries identical instrumentation to measure particles and fields to study magnetospheric storms. The mission is a NASA MIDEX Explorer led by University of California at Berkeley. Built by Swales Aerospace, each craft is 0.8-meter across with booms spanning 40.2 meter and a 76-kg dry (125 kg fully fuelled) mass.
     The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the five THEMIS will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the apogee of THEMIS 1 will be at 30 RE, of THEMIS 2 at 20 RE, of THEMIS 3 and 4 at 12 RE, and of THEMIS 5 at 10 RE. The orbits will continue to be in the dawn-dusk plane, approximately. Because of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, during the third phase (also known as the Tail Phase) the orbits will be in the noon-midnight plane, with all apogees on the night side at the same altitudes as during the second phase. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side, and at the same altitudes as in the third phase. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side. In all phases the perigee will remain at around 450 km, and inclination at about 16°.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-004D ; Skyrocket's THEMIS P4 ; NASA's THEMIS ;
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THEMIS P5
Spacecraft:  Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (MIDEX 5E)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #12 ; 2007-004E ; 6,503rd spacecraft.
Type: Earth Sciences
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 17 February 2007 at 23h01 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17B, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit: Initial: 470 km x 87,330 km x 16.0° x 1,870 min.
Mission: THEMIS are a fleet of five 126-kg magnetospheric satellites that carries identical instrumentation to measure particles and fields to study magnetospheric storms. The mission is a NASA MIDEX Explorer led by University of California at Berkeley. Built by Swales Aerospace, each craft is 0.8-meter across with booms spanning 40.2 meter and a 76-kg dry (125 kg fully fuelled) mass.
     The mission consists of several phases. In the first phase, the five THEMIS will all orbit as a tight cluster in the same orbital plane with apogee at 15.4 Earth radii (RE). In the second phase, also called the Dawn Phase, the apogee of THEMIS 1 will be at 30 RE, of THEMIS 2 at 20 RE, of THEMIS 3 and 4 at 12 RE, and of THEMIS 5 at 10 RE. The orbits will continue to be in the dawn-dusk plane, approximately. Because of the Earth's rotation around the Sun, during the third phase (also known as the Tail Phase) the orbits will be in the noon-midnight plane, with all apogees on the night side at the same altitudes as during the second phase. The fourth phase is called the Dusk Phase, with all apogees on the dusk side, and at the same altitudes as in the third phase. In the fifth and final phase, the apogees will shift to the sunward side. In all phases the perigee will remain at around 450 km, and inclination at about 16°.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-004E; Skyrocket's THEMPS P4 ; NASA's THEMIS
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IGS Radar-2
Spacecraft:  Information Gathering Satellites Radar-2
Chronologies: 2007 payload #13 ; 2007-005A ; 6,504th spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Defense Ministry (Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, CSICE)
Launch: 24 February 2007 at 4h41 UTC, from Tanegashima Space Center's YLP-1, by a H-2A.
Orbit: Initial: 481 km x 494 km x 97.2° x 94.4 min.
Mission: This pair of Japanese military reconnaissance satellites are intended to provide early warning of impending hostile launches in the neighborhood. One of them uses a radar and the other optical telescopes to sight such launches, but the capabilities are not matched to the names.  After an initial checkout phase by JAXA, the satellites are operated by the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center (CSICE, Naikaku Eisei Joho Center) of Tokyo via its main Kitaura Fuku Center ground station in Ibaraki prefecture.
    Optical-1and Radar-1 were launched in March 2003; two satellites lost in Novvember 2003 would have been Optical-2 and Radar-2once reaching orbit (although those are not official names). In an effort to recover quickly, a second Optical-2 was launched on its own in September 2006 while the new Radar-2 was still being completed.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 & 578 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-005A ; Skyrocket's IGS-Radar 3 ;
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IGS Optical-3V 
Spacecraft:  Information Gathering Satellites Optical-3  Verification 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #14 ; 2007-005B ; 6,505th spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Defense Ministry (Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, CSICE)
Launch: 24 February 2007 at 4h41 UTC, from Tanegashima Space Center's YLP-1, by a H-2A.
Orbit: Initial: 481 km x 494 km x 97.2° x 94.4 min.
Mission: This pair of Japanese military reconnaissance satellites are intended to provide early warning of impending hostile launches in the neighborhood. One of them uses a radar and the other optical telescopes to sight such launches, but the capabilities are not matched to the names.  The Optical-3 Verification satellite is an experimental satellite on a six-month engineering mission to test out improvements to the earlier Japanese optical spy satellites, which performed less well than hoped. The true Optical-3 satellite will fly in 2009, followed by launch of Radar-3 and Optical-4 in around 2011.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 577 & 578 ; Spacewarn No. 640 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-005B ; Skyrocket's IGS-Optical 4V ;
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STPSat-1 (Orbital Express) 
Spacecraft:  Space Test Program satellites
Chronologies: 2007 payload #15 ; 2007-006D ; 6,506th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA)

Source: DARPA
Left: Boeing technicians perform a post-integration inspection of the Orbital Express program. Right: the STP 1 payload, with Orbital Express above and the four smaller spacecrafts. (Source: DARPA)
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 499 km x 491 km x 46.03° x 94.5 min.
Mission: STPSat 1 is a 158-kg military satellite that collects atmospheric data and demonstrate spacecraft technology advances. Built by AeroAstro, it carries experiments to study the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation environment.  STPSat also ejects two small MEPSI picosatellites for the Aerospace Corp.
     The goal of the Orbital Express Space Operations Architecture program is to validate the technical feasibility of robotic, autonomous on-orbit refueling and reconfiguration of satellites to support a broad range of future U.S. national security and commercial space programs. Refueling satellites will enable frequent maneuver to improve coverage, change arrival times to counter denial and deception and improve survivability, as well as extend satellite lifetime. Electronics upgrades on-orbit can provide regular performance improvements and dramatically reduce the time to deploy new technology on-orbit. The Orbital Express advanced technology demonstration will design, develop and test on-orbit a prototype servicing satellite (ASTRO) and a surrogate next generation serviceable satellite (NextSat).  NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is partnering with DARPA in the Orbital Express demonstration in order to reduce technical risks associated with developing autonomous rendezvous capabilities.
Launch: The US Air Force STP-1 mission carries the Orbital Express with the two linked satellites ASTRO and NextSat. They were deployed into a 490 x 498 km x 46.0° orbit.  It also carried the first ESPA (EELV Secondary Payload Adapter) ring with four smaller satellites attached. Midstar-1 was ejected into a 494 x 498 km x 46.0° orbit and than the Centaur stage made two burns to raise the orbit, entering a 397 x 3,435 km x 44° “fast transfer” orbit 34 minutes after launch and then a 557 x 560 km x 35.4° orbit 13 minutes later. The remaining three satellites were then deployed.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006D ; Skyrocket's STPSat-1 ; DARPA's Orbital Express, Fact Sheet & Mission Updates ;
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ASTRO / OE-ASTRO
Spacecraft:  Autonomous Space Transporter and Robotic Orbiter
Chronologies: 2007 payload #16 ; 2007-006A ; 6,507th spacecraft.
Type: Science & Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. National Research Laboratory (NRL)

Source: Skyrocket
Orbital Express ASTROo-NextStar systems (Source: DARPA)
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 491 km x 499 km x 46.03° x 94.5 min.
Mission: The US Air Force STP-1 mission carries the Orbital Express mission with the two linked satellites ASTRO and NextSat.  The OE-ASTRO is a 952-kg military satellite that, like its smaller companion, test capabilities for autonomous rendezvous, refueling and component replacement. These satellites carried out refuelling experiments and undocking/docking experiments.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006A ; Skyrocket's ASTRO ; DARPA's Orbital Express, Fact Sheet & Mission Updates ;
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NextSat / OE-NextSat
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #17 ; 2007-006C ; 6,508th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

Source: DARPA
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 558 km x 563 km x 35.4° x 95.9 min.
Mission: OE-NextSat is a 226-kg military satellite that like OE-ASTRO is intended to test capabilities for autonomous rendezvous, refueling and component replacement. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006C ; Skyrocket's NEXTSat CSC ; DARPA's Orbital Express, Fact Sheet & Mission Updates ;
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MidSTAR-1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #18 ; 2007-006E ; 6,509th spacecraft.
Type: Science & Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Naval Academy

Source: Skyrocket
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 494 km x 499 km x 46.03° x 95.5 min.
Mission: MidSTAR 1 is a 118-kg military satellite that tests in space NASA's electrochemical membranes and a microdosimeter sponsored by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006E ; Skyrocket's MidSTAR 1 ;
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CFESat
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #19 ; 2007-006F ; 6,510th spacecraft.
Type: Science & Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

Source: Skyrocket
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 558 km x 560 km x 35.4° x 95.8 min.
Mission: CFESat is a 156-kg military satellite that tests technology advances such as an on-board supercomputer to process data. Built by Surrey Satellite for the Los Alamos Laboratories, it carries the Cibola Flight Experiment to survey the radio spectrum and study the ionosphere and lightning.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006F ; Skyrocket's CFESat ;
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FalconSat-3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #20 ; 2007-006E ; 6,511th spacecraft.
Type: Science & Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Air Force Academy

Source: Skyrocket
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Initial: 558 km x 563 km x 35.4° x 95.9 min.
Mission: FalconSat 3 is a 54-kg military microsatellite built by USAF Academy cadets to monitor the ambient plasma and test a micropropulsion attitude control system. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-006E; Skyrocket's FalconSat 3 ;
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MEPSI Picosat 4A
Spacecraft:  Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Picosat Inspector
Chronologies: 2007 payload #21 ; 2007-006 ; 6,512th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit:
Mission: The MEPSI series is a pair of tethered picosatellites, based on the CubeSat design, that are manufactured for DARPA by the Aerospace Corporation in collaboration with the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The two spacecraft are cubic in shape, weight 1 kg each, and are connected via a 15.2-meter tether in order to facilitate detection and tracking via ground-based radar. The spacecraft carry a cold gas propulsion system, with 0.1-N thrust with 5 thrusters. The aim of the MEPSI series is to developing autonomous small sub-spacecraft that can be carried for remote inspection and servicing.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Skyrocket's MEPSI 4A ;
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MEPSI Picosat 4B
Spacecraft:  Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Picosat Inspector
Chronologies: 2007 payload #22 ; 2007-006 ; 6,513th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Launch: 9 March 2007 at 3h10 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit:
Mission: The MEPSI series is a pair of tethered picosatellites, based on the CubeSat design, that are manufactured for DARPA by the Aerospace Corporation in collaboration with the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The two spacecraft are cubic in shape, weight 1 kg each, and are connected via a 15.2-meter tether in order to facilitate detection and tracking via ground-based radar. The spacecraft carry a cold gas propulsion system, with 0.1-N thrust with 5 thrusters. The aim of ht MEPSI series is to developing autonomous small sub-spacecraft that can be carried for remote inspection and servicing.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Skyrocket's MEPSI 4B
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Skynet 5A
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #23 ; 2007-007B ; 6,514th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Secure military communications)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence (MoD)
Launch: 11 March 2007 at 22h03 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Initial (orbital injection): 249.8 km x 35,952 km x 4.5°
Geostationary at 1° West longitude.
Mission: Skynet 5A is a British military communications spacecraft, the highest power X-Band satellite in orbit. It is nuclear- and laser-hardened to demanding NATO standards.  Its anti-jamming antenna is extremely effective against hostile or non-hostile interference. All transmit beams are steerable and the active antenna forms multiple complex receive beam patterns to maximise terminal performance.  Skynet 5A is being orbited on behalf of EADS Astrium, which is delivering the satellite in orbit for the private company Paradigm Secure Communications wich offer secure communications services for the British armed forces, NATO and other countries. Built by Astrium, the satellite weigh about 4,700 kg at launch. It is a 3-axis stabilized, 4.5 x 2.9 x 3.7 meters (with 34 meter wingspan in orbit) EUROSTAR E3000S platforme with a planned operational life time of 15 years. 
     Skynet 5 is the groundbreaking next generation military satellite communications programme to provide end-to-end, resilient, secure Beyond Line of Site communications services, including welfare, to the UK MoD and other non-UK MoD and multinational customers until 2020. Skynet 5A is the first of three satellites that will form a new constellation to meet the UK MoD’s milsatcoms requirements until 2020. One of the three satellites will be an in-orbit spare, to guard against satellite loss. The programme provides delivery of information services between the UK’s Defence Fixed Network and in-theatre networks and users. Secure communications services will be delivered by the owner and operator - Paradigm Secure Communications with the system, including the satellites, designed and built by Astrium Satellites. Both companies are wholly owned by Astrium, a subsidiary of EADS, European Aeronautic Defence and Space company. The MoD contract, which is now worth £3.6 billion was placed with Paradigm in October 2003. It is the UK MoD’s largest and most complex PFI contract to date. 
Note: This was the 31st Ariane 5 launch, which carried a total payload of 8,600 kg, including 7,785 for the two satellites. Skynet 5A is the 26th military payload entrusted to Ariane, which has already orbited the Skynet 4B, 4C, 4E and 4F satellites for the British MoD and NATO. Arianespace has two more MoD satellites in its launch backlog, Skynet 5B and Skynet 5C.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-007B ; Skyrocket's Skynet 5A ; Paradigmsn' 10 May 07 ; Arianespace's 11 Mar 07 & Flight 175 Press Kit ; Astrium EADS's Press Kit ; Spaceflight Now's 11 Mar 07 ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ;
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Insat 4B
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #24 ; 2007-007A ; 6,515th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

Source: ISRO
Left: Insat 4B antennas. Center: Insat 4B components. Right: mission profile. (Source: ISRO)
Launch: 11 March 2007 at 22h03 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Initial (orbital injection): 249.8 km x 35,952 km x 4.5°
Geostationary at 93.5° East longitude (over the Indian Ocean)
Mission: Insat 4B is dedicated to television and telecommunications services, with 12 Ku-band transponders and 12 C-band transponders. Primarily covering the Indian sub-continent, the spacecraft further augment the INSAT capacity for Direct-To-Home (DTH) television services and other communication and TV services. It is the second satellite in the INSAT-4 series designed to augment the communication services in C-band and Ku-band.  Designed, assembled and integrated by the Indian Space Research Organization in Bangalore, the craft weigh 3,028 kg at launch (1.335 kg dry mass).  Insat 4B is a 3-axis stabilized, 3.10 x 1.77 x 2.0 meters (with 15.4 meters with its solar arrays fully deployed in orbit). The satellite’s two solar arrays together generate 5,860 Watt of electrical power. Designed for a mission life of 12 years, it is co-located in geosynchronous orbit with INSAT-3A satellite at 93.5° East longitude. It is the 13th ISRO satellite to use the European launcher.
     The INSAT system, which was established in 1983, is the largest domestic communication satellite system in the Asia-Pacific region comprising nine satellites -- INSAT-2E, INSAT-3A, INSAT-3B, INSAT-3C, INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1, GSAT-2, EDUSAT and INSAT-4A  -- providing 175 transponders besides meteorological instruments. INSAT-4B will further augment the INSAT system capacity for DTH services.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 578 ; Spacewarn No. 641 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-007A ; Skyrocket's Insat 4B ; ISRO's INSAT 4B, 12 Mar 07, 13 Mar 07 , 14 Mar 07 & 16 Mar 07 ; Arianespace's 11 Mar 07 & Flight 175 Press Kit ; Astrium EADS's Press Kit ; Spaceflight Now's 11 Mar 07 ;
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DemoFlight 2
Spacecraft:  LCT2 / AFSS
Chronologies: 2007 payload #25 ; 2007 2nd loss ; 6,516th spacecraft.
Type: Technology (Launch vehicle test)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: SpaceX, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and NASA
Launch: 21 March 2007 at 1h10 UTC, from Omelek Island, by a Falcon 1.
(Omelek Island is part of a U.S. Army base at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands.)
Orbit: None.
Mission: DemoFlight-2 is a launch vehicle evaluation payload containing two small experiments from NASA. The first expriement is Low Cost TDRSS Transceiver, which woudl allow relay of telemetry to the ground through the agency's TDRS satellites. The goal of the LCT2 effort is to produce a transceiver that will significantly lower the flight hardware costs required to communicate through NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. The second experiment is the Autonomous Flight Safety System, a real-time onboard system for tracking and possible flight termination. AFSS is designed primarily for small expendable vehicles at remote launch sites where providing traditional ground-based range safety infrastructure. Engineers also planned to demonstrate the Falcon 1's satellite separation system by jettisoning a small 2-kg aluminum ring after arriving in orbit. 
     The DemoFlight-2 payload was to had remained attached to the Falcon-1 second stage, but it did not reach orbit due to a problem with this stage.  But for SpaceX, this launch was a success or, as Jonathan McDowell puts it, the Falcon flight reached an orbit of around -4200 km x 289 km x 9°.
Launch:      After a dramatic last-second abort an hour prior to actual launch -- a pad abort declared during main engine start at 0h05 UTC --, the Falcon 1 rocket, “a gleaming symbol of hopes to revolutionize space exploration through private industry”, took its second shot at orbit at 1h10 UTC. The rocket was targeting an orbit of 330 x 680 km as engineers had programmed the second stage to conduct a second burn about 45 minutes into the flight to demonstrate its engine capability to reignite. 
     After first stage separation, within three minutes of lift-off, the second stage fired its engine for a planned 6½ minutes burn. But engineers stopped receiving live radio signals some 10 minutes into the flight. "We did encounter, late in the second stage burn, a roll-control anomaly," reports Elon Musk, founder and CEO of SpaceX. (See launch video)
     But Musk said he was pleased with the mission: "I think I'll characterize this as a very good day for SpaceX. We successfully reached space and really retired almost all the risk associated with the rocket. So I feel very good about where things are… It definitely could have gone a little better today, but if we've retired almost all the risk associated with the rocket, I think it is hard to characterize that as anything but a success, at least in my book, because this is a test launch of the rocket and not a satellite launch." 
     SpaceX's second launch came a year after the Falcon 1 rocket suffered a major failure during its maiden flight. Investigators traced the cause of that accident to a corroded aluminum nut in the first stage propulsion system, which triggered a fuel leak that led to a premature shutdown of the Merlin engine about 30 seconds after liftoff. The next launch of the Falcon 1 was scheduled for August carrying the TacSat 1 tactical research satellite for the Naval Research Laboratory. A subsequent mission to launch a Malaysian Earth-observation spacecraft was planned for late this year.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Skyrocket's Demosat ; SpaceX's Log : Spaceflight Now's 20 Mar 07, 28 Mar 07 & Mission Status ;
Onboard camera views of the launch of the second Falcon 1. (Source: SpaceX)
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Soyuz TMA-10 / ISS 14S
Spacecraft:  Soyuz 11F732 (7K-STMA) No. 220
Chronologies: 2007 payload #26 ; 2007-008A ; 6,517th spacecraft.
Type: Piloted Spaceship
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Space Agency

Source : NASA
Source: RSC Energia Source: NASA Source: NASA
Launch: 7 April 2007 at 17h31 UTC, from Baykonur LC-1, by a Soyuz-FG.
Orbit: 330 km x 345 km x 51.6° x 91.3 min.
Landed: 21 October 2007 at 10h36 UTC
Mission: Soyuz TMA-10 is a Russian passenger craft that carried two cosmonauts and a tourist to the International Space Station.  Aboard are Expedition 15 Commander Fyodor Yurchikin and Flight Engineer Oleg Kotov, as well as Visting Mission 12 (EP-12) tourist Charles Simonyi.  Born in Hungary as Simonyi Karoly, Simonyi is a former Microsoft executive. For the Soyuz flight, Kotov is commander and Yurchikin is flight engineer; as Station crewmembers their roles switch. The Expedition 15 and EP-12 crewmembers joined the Expedition 14 crew of Mike Lopez-Alegria, Mikhail Tyurin and Sunita Williams when Soyuz TMA-10 docked with the Zarya module on 9 April at 19h10 UTC. 
     Soyuz TMA-10 undocked from Zarya on 27 October 2007 at 19h20 UTC and docked with Zvezda at 19h47 UTC. Soyuz TMA-10, with Expedition 15 crew (Yurchikin and Kotov) and visitor Muszaphar Shukor, undocked from ISS Zvezda port on 21 October 2007 at 7h14 UTC. The craft fired its deorbit engines at 9h47 and, after a ballistic reentry, landed in Kazakhstan.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579, 586  & 587 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-008A ; Skyrocket's Soyuz TMA-10 ; Spaceflight.Now's 9 Apr 07 ;
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Anik F3
Spacecraft:
Chronologies: 2007 payload #27 ; 2007-009A ; 6,518th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Telesat Canada

Source: EADS Astrium
Launch: 9 April 2007 at 22h54 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrfome, by a Proton-M/Briz.
Orbit: Geostationary at 118.7° West longitude.
Mission: Anik F3 is a 4.6-tonne, 10-kW communications spacecraft that carries 32 Ku-band, 24 C-band and two Ka-band transponders to provide voice and video transmissions throughout North America. It is an EADS Astrium Eurostar 3000 model satellite with a launch mass of 4634 kg, a solar array span of 36 metres once deployed in orbit, and spacecraft power of 10 kW at end of it 15-year life. Anik F3 provide broadcasting and telecommunications capacity and business communications throughout North America and also carry a Ka-band payload to supplement services now being carried on the Anik F2 satellite.  It provides services to EchoStar Satellite for DTH distribution in the US market, as well as broadcasting and 2-way Internet services. Telesat is also in discussion with several companies regarding the use of the C-band capacity in both Canada and the US. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-009A ; Skyrocket's Anik F3 ; Telesat Canada's 10 Apr 07 & 1 May 07 ; EADS Astrium's Anik F3 ; Spaceflight.Now's 10 Apr 07 ;
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Haiyang 1B / HY-1B
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #28 ; 2007-010A ; 6,519th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Imagning
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China
Launch: 11 April 2007 at 3h27 UTC, from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 2C.
Orbit: 782 km x 815 km x 98.6° x 100.84 min.
783 km x 813 km x 98.6°
Mission: Haiyang 1B is an oceanographic/ocean-imaging surveillance satellite that carries a 10-band ocean color scanner, a 4-band CCD imager with 250-meter resolution and an infrared water profile radiometer. This “crucial component of China's three-dimensional oceanic survey system” is an upgraded version of the Haiyang-1A, which was launched in 2002. HY-1A was launched as a secondary payload on a CZ-4B launch, while HY-1B was the primary payload on its lighter CZ-2C version. Five more such launches are planned before 2009. 
Notes: Contracts were signed on 18 September 2002 for the development of a second oceanic satellite, Haiyang 1-B.  This satellite will be an advanced version of Haiyang 1-A, with improved technologies including memory capacity. It is scheduled to be launched in 2005 on a Long March 2 carrier rocket. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-010A ; Skyrocket's HY 1B ; Spaceflight.Now's 11 Apr 07 ; China Daily Online's 12 Apr 07 ; Xinhua’s 18 Sep 02 ;
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Beidou 5 
Spacecraft:  Beidou M1, Beidou G1
Chronologies: 2007 payload #29 ; 2007-011A ; 6,520th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China
Launch: 13 April 2007 at 20h11 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 3A.
Orbit: 21,519 km x 21,545 km x 55.3° x 773.4 min. 
Mission: Beidou M1, the 5th Beidou satellite, is a navigation satellite belonging to the COMPASS constellation of position-providing satellites.  It is the first to be targeted for a GPS-like 12-hour, 55° inclination, 21,000 km altitude orbit. When the COMPASS constellation is completed, it will have five geostationary and 30 low-earth orbit satellites, enabling location with an accuracy of 10 metres and velocity with an accuracy of 0.2 m/s. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-011ASkyrocket's BD 2A ; Spaceflight.Now's 14 Apr 07 ;
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EgyptSat 1 / Misr 1 (MirsSat 1)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #30 ; 2007-012A ; 6,521st spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 658 km x 666 km x 98.1° x 98.0 min.
657 km x 665 km x 98.1° x 97.97 min.
Mission: EgyptSat 1 is Egypt's first Earth remote-sounding satellite. The 100-kg craft is carrying an infrared sensing device and a high resolution multispectral imager together with forward communications payload. (It is suspected by Israeli officials to be a spy satellite.) The spacecraft has been jointly developed by Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Ukraine. The craft is based on the Yuzhnoe’s MS-1TK platform and was deisgned to operate in a solar-synchronous orbit. Ukraine was also responsible for the development and maintenance of a ground control station in Egypt, as well as for training of Egyptian flight control personel. EgyptSat 1 is the first in a series of three satellites for scientific research and remote sensing applications, the second and the third will be named Egyptsat 2 and Sahrasat.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012A ; Skyrocket's EgyptSat 1 ; NSAU's Dnepr mission & EgyptSat 1 ; Russian Space's Dnepr mission ; (NARSS) ; Spaceflight.Now's 17 Apr 07 ;KB Yuzhnoye's 27 Apr 07 ;
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Saudisat 3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #31 ; 2007-012B ; 6,522nd spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 656 km x 679 km x 98.1° x 98.1 min,
656 km x 678 km x 98.1° x 98.094 min.
Mission: SaudiSat 3 is a 200-kg satellite that carries a high resolution imager built in collaboration with the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology's faculty and students. The craft is the largest satellite to date for KACST space research center in Riyadh.  SaudiSat 3 is a follow-on to the earlier Saudisat projects, larger than its precedessors.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012B ; Skyrocket's Saudisat 3 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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SaudiComsat-3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #32 ; 2007-012J ; 6,523rd spacecraft.
Type: Communications (store/dump)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 730 km x 98.1° x 98.7 min.
653 km x 717 km x 98.1° x 98.465 min.
Mission: SaudiComsat 3 to 7 are five 12-kg CubeSat communications nanosatellites for storing and forwarding communications. They are part of a planned fleet of 24 satellites network.  They were built by the students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012J ; Skyrocket's SaudiComsat 3 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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SaudiComsat-4
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #33 ; 2007-012L ; 6,524th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (store/dump)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 730 km x 98.1° x 98.7 min.
650 km x 750 km x 98.1° x 98.777 min.
Mission: SaudiComsat 3 to 7 are five 12-kg CubeSat communications nanosatellites for storing and forwarding communications. They are part of a planned fleet of 24 satellites network.  They were built by the students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012L ; Skyrocket's SaudiComsat 4  ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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SaudiComsat-5
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #34 ; 2007-012H ; 6,525th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (store/dump)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 730 km x 98.1° x 98.7 min.
652 km x 728 km x 98.1° x 98.570 min.
Mission: SaudiComsat 3 to 7 are five 12-kg CubeSat communications nanosatellites for storing and forwarding communications. They are part of a planned fleet of 24 satellites network.  They were built by the students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012H ; Skyrocket's SaudiComsat 5 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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SaudiComsat-6
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #35 ; 2007-012E ; 6,526th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (store/dump)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 730 km x 98.1° x 98.7 min.
649 km x 761 km x 98.1° x 98.888 min.
Mission: SaudiComsat 3 to 7 are five 12-kg CubeSat communications nanosatellites for storing and forwarding communications. They are part of a planned fleet of 24 satellites network.  They were built by the students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012E ; Skyrocket's SaudiComsat 6 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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SaudiComsat-7
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #36 ; 2007-012C ; 6,527th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (store/dump)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Saudi Arabian's students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 730 km x 98.1° x 98.7 min.
651 km x 739 km x 98.1° x 98.677 min.
Mission: SaudiComsat 3 to 7 are five 12-kg CubeSat communications nanosatellites for storing and forwarding communications. They are part of a planned fleet of 24 satellites network.  They were built by the students and faculty of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012C ; Skyrocket's SaudiComsat 7 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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MAST - GADGET
Spacecraft:  Multiple Application Survivable Tether experiment
Chronologies: 2007 payload #37 ; 2007-012K ; 6,528th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Tethers Unlimited Inc. and Stanford University students
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 647 km x 782 km x 98.1° x 99.1 min.
Mission: MAST is a triplet of 1-kg Cubesats that demonstrate space tether survivability. It consists of TED (the Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1-km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, the small end mass satellite and between them GADGET, an Inspector satellite which can crawl up and down the tether. Before deployment, the MAST is 0.3-meter x 0.1-meter. Built by Stanford University students, it is intended to study damage to the multiple-wire tether due to meteoric impacts and UV-engendered degradation. The lifetimes of current single-line tethers are limited by damage due to meteorite and orbital debris impactors to periods on the order of weeks. The Hoytether is a tether structure composed of multiple lines with redundant interlinking that is able to withstand many impacts. GADGET slowly crawl up and down the tether, taking pictures of the tether as it goes. These pictures will be transmitted to a ground station for analysis to determine how quickly the tether experiences damage due to impacts by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, as well as due to erosion by atomic oxygen and UV light. Two of the three craft were to separate as freeflyers. All three picosatellites contain GPS receivers and data from these receivers will be collected to provide information on the dynamics of tethered formations of spacecraft and the performance of tether deployment technologies.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's2007-012K ; Skyrocket's MAST ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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MAST - TED
Spacecraft:  Multiple Application Survivable Tether experiment
Chronologies: 2007 payload #38 ; 2007-012K ; 6,529th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Tethers Unlimited Inc. and Stanford University students
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 647 km x 782 km x 98.1° x 99.1 min.
Mission: MAST is a triplet of 1-kg Cubesats that demonstrate space tether survivability. It consists of TED (the Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1-km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, the small end mass satellite and between them GADGET, an Inspector satellite which can crawl up and down the tether. Before deployment, the MAST is 0.3-meter x 0.1-meter. Built by Stanford University students, it is intended to study damage to the multiple-wire tether due to meteoric impacts and UV-engendered degradation. The lifetimes of current single-line tethers are limited by damage due to meteorite and orbital debris impactors to periods on the order of weeks. The Hoytether is a tether structure composed of multiple lines with redundant interlinking that is able to withstand many impacts. GADGET slowly crawl up and down the tether, taking pictures of the tether as it goes. These pictures will be transmitted to a ground station for analysis to determine how quickly the tether experiences damage due to impacts by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, as well as due to erosion by atomic oxygen and UV light. Two of the three craft were to separate as freeflyers. All three picosatellites contain GPS receivers and data from these receivers will be collected to provide information on the dynamics of tethered formations of spacecraft and the performance of tether deployment technologies.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012K ; Skyrocket's MAST ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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MAST - RALPH
Spacecraft:  Multiple Application Survivable Tether experiment
Chronologies: 2007 payload #39 ; 2007-012K ; 6,530th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Tethers Unlimited Inc. and Stanford University students
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 647 km x 782 km x 98.1° x 99.1 min.
Mission: MAST is a triplet of 1-kg Cubesats that demonstrate space tether survivability. It consists of TED (the Tether Deployer) satellite, with a 1-km deployable multi-strand Hoytether; RALPH, the small end mass satellite and between them GADGET, an Inspector satellite which can crawl up and down the tether. Before deployment, the MAST is 0.3-meter x 0.1-meter. Built by Stanford University students, it is intended to study damage to the multiple-wire tether due to meteoric impacts and UV-engendered degradation. The lifetimes of current single-line tethers are limited by damage due to meteorite and orbital debris impactors to periods on the order of weeks. The Hoytether is a tether structure composed of multiple lines with redundant interlinking that is able to withstand many impacts. GADGET slowly crawl up and down the tether, taking pictures of the tether as it goes. These pictures will be transmitted to a ground station for analysis to determine how quickly the tether experiences damage due to impacts by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, as well as due to erosion by atomic oxygen and UV light. Two of the three craft were to separate as freeflyers. All three picosatellites contain GPS receivers and data from these receivers will be collected to provide information on the dynamics of tethered formations of spacecraft and the performance of tether deployment technologies.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012K ; Skyrocket's MAST ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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Fit-check of Cubesatellites at CalPoly (Source: CAPE Team)
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CAPE 1
Spacecraft:  Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment
Chronologies: 2007 payload #40 ; 2007-012P ; 6,531st spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: University of Louisiana students
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 646 km x 793 km x 98.1° x 99.2 min.
Mission: CAPE 1 is a 1-kg, 10-cm CubeSat that collect and store data on the ambient ionosphere and relay it to students of the University of Louisiana, Lafayette.  The purpose of this satellite is to gather data while orbiting in space and transmit them to the ground station on Lafayette campus. The team of engineering students runs experiments and maintain the satellite while in orbit.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012P ; Skyrocket's CAPE 1 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ; University of Lousiana's CAPE
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Aerocube 2 (Object S)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #41 ; 2007-012S ; 6,532nd spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Aerospace Corporation
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 649 km x 770 km x 98.1° x 99.0 min.
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012S ; Skyrocket's AeroCube 2 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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CSTB 1 / CubeSat TestBed 1 (Object R)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #42 ; 2007-012R ; 6,533rd spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Boeing IDS Advanced Systems
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 649 km x 770 km x 98.1° x 99.0 min.
Mission: The CubeSat TestBed 1 (CSTB 1) is a 1.5-kg nanosatellite developed to evaluate miniature spacecraft technologies. It was built by the Boeing company, Huntington Beach, Calif, to test attitude control by means of sensing the magnetic field.  During the CSTB 1 demonstrations, Boeing will test several new technologies, software designs and on-orbit operations for nano-satellite functions. The satellite consists of four microcontrollers as the brains, redundant communication systems with two independent radios, two high-capacity lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, a deployable antenna, a sophisticated control system that determines the attitude of the spacecraft using sun and magnetic field sensors, a simple attitude control system using magnetic torque coils and multi-functional boards containing sensors and electronics.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012R ; Skyrocket's CSTB 1 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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CP 3 / CalPoly 3
Spacecraft:
Chronologies: 2007 payload #43 ; 2007-012M ; 6,534th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo

Source: CalPoly
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 646 km x 793 km x 98.1° x 99.2 min. 
Mission: CalPoly 3 (CP 3) is a 1-kg student-built CubeSat picosatellite. Its primary mission is to implement an attitude control system using only magnetic torquers embedded within the side panels. Attitude determination will be performed using the two axis magnetometers on each side panel.  As with all of our CubeSats, a primary mission is also education.  This Cal Poly's third satellite came on about 4 hours after launch but students were unable to send a beacon signal. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012M ; Skyrocket's CP 3 ; CalPoly CP-3 & 14 May 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07
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CP 4 / CalPoly 4 (CP 2 or CP 2.1) (Object T)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #44 ; 2007-012T ; 6,535th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo

This picture of CP4 was taken by AeroCube-2.
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 649 km x 770 km x 98.1° x 99.0 min.
Mission: CP 4 (CalPoly 4) is a picosatellite that was designed by college students at California Polytech. It carries a three-axis attitude determination and control system, and a substantial data processing and storage system. The craft is sometime refered to as CP2 or CP2.1 because, since CP2 was destroyed in the previous Dnepr launch failure, this a the second flight unit of CP2 and studends had to declare the name as CP4 to Kosmotras. But, in reallity, the satellite is CP2.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012T ; Skyrocket's CP 4 ; CalPoly's CP4 ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07
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Libertad
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #45 ; 2007-012N ; 6,536th spacecraft.
Type: Amateur/Student Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Colombia's Universidad Sergio Arboleda students
Launch: 17 April 2007 at 6h46 or 7h02 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: 646 km x 792 km x 98.1° x 99.2 min.
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-012N ; Skyrocket's Libertad ; Spaceflight Now's 17 Apr 07 ;
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AGILE
Spacecraft:  Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero,
(Light Gamma-Ray Imaging Astronomical Detector)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #46 ; 2007-013A ; 6,537th spacecraft.
Type: Astronomy
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Italian Space Agency (ASI)
Launch: 23 April 2007 at 10h00 UTC, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR's Second Launch Pad (SLP-2), by a PSLV.
Orbit: 524 km x 553 km x 2.5° x 95.4 min.
523 km x 552 km x 2.5°
Mission: AGILE is a 325-kg (352 kg) Italian astronomical satellite that carries X-ray and gamma ray spectrometers to study astronomical objects in the Galaxy. It carries the GRID 0.3-200 MeV wide-field gamma ray imager and the Super-AGILE 15-45 keV detector which will give the best look yet at the hard X-ray sky. The design, development and fabrication of the satellite were led by Carlo Gavazzi Space, Milan.
Note:      In its eleventh flight, PSLV’s C8 mission was unique in many respects. For the first time, the lanucher was flown without the six strap-on motors of the first stage. Also, for the first time, it launched a satellite into an equatorial circular orbit of 550 km and it was the first major commercial launch the contract which was won against stiff international competition. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-013A ; Skyrocket's AGILE ; ASI's Agile ; ISRO's 23 Apr 07 ; Spaceflight.Now' 23 Apr 07 ;
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AVM
Spacecraft:  Advanced Avionics Module
Chronologies: 2007 payload #47 ; 2007-013B ; 6,538th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch: 23 April 2007 at 10h00 UTC, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR's Second Launch Pad (SLP-2), by a PSLV.
Orbit: 531 km x 551 km x 2.5° x 95.5 min. 
Mission: The Advanced Avionics Module (AVM) is a 185-kg Indian test satellite  intended to monitor the performance of the fourth stage of the PSLV-C8 rocket and to test advanced launch vehicle avionics systems like mission computers, navigation and telemetry systems,  The craft remained attached to the fourth stage. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 579 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-013B ; Skyrocket's AVM ; ISRO's 23 Apr 07 ; Spaceflight.Now's 23 Apr 07 ;
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NFIRE
Spacecraft:  Near Field InfraRed Experiment
Chronologies: 2007 payload #48 ; 2007-014A ; 6,539th spacecraft.
Type: Anti-satellite Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Department of Defense (U.S. Missile Defense Agency)
Launch: 24 April 2007 at 6h48 UTC, from Wallops Island's LA-0B, by a Minotaur 1.
Orbit: 255 km x 464 km x 48.2° x 91.7 min.
NFIRE was launched into a 255 x 465 km x 48.2° orbit; from 3 to 18 May 2007, then the orbit was raised to 489 x 497 km and it remained in that orbit on 2 August. On 9 August, the orbit was lowered again to 243 x 487 km and by 23 August  it was in a 219 x 450 km orbit.
Mission: NFIRE is is a military satellite designed to carry a kill vehicle (KV) to aim at any rocket that is launched directly against it. Its instruments can distinguish the exhaust plume at the launch phase from the rocket body. Its primary payload is the Track Sensor Payload which will observe missiles specially launched to fly close to it, and attempt to distinguish between the missile itself and its hot rocket exhaust plume - a technology relevant to proposed missile interceptors. NFIRE also has a secondary payload for laser communications and a hydrazine propulsion system. The Missile Defense Agency will launch two ballistic missiles toward NFIRE from Vandenberg AFB to test the NFIRE/KV performances. These data will help validate the MDA’s choice of kill vehicles and tracking sensors for boost-phase missile defense, and help improve the guidance and homing ability of ground-based interceptors.   The satellite is 494 kg full (380 kg dry), 2.7-meter long and 1.3-meter diameter
     NFIRE carries a German laser communications terminal, Tesat, as a secondary payload, but its main instrument is TSP, the Track Sensor Payload, which includes visible and short, medium and long wave infrared sensors to track missiles and their rocket plumes, and is designed to distinguish between the missile and its plume.
     In a major test of the satellite, a Minotaur II rocket, TLV-7, was launched on 23 August 2007 at 8h30 UTC from Vandenberg's LF06 silo as NFIRE Mission 2a. On each of the two planned Mission 2 flights, the rocket will be aimed to pass within 4 and 20 km of the NFIRE satellite while its third stage motor is burning, allowing NFIRE to get a close look at the rocket and its exhaust. The Missile Defense Agency reported that the Mission 2a flyby was successful.
     The spacecraft  cost about $65 million.  The Missile Defense Agency satellite was built by General Dynamics' Gilbert, Arizona (former Spectrum Astro) unit based on its SA-200 bus and is managed by the USAF Missile Defense Space Systems Office (SMC/SS) at Los Angeles Air Force Base, which is also responsible for the STSS space tracking satellite program. Two more NFIREs are under construction.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 & 585 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-014A ; Skyrocket's NFIRE ; Spaceflight.Now's 24 Apr 07 ; NASA's NFIRE ;
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AIM
Spacecraft:  Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (SMEX 9)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #49 ; 2007-015A ; 6,540th spacecraft.
Type: Earth/Space Science
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA

Source: NASA
Launch: 25 April 2007 at 20h26 UTC, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, by a Pegasus XL.
Orbit: 586 km x 600 km x 97.8° x 96.5 min.
Mission: AIM is a 197-kg Small Explorer satellite designed to study Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) that form about 80 km above the Earth's surface in summer and mostly in the polar regions. AIM measures the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which PMCs form to resolve why PMCs form and why they vary. This will allow the connection to be made between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. The craft carries three scientific instruments to study polar mesospheric clouds: a solar occultation camera, an ultraviolet imager and a cosmic dust experiment. It is a triaxially stabilized crart that can store data gathered for 50 hours. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 ; Spacewarn No. 642 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-015A ; Skyrocket's AIM ; Spaceflight.Now's  25 Apr 07 ; NASA's AIM ;
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Astra 1L
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #50 ; 2007-016A ; 6,541st spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: SES Astra
Launch: 4 May 2007 at 22h29 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Initial: 248.2 km x 35,958 km x 5.9°
Geostationary at 19.2° East longitude.
Mission: Astra 1L is a 4.5-tonne (with fuel) geostationary communications satellite that carries 29 Ku-band and two Ka-band transponders to provide video and voice links direct-to-home in all of Europe. Built by Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systems (LMCSS) using an A2100 AX platform, the spacecraft weigh4 4,97.5 kg at lift-off (with a dry mass of 2,253 kg). The caaft is a 3-axis stabilized, 7.7 x 2.62 x 3.62 metre (with a 27-meter span in orbit) and has a design life of approximately 15 years. 
     SES Astra is the leading direct-to-home (DTH) broadcast system in Europe, serving more than 109 million households via DTH and cable networks. Satellites in the SES Astra fleet transmit 1,864 TV and radio stations.  Astra 1L is the ninth SES Astra satellite to be launched by Arianespace.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-016A ; Skyrocket's Astra 1L ; Arianespace's 4 May 07 & Flight 176 Press Kit ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ;
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Galaxy 17
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #51 ; 2007-016B ; 6,542nd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Intelsat
Launch: 4 May 2007 at 22h29 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Initial: 248.2 km x 35,958 km x 5.9°
Geostationary at 74° West longitude (or 91° West (or 99° West)
Mission: Galaxy 17 is a 4.1-tonne (with fuel), 9.5-kW communications satellite that carries 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders to provide telephone and television services to South and North America and Europe. Built by Thales Alenia Space using a Spacebus 3000 B3 platform, the craft weighing 4,100 kg at lift-off (dry mass 1,749 kg). Its design life is about 15 years. It is a 3-axis stabilized, 3.75 x 1.8 x 2.3 metre craft with a 36.9 metre wingspan in orbit.
     The Galaxy satellite fleet, once owned by Hughes Communications and then Panamsat, is now operated by Intelsat (which is currently the world's largest supplier of fixed satellite services ).  Galaxy 17 is the 45th Intelsat satellite to use an Ariane launcher since 1983. More than 60% of the Intelsat satellites in service today were orbited by the European launch vehicle.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-016B ; Skyrocket's Galaxy 17 ; Arianespace's 4 May 07 & Flight 176 Press Kit
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Progress M-60 / ISS 25P
Spacecraft:  Progress M (7K-TGM) No. 360
Chronologies: 2007 payload #52 ; 2007-017A ; 6,543rd spacecraft.
Type: Cargo delivery to the International Space Station
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Federal Space Agency

Source: NASA
Source: RSC Energia Source : RSC Energia Source: NASA Source: NASA
Launch: 12 May 2007 at 3h25 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by a Soyuz U.
Orbit: Initial: 192.9 km x 245.0 km x 51.66° x 88.5 min.
330.2 km x 353.8 km x 51.6° x 91.1 min.
Deorbited: 25 September 2007 at 19h01 UTC
Mission: Progress M-60 is an automatic cargo carrier that delivers to ISS more than 2.56 tonnes of various cargoes necessary to maintain the space station operation in manned mode. This space transportation logistics vehicle carries 815 kg of propellant, 420 kg of potable water, 241 kg of containers with food, 136 kg of cargoes of equipment for various space station systems, 63 kg of equipment for scientific experiments, on-board documentation and parcels for the crew. 377 kg of the cargos intended for the US segment of the ISS.  It docked automatically with the Zarya module on 15 May 2007 at 5h10 UTC. The International Space Station, with a mass of 218.1 tonnes, is flying in an orbit of 330.2 km x 353.8 km x 51.6° x 91.1 min.
     Progress M-60 undocked from Zvezda on 19 September 2007 at 0h37 UTC and was used for plasma depletion experiments before being deorbited over the Pacific on 25 September.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 & 586 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-017A ; Skyrocket's Progres M-60 ; RSC Energia's 12 May 07 & 15 May 07 ;
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Nigcomsat 1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #53 ; 2007-018A ; 6,544th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Nigerian Communications Satellite Ltd.
Launch: 13 May 2007 at 16h01 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 3B.
Orbit: Geostationary at 42.5° East longitude.
Mission: NigComSat, China's second DFH-4 comsat, is a 5,150-kg (with fuel) communications satellite that carries 4 C-band, 18 Ku-band, 4 Ka-band, and 2 L-band transponders to provide voice, video, and data links to all of Africa and southern Europe. Based on the DFH-4, China's latest satellite platform, the craft was manufactured by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is the first of its kind in Africa and the first time a foreign buyer has purchased a Chinese satellite and its launching service. It thus mark a breakthrough for China's international commercial space programme with this country becoming both a manufacturer and launcher of satellites for foreign customers. In addition to launching the satellite, China will also train technicians and build a ground station in Nigeria. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 580 & 581; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-018A ; Skyrocket's NIGCOMSAT 1 ; China Daily Online's 2 Jul 05 $ 14 May 07 ;
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Yaogan 2 / JB-5 2
Spacecraft:  YaoGan WeiXing 2 or Remote Sensing Satellite 2
Chronologies: 2007 payload #54 ; 2007-019A ; 6,545th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China Academy of Space Technology
Launch: 25 May 2007 at 7h12 UTC, from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 2D.
Orbit: Initial: 631 km x 655 km x 97.85° x 97.6 min.
Mission: Yaogan 2 is China's second Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing satellite which is used, according to the China Academy of Space Technology (the main developer of the satellite), for scientific research, land resources surveying, crop yield estimation and disaster forecasting. The data from the satellite will help in crop estimates and disaster alert/remedy efforts.  Some sources have claimed that the Yaogan series also has a military role under the codename Jianbing-5. China launched a similar satellite known as Remote Sensing Satellite 1 (YaoGan WeiXing 1) in 2006, which was later identified as the JianBing 5 synthetic aperture radar satellite operated by the PLA for military reconnaissance role. The new satellite could be a similar design. According to Chinese media reports, the satellite weights 2,700 kg. It entered a 601 km x 621 km x 97.8° initial orbit which was raised on May 1 to a 628 km x 629 km x 97.8° orbit.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 & 582 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-019A ; SkyRocket's Yaogan 2 ; China Daily Online's 25 May 07
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MEMS-Pico / Zheda Pixing 1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #55 ; 2007-019B ; 6,546th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China's Zhejiang University
Launch: 25 May 2007 at 7h12 UTC, from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 2D.
Orbit: 631 km x 655 km x 97.85° x 97.6 min. 
Mission: The 1-kg experimental picosatellite Zheda Pixing 1 is for microelectronics research. It is probably the MEMS-Pico previously announced under development by Zhejiang University and Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology. The original propose of this satellite was to provide a testbed in near-Earth space for MEMS devices, such as accelerometer, micro-gyros and infrared sensors, being developed in China. MEMS-Pico is a 26-face object covered by solar cells and containing an infrared sensor, a S-band transceiver and a CMOS camera. It validates design of microelectronic components. It is designed as a tumbling satellite with neither attitude control nor propulsion. It consists of no moving parts, only solid-state electronics and its structure. The solar cells are expect to provide 2 Watt of electrical power in orbit. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-019B ; Skyrocket's Zheda Pixing 1 ;
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Globalstar FM65
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #56 ; 2007-020A ; 6,547th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar
Launch: 29 May 2007 at 20h31 UTC, from Baykonur, by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: 905 km x 923 km x 52° x 103.5 min.
Mission: These four satellites are the latest Globalstar communications crafts in the fleet that provides two-way transmission of voice and data from mobile and fixed stations. Together with the additional four ground spare satellites due to be launched shortly, these satellites augment the current operating constellation and improve the Globalstar quality of two-way voice and data service through the launch of the second-generation satellite constellation. Each satellite have a dry mass of 350 kg like the older 52 craft in the fleet. 
     Globalstar, which is is a leading provider of mobile satellite voice and data services, has invested $120 million in order to launch these four satellites plus the remaining four ground spares. It considers these eight satellites to represent the beginning of its next-generation constellation, because they will not only help bridge the gap today, but last long into and seamlessly operate with, its second-generation constellation. In December 2006, the company signed a EURO 661 million contract with Thales Alenia Space for the design, manufacture and delivery of 48 new satellites for the second-generation Globalstar, with deliveries scheduled to begin in the summer of 2009. The satellites are being designed to provide service until at least 2025. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-020A ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 65 ; Globalstar's 30 May 07 ; Arianespace's 30 Mah 07 & Press Kit ;
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Globalstar FM69
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #57 ; 2007-020B ; 6,548th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar
Launch: 29 May 2007 at 20h31 UTC, from Baykonur, by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: 905 km x 923 km x 52° x 103.5 min.
914 km x 931 km x 52.0°
Mission: These four satellites are the latest Globalstar communications crafts in the fleet that provides two-way transmission of voice and data from mobile and fixed stations. Together with the additional four ground spare satellites due to be launched shortly, these satellites augment the current operating constellation and improve the Globalstar quality of two-way voice and data service through the launch of the second-generation satellite constellation. Each satellite have a dry mass of 350 kg like the older 52 craft in the fleet. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-020B ; SkyRocket's Globalstat 69 ; Globalstar's 30 May 07 ; Arianespace's 30 Mah 07 & Press Kit ;
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Globalstar FM71
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #58 ; 2007-020C ; 6,549th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar
Launch: 29 May 2007 at 20h31 UTC, from Baykonur, by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: 905 km, x 923 km x 52° x 103.5 min.
Mission: These four satellites are the latest Globalstar communications crafts in the fleet that provides two-way transmission of voice and data from mobile and fixed stations. Together with the additional four ground spare satellites due to be launched shortly, these satellites augment the current operating constellation and improve the Globalstar quality of two-way voice and data service through the launch of the second-generation satellite constellation. Each satellite have a dry mass of 350 kg like the older 52 craft in the fleet. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-020C ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 71 ; Globalstar's 30 May 07 ; Arianespace's 30 Mah 07 & Press Kit ;
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Globalstar FM72
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #59 ; 2007-020D ; 6,550th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar
Launch: 29 May 2007 at 20h31 UTC, from Baykonur, by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: 905 km, x 923 km x 52° x 103.5 min.
Mission: These four satellites are the latest Globalstar communications crafts in the fleet that provides two-way transmission of voice and data from mobile and fixed stations. Together with the additional four ground spare satellites due to be launched shortly, these satellites augment the current operating constellation and improve the Globalstar quality of two-way voice and data service through the launch of the second-generation satellite constellation. Each satellite have a dry mass of 350 kg like the older 52 craft in the fleet. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-020D ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 72 ; Globalstar's 30 May 07 ; Arianespace's 30 Mah 07 & Press Kit ;
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Xinnuo 3 / SinoSat 3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #60 ; 2007-021A ; 6,551st spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China's Sino Satellite Communications Co. Ltd. (SinoSat)
Launch: 31 May 2007 at 16h08 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 3A.
Orbit: Geostationary at 125° East longitude.
Mission: Xinnuo 3, or Sinosat 3,  is a commercial Direct-to-Home broadcasting satellite which carries 10 C-band transponders to provide voice and video links to much of eastern Asia. The craft is a DFH-3 class Chinese C-band communications satellite which was manufactured by the China Academy of Space Technology under the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation. It is not clear whether SinoSat-3 will replace part of the service offered by the failed SinoSat-2.  China has 12.6 million digital TV subscribers and 400 million television sets, suggesting a huge potential market for satellite TV. 
Launcher: The CZ-3A vehicle used to orbit Xinnuo-3 was the 100th launch of a Chang Zheng-class rocket, including two CZ-1 launches (unrelated vehicle) but not counting 11 launches of the related Feng Bao vehicle and at least 9 launches of the suborbital DF-5 missile on which the CZ-2 and later series is based.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 643 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-021A ; SkyRocket's Sinosat 3 ; Spaceflight Now's 31 May 07 : People's Daily Online's 1 Jun 07 ;
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Kosmos 2427 / Kobalt-M #3
Spacecraft: Yantar-4K2M #3
Chronologies: 2007 payload #61 ; 2007-022A ; 6,552nd spacecraft.
Type: Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Defense Ministry
Launch: 7 June 2007 at 18h00 UTC, from Plesetsk, by a Soyuz U.
Orbit: Initial: 170 km x 297 km x 67° x 89 min.
180 km x 360 km x 67.15° x 89.6 min.
Landed: 22 August 2007 at around 21h00 UTC
Mission: Kosmos 2427 is a new Kobalt-M optical reconnaissance satellite. This is the third Kobalt-M launch, previous ones took place in September 2004 (Kosmos 2410) and in May 2006 (Kosmos 2420). Kobalt-M satellites, like their Yantar-4S2/Kobalt predecessors, use returnable film capsules to deliver information to the Earth. Nominal lifetime of these satellites is about 60 days. 
    Kosmos 2427 completed its mission and re-entered on 23 August 2007. The satellite worked on orbit for 76 days, which is somewhat shorter than usual operational life of about 120 days. The Space Forces representative was quoted as saying that the craft completed its mission successfully. In what appears to be a normal procedure, it shed some fragments shortly before landing. The fragments re-entered shortly thereafter.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581, 582 & 585 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-022A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2427 ; Spaceflight Now's 7 Jun 07 ; RSNF's 7 Jun 07 & 23 Aug 07
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COSMO-Skymed 1 / COSMO-1
Spacecraft:  COSMO stands for Constellation of Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation.
Chronologies: 2007 payload #62 ; 2007-023A ; 6,553rd spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Italian Space Agency and Italian Ministry of Defence
Launch: 8 June 2007 at 2h34 UTC, from Vandenberg Air Force Base's SLC-2, by a Delta II 7420-10.
Orbit: Initial: 622 km x 623 km x 97.9° x 97 min.
Mission: COSMO-SkyMed 1, or COSMO-1, is a 1.7-tonne, 3.6-kW Italian Earth-imaging radar satelllite. It is the first of a four-satellite constellation and carries an X-band radar. The swath width is variable and provides images at a resolution between three to 100 meters.  The satellite collects data on floods, droughts, earthquakes and landslides. It takes imagery of the Earth using an X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar instrument capable of operating in all visibility conditions at the request of institutional and commercial users, including members of the defence, civil and scientific communities. This satellite system was developed under an agreement between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and the Italian Ministry of Defense, and built under the prime contractorship of Thales Alenia Space; COSMO 1's mass has been variously reported as 1,700 kg or 1,900 kg.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-023A ; SkyRocket's COSMOS 1 ; ASI's COSMO-Skymed ;
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STS-117 / ISS 13A
Spacecraft:  Atlantis' 28th flight
Chronologies: 2007 payload #63 ; 2007-024A ; 6,554th spacecraft.
Type: Piloted Spaceship
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA

Source: NASA
Artist's rendering of ISS after Atlantis' undocking and departure
Launch: 8 June 2007 at 23h38 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle.
Orbit: Initial: 334 km x 354 km x 51.6° x 91.4 min.
Landed: 22 June at 19h49 UTC at Edwards Air Force Base
Mission: STS-117 is a piloted mission which carried a crew of seven American astronauts and 19 tonnes of material to the International Space Station. Also, Expedition 15’s Sunita Williams was replaced by Clay Anderson. Atlantis docked with ISS on 10 June at 19h38 UTC. The crew made four spacewalks to install two trusses (ITS-S3/S4) and two more solar panels on the ISS, and to repair the damaged insulation on the tail section of Atlantis.  The truss was added to the end of the S1 (starboard) truss on 11 June at 18h03 UTC. Installation of the new solar array apparently caused a major break-down in the mission-critical Russian computers which were repaired by ground commands. Atlantis undocked from ISS on 19 June at 14h42 UTC. Landing was delayed by a day due to bad weather at Cape Canaveral, until it could occur on Edwards AFB in California on 22 June at 19h49 UTC. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-024A ; SkyRocket's STS-117; Spaceflight Now's 8 Jun 07 ; STS-117 Press Kit ;
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ITS S3/S4
Spacecraft:  ITS-S3/S4 stands for Integrated Truss System (ITS) Starboard 3/Starboard 4 (S3/S4).
Chronologies: 2007 payload #64 ; 2007 n/a ; 6,555th spacecraft.
Type: Space Station Component
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Launch: 8 June 2007 at 23h38 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle.
Added to ISS on 11 June 2007 at 18h03 UTC.
Orbit:
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; SkyRocket's ITS-S3/4 ; Spaceflight Now's 11 Jun 07 ;
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'Ofeq 7 ('OFEK 7)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #65 ; 2007-025A ; 6,556th spacecraft.
Type: Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Israel Defense Ministry
Launch: 10 June 2007 at 23h40 UTC, from Palmahim Air Base, by a Shavit.
Orbit: Initial: 339 km x 575 km x 141.8° x 93.7 min.
Mission: 'Ofeq 7 is an Israeli, 30-kg military reconnaissance satellite replacing 'Ofek 5, which life has been extended to five years after the loss of its planned replacement, 'Ofek 6, two years ago. The 'Ofeq 7 satellite is a military observation satellite built by Israel Aerospace Industries for Israel Ministry of Defense.  According to IMOD, “'OFEK 7' is an advanced technology remote sensing satellite.” It is 2.3-meter height by 1.2-meter diameter (3.6-meter with deployed solar array) with a dry mass of 30 kg and with an expected operational lifetime of 4 years minimum.  Israel's Army Radio said its resolution was high enough to detect objects of 70 cm on the ground.  The chief of Israel’s Defense Ministry space program, Haim Eshed, suggested that the satellite could be used to counter Iran's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon. When asked if the satellite could be used to strike Iran, Eshed said ''Intelligence is intelligence and you can do with the intelligence what the leaders decide. 'But this is definitely intelligence on the best level that it's possible to obtain from satellite systems.” The spacecraft was orbited by a Shavit launcher more capable and reliable than the one used for 'Ofeq 5 in 2002.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-025A ; SkyRocket's Ofeq 7 ; Spaceflight Now's 11 Jun 07 ; IAI's 
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TerraSAR-X
Astrium GmbH 
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #66 ; 2007-026A ; 6,557th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Observation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Germany
Source: Astrium GmbH
Launch: 15 June 2007 at 2h14 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome, by a .Dnepr
Orbit: Initial: 507 km x 510 km x 97.5° x 95 min.
Mission: Terra SAR-X is a 1-tonne German Synthetic Aperture Radar that maps the Earth and oceans at a rate of one million square-km/day, providing scientific data such as sea ice coverage, vegetation/crop estimates and military reconnaissance information, all at 1.0-meter resolution. The craft has a height of 5.0 meters and a diameter of 2.3 meters and carries 394 kg of payload. The SAR antenna, which measure 4.8 m x 0.80 m x 0.15 m, provide a resolution of 1 meter for 5 x 10 km scene. TerraSAR-X will provide a continuous stream of remote sensing data for at least 5 years.  In a public/private partnership, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and EADS Astrium GmbH have agreed to jointly bear the costs of constructing and implementing this X-band radar satellite. Infoterra GmbH, a 100 % EADS-Astrium subsidiary, was established specifically to conduct the commercial exploitation of the satellite. The total cost of the TerraSAR-X programme is approximately € 130 million. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-026A ; SkyRocket's Terra-SAR-X 1 ; Infoterra TerraSAR-X & Background ; Spaceflight Now's 15 Jun 07 : KB Yuzhnoye's 18 Jun 07 ;
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NROL-30 / NOSS 3-4A (USA 194)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #67 ; 2007-027A ; 6,558th spacecraft.
Type: Ocean Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. National Reconnaissance Office 
Launch: 15 June 2007 at 15h12 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit:
Mission: NROL-30, or USA 194, is a secret National Reconnaissance Office mission,  believed to be a U.S. Navy intelligence mission to monitor and track ships using their radio emissions.
     The NRO confirm early reports that the Atlas V AV-009 had a problem in the second burn of the Centaur upper stage, leaving the spacecraft in a somewhat low, probably elliptical orbit. “Atlas booster performance was nominal, NRO indicated. [But] the Centaur upper stage had a technical anomaly which resulted in minor performance degradation. [Payload/launch] vehicle separation was nominal and the NRO is confident in the performance of its mission.” It is believed that two spacecraft were to be deployed into 1,150 km altitude, 63° inclination orbits. Based on optical observations, the satellite could actually be in an orbit of 776 x 1,246 km. The payloads are expected to reach the original planned orbit using on-board propulsion. It's possible that the payloads remain attached to each other until reaching the target orbit. 
     According to Aviation Week & Space Technology, this NRO payload consist of two ocean surveillance spacecraft that “are critical to tracking ships that may conceal al Qaeda terrorists.  The new spacecraft will also track Iranian and Chinese sea-based military operations.” The magazine also reports that the spacecraft “were fired into the wrong orbit when the Atlas V  rocket they were riding on stopped firing too early in space following launch. The top secret  satellites separated safely from the malfunctioning booster, however, and have enough rocket propellant to continue their mission, an official said on background. The U.S. Air Force, which managed the Atlas V launch, and the NRO have begun an official investigation into the launch and malfunction. "The Atlas V people have a lot of explaining to do," the official said on background. The flight was the first NRO secret mission for the new Atlas V Evolved xpendable Launch Vehicle.”
     The Atlas V first stage fired normally and then fell away. The vehicle flew north off the U.S. east coast toward a high-inclination orbit. The Centaur was then ignited for the first of two irings. The Centaur completed the first firing normally to place the spacecraft in a correct initial orbit. The vehicle then coasted about halfway around the world where the Centaur RL10 engine was fired a second time about an hour after liftoff. This time, however, the Centaur did not fire for as long as it was scheduled to. The exact parameters involved are still secret. The spacecraft may have to use their onboard propellant to maneuver into a higher orbit, which could affect their mission life.It is not yet known whether the malfunction occurred in the engine itself or in electronics associated with the engine and overall stage.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-027A ; SkyRocket's NROL-30 ; NRO's 15 Jun 07 & 18 Jun 07 ; AW&ST's 15 Jun 07 ;
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NROL-30 / NOSS 3-4B
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #68 ; 2007-027 ; 6,559th spacecraft.
Type: Ocean Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. National Reconnaissance Office 
Launch: 15 June 2007 at 15h12 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-41, by an Atlas V
Orbit:
Mission:      According to Aviation Week & Space Technology, this NRO payload consist of two ocean surveillance spacecraft that “are critical to tracking ships that may conceal al Qaeda terrorists. The new spacecraft will also track Iranian and Chinese sea-based military operations.”
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 581 ; SkyRocket's NROL-30 ; NRO's 15 Jun 07 ; AW&ST's 15 Jun 07 ;
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Genesis II
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #69 ; 2007-028A ; 6,560th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Bigelow Aerospace Corp.
Launch: 28 June 2007 at 15h02 UTC, from ISC Kosmotras Yasny Spaceport's Silo 1-1, by a Dnepr.
Orbit: Initial: 533 km x 540 km x 64.5° x 96 min.
555 km x 562 km x 64.5° 
Mission: Genesis 2 is a 1.9-meter diameter, 1.36-tonne inflatable craft that was inflated to a diameter of 3.8 meters after launch. It's a technology demonstrator envisioning an affordable space tourism market. Genesis II is the second 1.300-kg Bigelow Aerospace’s pathfinder module designed to test and confirm systems for future manned commercial space modules. The craft is a one-third scale model of modules Bigelow eventually plans to orbit. It employs a unique architecture with a flexible outer surface that is wrapped around a central core at launch and expands into orbit through air inflation.  Compressed air from several on-board gas tanks had inflatited the module shortly after arriving in orbit as Genesis 2 also deployed its solar panels. The craft features more than 11 cubic meters of usable interior volume, similar to the size of a typical sports utility vehicle. It’s identical in size and appearance to Genesis I: approximately 4.4 meters in length and 1.9 meters in diameter at launch, expanding to 2.5 meters in diameter after expansion in orbit. It follows Genesis I, which was launched in 2006 and continues to successfully return data and images from Earth orbit.  Genesis II includes a suite of additional sensors and avionics that didn’t fly on Genesis I. Genesis II outer surface is made of several layers that include proprietary impact-resistant materials. According to Bigelow Aerospace, testing on the ground has shown that the expandable shells are much more resistant to space debris than the modules on the International Space Station. Twenty-two cameras mounted both inside and outside Genesis 2 beam back imagery. The interior cameras take pictures of floating photos and trinkets sent in by customers for a fee of less than $300 per object. Genesis 2 also carries Biobox, a more capable animal habitat housing colonies of ants, cockroaches and scorpions, and a bingo game complete with a mechanism to randomly select numbered balls. 
     Bigelow expects both Genesis I and II to continue operating well into the next decade, but the company is already working to develop the next generation of inflatable modules as a stepping stone to the company's ultimate goal: creating a fleet of orbiting private space complexes for clients to visit. Called Galaxy, the next module will serve as a test bed for an array of new systems, including advanced avionics, high-speed communications equipment, and larger solar panels. Galaxy will also carry elements of Bigelow's life support system, and the spacecraft will feature structural upgrades to make the module more robust. The craft will have 45 percent more internal volume than the Genesis modules.  The Galaxy module should be ready for launch by late 2008, according to Bigelow's projections.  In 2010, Bigelow plans to roll out the Sundancer, the company's first spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew. A year later, plans call for a node and service module to be launched to Sundancer. The combination will be joined by the first BA 330 module in 2012. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 582 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-028A ; SkyRocket's Genesis II ; Bigelow Aerospace's Updates ; Spaceflight Now's 28 Jun 07 ;
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Kosmos 2428
Spacecraft:  Tselina-2
Chronologies: 2007 payload #70 ; 2007-029A ; 6,561st spacecraft.
Type: Electronic intelligence 
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Defence Ministry
Launch: 29 June 2007 at 10h00 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-45/1, by a Zenith 2M.
Orbit: Initial:, 824 km x 834 km x 71° x 102 min.
846 km x 856 km x 71.0°
Mission: Kosmos 2428 is reportedly the last Tselina-2 electronic intelligence satellite launched by Russia. This program began in the 1970s and the first satellite was launched in 1984 (Kosmos 1603). The previous satellite of this type, Kosmos 2406, was launched in June 2004. Tselina-2, as well as the US-PU naval electronic intelligence system, is expected to be replaced by the Liana system, with the first launch expected in 2008. The launch marks the first flight of the Zenit booster since it suffered a catastrophic failure on a sea-going launch pad in January. The Zenit 2M version was flying on its first mission. The updated booster includes an upgraded control system and modernized engines that will be used commercially by Sea Launch for flights from Baikonur beginning early next year. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 582 ; Spacewarn No. 644 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-029A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2424 & Tselina-2 ; RSNF's 29 Jun 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 29 Jun 07 ;
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SAR-Lupe 2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #71 ; 2007-030A ; 6,562nd spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveaillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: German Ministry of Defense and the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement

Source: EO
SAR-Lupe deployment (Source: OHB-System)
Launch: 2 July 2007 at 19h38 UTC, from Plesetsk, by a Kosmos-3M.
Orbit: Initial: 471 km x 500 km x 98.2° x 94.3 min.
Mission: SAR Lupe 2 is a 770-kg military reconnaissance satellite that carries a large Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to provide 1-meter resolution images. It is the second of five such craft that will eventually comprise the SAR Lupe fleet. (The first satellite has been in orbit since December 2006 and is supplying superb high-resolution images and is operating very successfully and reliably.) The spacecraft has a size of about 4 meters x 3 meters x 2 meters with an antenna size of 3.3 meters x 2.7 meters. Spacecraft design life is 10 years. The programme is managed by the German government, in particular the German Ministry of Defense (BMVg) and the Federal Office of Defense Technology and Procurement, referred to as BWB. Overall objective is to provide high-resolution radar imagery to German defense forces over a period of ten years starting in 2005.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 582 ; Spacewarn No. 645 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-030A ; SkyRocket's SAR-Lupe 2 ; OHB-System's 's 3 Jul 07, SAR-Lupe & SAR-Lupe 2 ; EO's SAR-Lupe ; Spaceflight Now's 3 Jul 07
Launch of SAR-Lupe 2 from Plesetsk Cosmodrome (Source : OHB System)
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ZX 6B / Zhongxing 6B (ChinaSat 6B)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #72 ; 2007-031A ; 6,563rd spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Multi-Service)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China Satellite Telecom Group
Launch: 5 July 2007 at 12h08 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 3B.
Orbit: Geostarionary at 115.5° East longitude.
Mission: Zhongxing 6B, or ChinaSat 6B, is a 4.6-tonne, 8.70-kW communications satellite that carries 38 C-band transponders to provide voice and video services to Asia-Pacific and Oceania. Dedicated to television broadcasting, this satellite will enable ChinaSatcom to expand its services in China, allowing easy reception of up to 300 television programs across China, south east Asia, the Pacific and Oceania. Based on the Thales Alenia Space Spacebus 4000 C2 platform, the satellite is designed with a lifetime of more than 15 years  Chinasat 6B was the second contract awarded by ChinaSatcom to Thales Alenia Space, after Chinasat 9. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 582 ; Spacewarn No. 645 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-031A ; SkyRocket's ZX-6B; China Daily Online's 6 Jul 07 ; Spaceflight Now's 5 Jul 07 ; Thales' 5 Jul 07 :
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DirecTV 10
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #73 ; 2007-032A ; 6,564th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Direct-to-Home services)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: DirectTV

Source: Boeing
Launch: 7 July 2007 at 1h16 UTC, from Baykonour Cosmodromt, by a Proton/Briz-M.
Orbit: Geostationary at 102.8° West longitude.
Mission: DirecTV 10 is a 5.9-tonne (including 2.2 tonnes of fuel) television broadcasting satellite that carries 32 broad beam Ka-band transponders and 55 spot-beam Ka-band transponders to provide direct-to-home high-definition video (HDTV) and internet services  throughout the USA. The craft is a Boeing 702 model with a launch mass of 6,060 kg (in-orbit: 3,700 kg). The new spacecraft will enable DIRECTV to provide consumers unprecedented local and national HDTV. Together with DIRECTV 11, it will enable the company to significantly expand broadcasting to its customers across the continental United States, Hawaii, and Alaska. These crafts will allow DIRECTV to broadcast local HDTV to 90 percent of its customers. The satellite is powered by a massive solar array that spans more than 48 meters. Boeing has built eight satellites for DIRECTV since 1993.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 582 ; Spacewarn No. 645 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-032A ; SkyRocket's DirecTV 10 ; ILS's Blog, Press Kit & 7 Jul 07 ; DirectTV  ;  ; Boeing's 7 Jul 2007 & Fact Sheet ;
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Progress M-61 / ISS 26P
Spacecraft:  Progress M (7K-TGM) No. 361
Chronologies: 2007 payload #74 ; 2007-033A ; 6,565th spacecraft.
Type: Cargo delivery to the International Space Station
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Federal Space Agency

Siyrce: NASA
Progress M-61 preparations (Source: RSC Energia's Photos 1, Series 2 and Photos 3)
Launch: 2 August 2007 at 19h34 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by a Soyuz U.
Orbit: Initial: 191.4 km x 267.9 km x 51.64° x 88.8 min. 
337.0 km x 356.8 km x 51.6° x 91.3 min 
Deorbit: 22 January 2008
Mission: Progress M-61 is a Russian transport logistics vehicle that delivers more than 2.5 tons of various cargoes to the International Space Station. Cargo consists of supplies of oxygen, water and food, propellant, consumables, scientific equipment and hardware, including 459 kg of equipment for the US Segment. Following a three-day free flight, Progress M-61 docked on Pirs port on 5 August at 22h40 Moscow time. It undocked 22 December 2007 at 3h59 UTC and was deorbited over the Pacific on 22 January 2008, after a month of free flight carrying out the Plazma-Progress experiment.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 583, 590 & 591 ; Spacewarn No. 646 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-033A ; SkyRocket's Progess-M 61 ; RSC Energia's 2 Aug 07 & 5 Aug 08 ;
Progress M-61 launched by a Soyuz U at 21h33:48 Moscow Time. (Source: RSC Energia)
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Phoenix / Phoenix Mars Mission
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #75 ; 2007-034A ; 6,566th spacecraft.
Type: Planetary Probe
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA

Source: PIA09701
First view of 
the landing site.
Phoenix Gallery Source: PIA09345 PIA09943 PIA09942

Some of the first Phoenix photos

Phoenix photographs 
one of its footpads.
Phoenix and its surroundings. Phoenix descending in the atmosphere. MRO view Phoenix on Mars.
Photos from NASA.
Launch: 4 August 2007 at 9h26 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's LC-17A, by a Delta II.
Orbit: Heliocentric orbit toward Mars.
Mission: NASA's Phoenix Mars Mission is scheduled to land in the Martian Arctic, at Vastitas Borealis, by 68.4° North and 233.0° East, near the Scandia Colles hills, on 25 May 2008 to do a close-up examination of the surface of the polar region and studies the presence of water. Its robotic arm will dig to an icy layer believed to lie just beneath the surface. The mission will study, during a 3-month primary mission, the history of the water in the ice, monitor weather of the polar region, and investigate whether the subsurface environment in the far-northern plains of Mars has ever been favorable for sustaining microbial life.  Samples of soil and ice collected by the lander's robotic arm will be analyzed by instruments mounted on the deck. One key instrument will check for water and carbon-containing compounds by heating soil samples in tiny ovens and examining the vapors that are given off.  Another will test soil samples by adding water and analyzing the dissolution products. Cameras and microscopes will provide information on scales spanning 10 powers of 10, from features that could fit by the hundreds into a period at the end of a sentence to an aerial view taken during descent. A weather station will provide information about atmospheric processes in the arctic region. Phoenix uses the main body of a lander originally made for the Mars Surveyor 2001 mission that was cancelled before launch.  Total Phoenix mass is 680 kg, including a 350 kg lander; the remaining mass includes a cruise stage, aeroshell, backshell, parachute system and propellant. This mission is the first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, supplementing the agency's core Mars Exploration Program, whose theme is "follow the water." The University of Arizona was selected to lead the mission in August 2003 and is the first public university to lead a Mars exploration mission.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 583 ; Spacewarn No. 646 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-034A ; SkyRocket's Phoenix  ; NASA JPL & Press Kit ;  NASA's 2010-2014 NASA News Releases ;
Phoenix launched by a Delta II (Source: NASA/KSC: 2163, 2165, 2169, 2170 & 2173)
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STS-118 / ISS 13A.1
Spacecraft:  Endeavour (OV-105), 20th flight
Chronologies: 2007 payload #76 ; 2007-035A ; 6,567th spacecraft.
Type: Piloted Spaceship
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA

Source: NASA
ISS as it will appear after Endeavour undocks. Endeavour's payloads
Source: NASA NASA NASA NASA NASA
Endeavour as viewed while approchaing ISS
Launch: 8 August 2007 at 22h36 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle.
Orbit: Initial : 57 km x 225 km x 51.6°, and then  229 km x 317 km 
About circular at 400 km 
Landed: 21 August 2007 at 16h32 UTC at Kennedy Space Center's Runway 15.
Mission: This mission is the 119th Space Shuttle flight, the 20th for Endeavour and the 22nd U.S. flight to the International Space Station. It's also Endeavour's first flight in more than four years. The Orbiter underwent extensive modifications, including the addition of safety upgrades already added to Discovery and Atlantis.
     Endeavour carry a crew of 7 astronauts (Scott Kelly, Charles Hobaugh, Tracy Caldwell, Rick Mastracchio, Dafydd Williams, Barbara Morgan and Al Drew) as well as the ITS-S5 truss. The Orbiter docked at the PMA-2 adapter on 10 August at 18h02 UTC and the hatches to the Station were opened at 20h04 UTC. The Shuttle Canadarm (RMS 201) lifted the S5 truss from the payload bay on 10 August at 20h50 UTC and later handed it to the Station's Canadarm2 which attached it to the main truss at 17h30 UTC on 11 August. 
     Four spacewalks were performed during the mission.  On 11 August, Mastracchio and Williams supervised the S5 attachment process and completed fitting it out. On 13 August, they went outside to replace one of the gyroscopes in the Z1 truss segment (CMG-3). On 15 August, Mastracchio and Anderson relocated the SASA antenna and the two CETA carts were moved from S1 to P1. Mastracchio discovered minor damage on his spacesuit glove, and the spacewalk was cut short.  On 18 August, Williams and Anderson retrieved two MISSE exposure packs and installed an EWIS communications antenna on Destiny. They also installed mounting brackets for the OBSS (Orbiter Boom Sensor System) on the S1 truss. 
     A small gouge on a tile underneath the Orbiter caused some concern during the mission, but it was decided that a repair spacewalk was not required.  Finally, Endeavour landed as schedule on 21 August. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 584 & 585 ; Spacewarn No. 646 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-035A ; SkyRocket's STS-118 ; STS-118 Press Kit ;
Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA
Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA Source: NASA
The International Space Station at the arrival of Endeavour (first three photos) and at departure a week later.
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ITS-S5
Spacecraft:  ITS-S5 stands for Integrated Truss Structure - Starboard 5
Chronologies: 2007 payload #77 ; 2007 n/a ; 6,568th spacecraft.
Type: Space Station Component
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
Left: the ITS-S5 is grappled by Station's Canadarm2 and installed at the end of the ITS main truss. Center: the box-shape ITS-S5 is about the size of a small compact-car. Right: ITS-S5 shows installed in the lower foreground. (Source: NASA STS-118 Press Kit, p. 57)
Launch: 8 August 2007 at 22h36 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle.
Mated to the International Space Station's ITS truss on 11 August 2007 at 17h30 UTC.
Orbit: Part of the International Space Station.
Mission: The ITS-S5 short spacer is part of the 11-segment Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) which forms ISS's backbone with mountings for unpressurized logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays and various other elements.  It is the third starboard (right-side) truss segment to be delivered. It is attached to the Starboard 4 (S4) truss element. ITS-S5 is used primarily to connect power, cooling lines and serve as a spacer between the S4 and S6 photovoltaic modules. The Boeing-built segment measure 3.37 meters x 4.55 meters x 4.24 meters, weight 1,819 kg and cost $10,971,693. The girder-like structure is made of mostly aluminum and provides several extravehicular aids, robotic interfaces and ammonia servicing hardware. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 584 ; SkyRocket's ITS-S5 ; STS-118 Press Kit ;
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SPACEWAY 3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #78 ; 2007-036A ; 6,569th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Hughes Network Systems, LLC 
At left, SPACEWAY 3 satellite in stowed position and, at right, in-orbit 41-meter-span deplyed.
Launch: 14 August 2007 at 23h44 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Geostationary at 95° West longitude
Mission: SPACEWAY 3 is a 6-tonnes communications spacecraft for the U.S.-based Hughes Network Systems, LLC. It is one of the largest telecommunications satellites ever built, and its innovative design includes onboard dynamic multi-beam switching, which will deliver bandwidth-on-demand and direct site-to-site mesh networking.  The 6,075-kg full, 3,655-kg dry spacecraft was produced by Boeing Satellite Systems and is operated by Hughes for satellite-delivered broadband services to enterprise, government and consumer users throughout North America. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 584 ; Spacewarn No. 646 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-036A ; SkyRocket's Spaceway 3 ; Hughes's Spaceway ; Arianespace's 14 Aug 07 ; Ariane V177 Press Kit ; EADS Press Kit ; SpaceflightNow's 14 Aug 07 ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ;
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BSAT-3a
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #79 ; 2007-036B ; 6,570th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Direct-to-Home Services)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Broadcasting Satellite Systems Corp. (BSAT)
Launch: 14 August 2007 at 23h44 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA.
Orbit: Geostarionary at 110° East longitude
Mission: BSAT-3a is a 2-tonne Direct-to-Home broadcast satellite for the Japan's Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (B-SAT). It provides Japanese operator with direct television links for the entire Japanese archipelago. The 1,967-kg full, 930-kg dry craft was produced by Lockheed Martin Commercial Space Systemi and is equipped with 12 130-watt Ku-band channels (with eight operating at one time). 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 584 ; Spacewarn No. 646 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-036B ; SkyRocket's BSAT 3a  ; Arianespace's 14 Aug 07 ; Ariane V177 Press Kit ;  EADS Press Kit ; Lockheed Martin 1 Oct 2007 ;
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Insat 4CR
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #80 ; 2007-037A ; 6,571st spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Direct-to-Home Broadcasting)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Indian Space Research Organisation

Source : ISRO
Insat 4CR launch preparation (Source: ISRO)
Launch: 2 September 2007 at 12h50 UTC, from Dhawan Space Centre SHAR's Second Pad, by a GSLV.
 Orbit: Initial: 168 km x 34,710 km x 20.7°
Geostationary at 74° East longitude
Mission: Insat 4CR is a 2,140-kg (including fuel), 2.9-kW Direct-To-Home communications satellite. It is an exclusive Ku-band comsat carrying 12 high-power Ku-band transponders designed to provide DTH television services, Video  Picture Transmission (VPT) and Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) during its 10-year lifetime. It was built to replace an identical satellite, Insat 4C, that was lost due to the failure of GSLV-F02 in July 2006. Insat 4CR was developed by ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore. Its payloads were developed by Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad.  The satellite reached orbit with lower-than-planned apogee but it has enough fuel to reach an operational geostationary orbit on its own. The Insat-4 series is planned to have seven satellites, with Insat-4D as a spare. It is planned that, by 2007, the system will have about 250 transponders in various bands catering to a demand.
Launch: GSLV-F04 put the satellite in a 196 km x 31,878 km x 15.8° transfer orbit.  The apogee was a little lower than the standard 35,800 km GTO apogee, but the satellite on-board apogee engine was able to make up the difference and, by 6 September 2007, Insat 4CR was in a 32,579 km x 35,226 km x 0.3° orbit approaching geostationary altitude. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-037a ; SkyRocket's Insat 4CR ; ISRO's INSAT 4CR & 2 Sep 07 ;
GSLV-F04 launch wiht Insat 4CR (Photos ISRO)
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JCSAT 11
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #81 ; 2007 3rd loss ; 6,572nd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan's JSAT Corp

Source: ILS
Launch: 5 September 2007 at 23h43 UTC, from Baykonur's LC-200/39, by a Proton-M/Briz.
Orbit: n/a
Mission: JCSAT-11 was a 4,007-kg communication satellite built on a Lockheed Martin A2100 bus. Lockheed Martin has been awarded a contract in October 2005 to build this comsat. JCSAT-11 would have been reserved entirely in orbit as a backup satellite for other JCSAT satellites following its launch.  A replacement was ordered on the day it was lost, for a launch in 2009. 
Launch: Proton-M serial 53522 took off with its Briz-M No. 88522 upper stage. The first stage separated 2 minutes after launch.  It seems there was some kind of problem with second stage ignition, and the vehicle fell back to Earth from an altitude of around 75 km.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 ; Spaceflight Now's 5 Sep 07 ; SkyRocket's JCSAT 11 ; ILS's 6 Sep 07, Blog & Overview ;
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Kosmos 2429
Spacecraft:  Parus
Chronologies: 2007 payload #82 ; 2007-038A ; 6,573rd spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Defense Ministry
Launch: 11 September 2007 at 13h05 UTC, from Plesetsk Cosmodrome's LC-132/1, by a Kosmos-3M.
Orbit: 943 km x 1008 km x 83.0° 
970 km x 1010 km x 82.96° x 105 min. 
Mission: Kosmos 2429 is a Parus-class navigation satellite. The primary function of these satellites is to provide location information for the Parus navigation system. The satellites are also reported to be relays for data of the US-P (EORSAT) ocean surveillance satellites and store-dump communication services. With the introduction of the GLONASS (Uragan) navigation system, the relay role may be now the primary function. Previous launch of a Parus satellite, Kosmos 2414, took place in January 2005. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-038A ; Spaceflight Now's 11 Sep 07 ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2429 ; RSNF's 11 Sep 07 ;
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SELENE / Kaguya
Spacecraft:  SELENE stands for SELenological and ENgineering Explorer.
Chronologies: 2007 payload #83 ; 2007-039A ; 6,574th spacecraft.
Type: Lunar Probe
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
Artist concepts of SELENE in flight (Source: JAXA)
Launch: 14 September 2007 at 1h31 UTC, from Tanegashima Space Center, by a H-IIA.
Orbit: 100 km x 100 km x 95° Lunar orbit 
Mission: Kaguya, also known by its pre-launch name SELENE, is 2.9-tonne, 3.5-kW Japanese lunar orbiter that observed the surface of the Moon from a circular 100-km polar orbit for a one-year period to obtain detailed knowledge of topography and mineral composition. It carries 13 instruments, including imagers, a radar sounder, laser altimeter, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and gamma-ray spectrometer to study the origin, evolution, and tectonics of the Moon. The mission consists of three separate crafts: Kaguya (the main orbiter), Okina (a small relay satellite) and Ouma (a small interferometry satellite). The orbiter is a rectangular box which  measures about 2.1 meter by 4.2 meter, and has a mass of roughly 1,600 kg. 
     On 3 October 2007, the Moon probe entered a 101 km x 11,741 km x 95° lunar orbit. It then lowered its altitude to 100 km circular from which it will carry out observations for approximately one year.  It previously ejected its two subsatellites.
Launch: Following its launch, SELENE was placed into a 281 km x 23,2805 km x 29.9° Earth orbit, from which it was inject into a lunar-transfer orbit, The probe had taken 5 days to reach the Moon, where it was placed into an initial 120 km x 13,000 km orbit at an inclination of 95°. The Rstar relay satellite was released into a 100 x 2,400 km orbit and then the Vstar satellite was released into a 100 x 800 km orbit. The orbiter was then lowered to its nominal 100 km circular orbit. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 & 586 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-039A ; Spaceflight Now's 14 Sep 07 ; JAXA's SELENE, Kaguyta / SELENE, Press Release ; SkyRocket's SELENE
Spectacular Earth rise as seen from the Moon by Kaguya orbiter (Source: JAXA)
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Rstar / Okina
Spacecraft: Rstar stands for Relay Satellite
Chronologies: 2007 payload #84 ; 2007-039B ; 6,575th spacecraft.
Type: Lunar Probe
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

Source: JAXA
Launch: 14 September 2007 at 1h31 UTC, from Tanegashima Space Center, by a H-IIA.
The subsatellite was ejected from Kaguya, in lunar orbit, on 6 October 2007 at 0h36 UTC.
Orbit: 115 km x 2399 km lunar orbit.
Mission: Okina, or Rstar, is a 50-kg (45 kg) lunar relay satellite for the Japanese SELENE mission, It is intended to maintain communications link between Earth and Kaguya.  The octagonal prism satellite provides four-way Doppler measurements of Kaguya orbiter by using Relay Satellite for far-side gravity field for the first time. It uplinks radio wave from Usuda is relayed to the Main Orbiter via the relay satellite, which is returned to Usuda via relay satellite again. Then the Doppler frequency is measured at Usuda. Orbits of the sub-satellites are precisely determined by tracking the radio sources onboard sub-satellites with differential VLBI, which contributes the accuracy of the gravity field, especially on the lunar limb areas.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-039B ; SkyRocket's Rstar ;
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Vstar / VRAD / Ouma
Spacecraft:  VRAD stdnds for Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometer Radio source 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #85 ; 2007-039C ; 6,576th spacecraft.
Type: Lunar Probe
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
Launch: 14 September 2007 at 1h31 UTC, from Tanegashima Space Center, by a H-IIA.
The subsatellite was ejected from Kaguya, in lunar orbit, on 12 October 2007 at 4h28 UTC
Orbit: 127 km x 795 km lunar orbit.
Mission: Ouma, or VRAD, is a 50-kg (45 kg) Japanese subsatellite for the Japanese SELENE mission, This prism-shape satellite is used to conduct precise position and precession of the Moon. Orbits of the Rstar and Vstar subsatellites are precisely determined by tracking the radio sources onboard each craft that are tracked by the five Earth-based Very Long Baseline Interferometer stations. Its precise orbital positions can help unfold the gravity field of the Moon. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No.  ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-039C ; SkyRocket's Vstar ;
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Foton M-3
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #86 ; 2007-040A ; 6,577th spacecraft.
Type: Material Processing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia/Europe

Source: ESA
Source: ESA (See also two Flash video)
Launch: 14 September 2007 at 11h00 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome, by a Soyuz-U.
Orbit: 258 km x 280 km x 62.9° x 90 min
Recovered: 26 September 2007 at 7h58 UTC
Mission: Foton M-3 is a 6,410-kg Russian/European microgravity satellite that carries ESA experiments.  The 6.2-meter high and 2.5-meter diameter satellite carries a 2.5 tonne capsule which contain 400 kg of experiments for microgravity fluid physics and crystal growth experiments, and radiation tests on living bodies, including 10 gerbils. Foton-M is an improved version of the Foton microgravity spacecraft; it has an increased battery capacity using lithium cells, better thermal control and a new telemetry and telecommand unit for increased data flow rate. Orbital life time is 15 days. The first launch failed when the Soyuz-U carrier rocket exploded few seconds after launch. ESA has contracted for two more flights in 2005 and 2006. The Foton M-3 capsule made a successful landing on the Russian-Kazakhstan border on 26 September 2007. The capsule was deorbited at 7h23 UTC and landed at 7h58 UTC, returing its payload to Earth. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 & 586 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-040A ; SpaceflightNow's 15 Sep 07 ; SkyRocket's Foton-M 3 ;
Source: ESA 1 & 2
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YES-2 / Fotino
Spacecraft:  YES2 stands for Young Engineers' Satellite 2
Chronologies: 2007 payload #87 ; 2007-040B ; 6,578th spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: ESA / students

Source: ESA
YES2 has three components: 
• Fotino: a small 6 kg capsule which will return to Earth.
• Mechanical data Acquisition Support System (MASS): an 8 kg carrier which holds Fotino in place with four straps. MASS will burn up in the atmosphere on re-entry. 
• Foton LOcated YES2 Deployer (FLOYD): a 22 kg carrier bolted onto Foton-M3, which will eject MASS and Fotino towards Earth. Inside FLOYD is a spool with 30 km of 0.5 mm thick Dyneema tether which is connected to MASS. 
Photo: ESA Photo: ESA
Launch: 14 September 2007 at 11h00 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome, by a Soyuz-U.
Orbit: 258 km x 280 km x 62.9°
Mission: YES2 and Fotino are 35-kg and 5-kg ESA/student-built minisatellites. This second Young Engineers Satellite is an educational project in which European students build and fly the first re-entry vehicle with a 30-km tether. It is an initiative of the ESA Education Office together with the Dutch space company Delta-Utec SRC. YES2 is providing hundreds of university students with a highly exciting, motivating technical and educational experience;  The mission involves the first use of a tether to return a payload from space, paving the way for low-cost return capability that will offer an alternative to conventional rocket propulsion.
     The tether experiment was released on 25 September 2007 However, the experiment failed. The tether was deployed at 4h47 UTC and was then severed at about 7h20 UTC, after it had reached only 8.5 km of its planned 30 km length. The tiny Fotino reentry capsule separated shortly afterwards but was never recovered. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; SpaceflightNow's 15 Sep 07 & 25 sep 07 ; ESA's YES-2, YES-2 Blog ; SkyRocket's YES2 ;
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WorldView 1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #88 ; 2007-041A ; 6,579th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Observations
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: DigitalGlobe
Launch: 18 September 2007 at 18h35 UTC, from Vandenberg Air Force Base's SLC-2W, by a Delta II.
Orbit: 493 km x 495 km, x 97.5° x 94.5 min. 
Mission: WorldView 1 is a 2500-kg commercial imaging craft that carries a camera to provide 0.5 meter resolution panchromatic images (which is four times greater than any previous commercial imaging satellite) and two-meter resolution multicolor images. WorldView-1 carries a 0.6-meter aperture imaging telescope/camera for high resolution Earth imaging. DigitalGlobe's main customer is the U.S. National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA). WorldView 1 is the first element in the Defense Dept’s NextView reconnaissance satellite program that combines commercial remote sensing with much more powerful optics funded in part by the Pentagon. 
     The National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) awarded $500 million contracts each to DigitalGlobe team and GeoEye/General Dynamics team to develop half-meter resolution capability spacecraft. The first WorldView 1 operates on in a black & white panchromatic mode, but its second spacecraft (set for launch in late 2008) will have eight multispectral bands. Ball Aerospace & Technologies is teamed with DigitalGlobe to build WorldView 1 which is the world’s only half-meter resolution commercial imaging satellite. Also, WorldView 1 is able to shoot far more images in the short span of time while passing over any given target area at orbital velocity. Combined with DigitalGlobe’s existing QuickBird 2 satellite, the company’s imaging constellation is able of collecting more than 4.5 times the imagery of any current commercial imaging system. WorldView 1 alone is capable of collecting up to 500,000 square kilometers per day of half-meter imagery. The satellite is also equipped with state-of-the-art geo-location accuracy capability and will exhibit stunning agility with rapid targeting and efficient in-track stereo collection. This launch marked the 75th straight launch success by a Delta II since 1997.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-041A ; SpaceflightNow's 18 Sep 07 ; SkyRocket's WorldView 1 ;
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CBERS-2B / Zi Yuan 2B (ZY-2B)
Spacecraft:  CBERS stands for China-Brazil Earth-Resources Satellite
Chronologies: 2007 payload #89 ; 2007-042A ; 6,580th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China National Space Administration (CNSA) and the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB)
Launch: 19 September 2007 at 3h26 UTC, from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 4B.
Orbit: Initial: 773 km x 774 km x 98.6° x 100.3 min. 
Mission: CBERS 2B, also known as Zi Yuan 2B, is a 1,450-kg China-Brazil joint craft that carries a low 20-meter resolution, and a higher 2.5-meter resolution camera. The data will help in crop estimation, urban planning, water resource management and military intelligence. CBERS-2B is the third China-Brazil environmental research satellite.
     In July 1988, in a joint effort to develop capacity in Earth observation from space, China and Brazil signed an agreement for the development and launch of two remote sensing satellites. This was followed by the setting up of the China-Brazil Earth-Resources Satellite (CBERS) program, coordinated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) and the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB), and executed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The CBERS program has witnessed the successful launch and operation of the two satellites and two nations signed another agreement in November 2002 for the manufacture and launch of two new satellites - CBERS-3 & 4 - with improved characteristics. This new generation of Sino-Brazilian remote sensing satellites are to be launched in 2009 and 2011 respectively.
      In order to avoid a data gap between CBERS-2 and CBERS-3, China and Brazil signed a complementary protocol in November 2004 for manufacturing the CBERS-2B satellite, to be launched in September 2007.
     CBERS are equipped with cameras for earth observation in different spectral bands. Each satellite also carries a transponder for data collection, to support the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System. The CBERS-3 & 4 satellites will be equipped with a more sophisticated payload than those on onboard the CBERS-1 & 2 satellites.
     These remote sensing satellites have brought significant scientific advances to Brazil. Over 15,000 users from more than 1,500 organizations are registered as active CBERS users, while 300,000 CBERS images are distributed at the approximate rate of 250 every day.
Its images are used in important areas such as fire control in the Amazon region, water resources monitoring, urban growth, land use and education.
     The Medium Resolution Imaging Camera (CCD), with its 20-m medium spatial resolution in four spectral bands and one panchromatic band, is suited for observation of phenomena and objects whose details are important. With 120-km field of view, it is suited for city and region studies. Its bands are located in the spectral zone of the visible and near infrared, which allow good contrast between vegetation and other type of objects. Potential CCD application fields include vegetation, agriculture, environment, water, cartography, geology and soil, and education.
     The IRMSS (Infrared Multispectral Scanner) camera, present in CBERS-1 and 2, has two spectral bands in the medium infrared region and a panchromatic band with an 80-m spatial resolution, plus one 160-m band in the thermal infrared region. Its applications are the same as those of the CCD camera with proper adaptations. Additional applications are analysis of phenomena that present surface temperature modifications, and the generation of state region mosaics and image charts.
The WFI (Wide Field Imager) can image large territorial extensions, up to 890 km wide. This makes WFI very useful for observing phenomena whose magnitude or interest lie in the macro-regional or state scale.
     This wide spatial coverage gives its temporal resolution an advantage - it can generate images of a certain region within less than five days' interval. Some of its applications are generation of state region and national mosaics, generation of vegetation indexes for monitoring purposes, and monitoring dynamic phenomena like agricultural harvests and persistent fires.
The HRC (High-Resolution Panchromatic Camera) scans a relatively narrow strip of 27 km with a high 2.4 m pixel resolution. The operation mode is based on a 130-day revisit, making it possible to obtain at least two complete images of the country per year. Its applications include detailed national or regional mosaics, update of thematic maps, and urban and intelligence inputs.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 585 & 586 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-042A ; SpaceflightNow's 19 Sep 07 ; SkyRocket's CBERS 2B ; China Daily's 7 Sep 07 & 16 Sep 07 ;
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DAWN
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #90 ; 2007-043A ; 6,581st spacecraft.
Type: Planetary Probe
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA

Source ; NASA/UCLA
The Dawn spacecraft Dawn after launch Dawn at Ceres
Launch: 27 September 2007 at 11h34 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's LC-17B, by a Delta II.
Orbit: Heliocentru orbit (between Earth and Jupiter).
Mission: Dawn is a planetary probe that will study shape, surface topography and tectonic history, elemental and mineral composition as well as seek out water-bearing minerals on Ceres and Vesta, the two most massive residents of the Main Belt Asteroids, located between Mars and Jupiter. Dawn will arrive at Vesta on 14 August 2011 and depart from it on 22 May 2012.  It will then arrive at Ceres on 1st February 2015, with an end of mission scheduled for July 2015. The probe weight 1,217.7 kilograms at launch, consisting of a 747.1-kg spacecraft, 425 kg of xenon propellant and 45.6 kg of hydrazine propellant. It measure 1.64 meter long, 1.27 meter wide and 1.77 meter high. When deployed, its solar array is 20 meters long tip to tip.
     The asteroid Vesta and the recently categorized dwarf planet Ceres have been selected because, while both speak to conditions and processes early in the formation of the Solar system, they developed into two different kinds of bodies. Vesta is a 578 x 560 x 458 kilometers dry, differentiated object with a surface that shows signs of resurfacing. It resembles the rocky bodies of the inner Solar system, including Earth. Ceres (a 975 x 909 kilometers body) has, by contrast, a primitive surface containing water-bearing minerals, and may possess a weak atmosphere. It appears to have many similarities to the large icy moons of the outer solar system. Vesta is a rocky body, while Ceres is believed to contain large quantities of ice. The profound differences in geology between these two protoplanets that formed and evolved so close to each other form a bridge from the rocky bodies of the inner Solar system to the icy bodies, all of which lay beyond in the outer Solar system. 
   DAWN Mission cost $357.5 million total (not including launch vehicle), consisting of $281.7 million spacecraft development and $75.8 million mission operations.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 & 587 ; Spacewarn No. 647 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-043A ; SkyRocket's DAWN ; NASA's DAWN wetsite & Press Kit ; NASA's 2010-2014 NASA News Releases ;
KSC-07PD-2586 KSC-07PD-2586 KSC-07PD-2586 KSC-07PD-2586 KSC-07PD-2586
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Intelsat 11
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #91 ; 2007-044B ; 6,582nd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Intelsat

Source: OSC
Launch: 5 October 2007 at 22h02 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5GS.
Orbit: Geostationary at 43° West longitude.
Mission: Intelsat 11, or Intelsat IS-11 or PAS-11, is a 2,450-kg communications satellite that carries 25 C-band and 18 Ku-band transponders to provide direct-to-home (DTH) voice and video transmissions in Latin America. It will be phased-in to eventually replace Intelsat's 6B and 3R satellites. Built by Orbital Sciences, using a 3-axis stabilized Star 2 platform, it measure 4.1 x 3.3 x 2.3 meters with a 22.4 meters wingspan in orbit.  It has a 15 years design lifespan.
     The 178th Ariane launch, with Ariane 5GS vehicle L526, is the 34th Ariane 5 launch. It carries a total payload of 5,857 kg, including 4,832 kg for two satellites.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 & 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-044B ; SkyRocket's Intelsat 11 ; Arianespace's 5 Oct 07 & Press Kit ; Intelsat's 5 Oct 07 ; OSC Intelsat 11/Optus D2 ; Spaceflight Now's 5 Oct 07 ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ;
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Optus D2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #92 ; 2007-044A ; 6,583rd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: SingTel Optus

Source: OSC
Launch: 5 October 2007 at 22h02 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5GS.
Orbit: Geostationary at 152°. East longitude.
Mission: Optus D2 is a 2,350-kg (with fuel), 3.8-kW communications satellite that carries 24 Ku-band transponders which provide direct-to-home (DTH) television services, Internet, telephone and data transmission services for Australia and New Zealand. Built by Orbital Sciences, it is a 3-axis stabilized craft which measure 4.0 x 3.2 x 2.4 meters with a wingspan of 22.4 meters in orbit. It has a design life of 15 years. The first two satellites of the Optus-D series are based on Orbital's Star-2 platform and carries 24 Ku-band transponders, with 8 back-up channels also available, to provide fixed communications and direct television broadcasting services to Australia and New Zealand. (Optus D3 was ordered for launch in 2009.)
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 & 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-044A ; SkyRocket's Optus D2 ; Arianespace's 5 Oct 07 & Press Kit ; Spaceflight Now's 5 oct 07 ;
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Soyuz TMA-11 / ISS 15S
Spacecraft:  Soyuz 11F732 (7K-STMA) No. 221
Chronologies: 2007 payload #93 ; 2007-045A ; 6,584th spacecraft.
Type: Piloted Spaceship
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Space Agency

Source: NASA
ISS015-E-34485 ISS017-E-005014
Launch: 10 October 2007 at 13h22 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by a Soyuz-FG.
Orbit: 340 km x 344 km x 51.64° x 91.4 min. 
Landed: 19 April 2008 at 4h30 EDT
Mission: Soyuz TMA-11 is a passenger transport craft that carried a Russian, an American and a Malaysian toward the International Space Station.  It carries the crew of ISS Expedition 16  (Commander Peggy Whitson and Flight Engineer-1 Yuri Malenchenko) as well as the 13th visiting (VC-13) Spaceflight Participant Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor.  During the flight of the Soyuz, Malenchenko caommands the craft and Wilson is his flight engineer. It docked with the Zarya module on 12 October 2007 at 14h50 UTC. Aboard the station, Whitson takes command as Expedition 16 commander with Malenchenko as first flight engineer, together with second flight engineer Clay Anderson who has been aboard since August.
     Soyuz TMA-11, carrying Expedition 16 crew plus the South-Korean Spaceflight Participant Yi Soyeon, landed successfully on 19 April 2008 in the steppes of Kazakhstan, approximately 450 km west of the prime landing area in the “ballistic mode” zone. The Expediion 16 crew is reported in excellent condition after 192 days in space (190 docked to ISS).
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-045A ; SkyRocket's Soyiz-TMA 11 ; RSC Energia's 10 Oct 07 & 12 Oct 07 ;
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WGS F1 / WGS SV-1 (USA 195)
Spacecraft:  WGS stands for Wideband Global SATCOM 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #94 ; 2007-046A ; 6,586th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Deparment of Defense

Source: Boeing
Launch: 11 October 2007 at 0h22 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's LC-41, by an Atlas V.
Orbit: Geostationary 
Mission: WGS F1 is an advanced military communication satellite. It is the the first of five Wideband Global SATCOM satellite that operates at both X-band and Ka-band frequencies. It provides many important operational features that are not available from any other military communications satelltes system. For example, it has 18 reconfigurable coverage areas and the ability to broadcast or multicast transmissions into the various coverage areas and connect users between any and all coverage areas even when operating on different frequency bands. The craft is the first of five Boeing 702 spacecraft that helps meet the growing demand for military communications by providing a 10-fold increase in telecommunications capacity over the satellite it will replace, the Defense Satellite Communication System constellation as well as the Global Broadcast Service function currently provided by the U.S. Navy's Ultra High Frequency Follow-On satellites. Based on the Boeing BSS-702 bus, the 5,987-kg satellite have a dry mass of more than 3,000 kg and will produce more than 11 kilowatts of power at the end of its 14-year design life. This high-capacity satellite communications system is intended to support the warfighter with newer and far greater capabilities than provided by current systems.  A joint-service program funded by the U.S. Air Force and Army, WGS will augment DoD communications services currently provided by the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), which provides Super High Frequency (SHF) wideband communications, and by the Ka-band Global Broadcast Service (GBS)  WGS 1 was initiaaly placed into a 477 x 66,847 km x 20.1° transfer orbit, from which it presumably went into geostationary orbit. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 586 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-046A ; SkyRocket's WGS 1 ; Boeing's WGS & 11 Oct 07 ; ULA's Press Kit ;
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Navstar 56 (USA 196)
Spacecraft:  Navstar SVN 55 / GPS 2R-17
(Navstar stands fo Navigation System using Timing And Ranging)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #95 ; 2007-047A ; 6,586th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Department of Defense
Launch: 17 October 2007 at 12h23 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17A, by a Delta II.
Orbit: Initial: 192 km x 20,369 km x 40° x 356.6 min. 
20,149 km x 20,213 km x 54.9°.
Mission: Navstar 60, also known as GPS 2R-17 (SVN 55, Block IIR(M)-17), is the latest addition to the American fleet of navigational satellites. This is 4th 2,032-kg IIR(M) satellite replacing the aging GPS 2A-14 in Plane F and Slot 2. Navstar-2R are the third evolution stage of the second generation of the Navstar GPS satellites. Block IIR satellites provided dramatic improvements over previous blocks. They could determine their own position by performing inter-satellite ranging with other IIR vehicles. They also had reprogramable satellite processors enabling problem fixes and upgrades in flight, increased satellite autonomy, and radiation hardness. They are replenishment satellites produced by General Electric Astrospace (later Martin Marietta and Lockheed Missiles & Space) under a contract which included 21 satellites based on the commercial AS-4000 bus. These provided improved navigation accuracy and longer autonomous satellite operation than earlier model GPS satellites.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-047A ; SkyRocket's Navstar-2RM 4 ;
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Globalstar FM66
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #96 ; 2007-048A ; 6,587th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar Inc.
Launch: 20 October 2007 at 20h12 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmocrome's LC-6,  by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: Initial: 914 km x 930 km x 51.98° x 103.47 min. 
920 km x 920 min x 52.0 °
Mission: These four Globalstar satellites (FM 66, 67, 68 and 70), each of mass 420 kg, are the last of the first generation of global mobile communications network which offers global, digital real time voice, data and fax via a constellation of 48 spacecraft.  This launch completes the first generation fleet of 40 satellites (+8 spares), with further additions from second generation models. The fleet services mobile telephones and fixed point transmitters carrying voice and data transmissions by an array of C-band transponders and mediated by dedicated ground stations. The constellation operates in a 1410-km orbit inclined at 52 degrees.
     Each first-generation Globalstar satellite, designed by Space Systems/Loral, is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft consisting of a trapezoidal main body, two solar arrays, and a boom-mounted magnetometer. The satellite's trapezoidal body is fabricated from rigid aluminum honeycomb. The trapezoidal shape was selected to conserve volume and to allow the mounting of multiple satellites under the launch vehicle's payload fairing. The heart of a Globalstar satellite is its communications systems. There are C-band antennas for communications with Globalstar gateways, and L- and S-band antennas for communications with user terminals. These antennas are of a phased array design that projects a pattern of 16 spot beams on the Earth's surface, covering a service area, or "footprint", of several thousand kilometers in diameter. The solar panels provide the satellite with 1,100 watts of power, and they automatically track the sun as the satellite orbits the EarMass of the satellite is approximately 450 kilograms. The Globalstar constellation experience indicates these first generation spacecraft will operate beyond their 7.5- year engineered design life.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-048C ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 66 ; Starsem's Press Kit
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Globalstar FM67
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #97 ; 2007-048B ; 6,588th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar Inc.
Launch: 20 October 2007 at 20h12 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmocrome's LC-6,  by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: Initial: 914 km x 930 km x 51.98° x 103.47 min.
920 km x 920 min x 52.0 °
Mission: These four Globalstar satellites (FM 66, 67, 68 and 70), each of mass 420 kg, are the last of the first generation of global mobile communications network which offers global, digital real time voice, data and fax via a constellation of 48 spacecraft.  This launch completes the first generation fleet of 40 satellites (+8 spares), with further additions from second generation models. The fleet services mobile telephones and fixed point transmitters carrying voice and data transmissions by an array of C-band transponders and mediated by dedicated ground stations. The constellation operates in a 1410-km orbit inclined at 52 degrees.
     Each first-generation Globalstar satellite, designed by Space Systems/Loral, is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft consisting of a trapezoidal main body, two solar arrays, and a boom-mounted magnetometer. The satellite's trapezoidal body is fabricated from rigid aluminum honeycomb. The trapezoidal shape was selected to conserve volume and to allow the mounting of multiple satellites under the launch vehicle's payload fairing. The heart of a Globalstar satellite is its communications systems. There are C-band antennas for communications with Globalstar gateways, and L- and S-band antennas for communications with user terminals. These antennas are of a phased array design that projects a pattern of 16 spot beams on the Earth's surface, covering a service area, or "footprint", of several thousand kilometers in diameter. The solar panels provide the satellite with 1,100 watts of power, and they automatically track the sun as the satellite orbits the EarMass of the satellite is approximately 450 kilograms. The Globalstar constellation experience indicates these first generation spacecraft will operate beyond their 7.5- year engineered design life.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-046A ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 67 ; Starsem's Press Kit
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Globalstar FM68
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #98 ; 2007-048C ; 6,589th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar Inc.
Launch: 20 October 2007 at 20h12 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmocrome's LC-6,  by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: Initial: 914 km x 930 km x 51.98° x 103.47 min.
920 km x 920 min x 52.0 °
Mission: These four Globalstar satellites (FM 66, 67, 68 and 70), each of mass 420 kg, are the last of the first generation of global mobile communications network which offers global, digital real time voice, data and fax via a constellation of 48 spacecraft.  This launch completes the first generation fleet of 40 satellites (+8 spares), with further additions from second generation models. The fleet services mobile telephones and fixed point transmitters carrying voice and data transmissions by an array of C-band transponders and mediated by dedicated ground stations. The constellation operates in a 1410-km orbit inclined at 52 degrees.
     Each first-generation Globalstar satellite, designed by Space Systems/Loral, is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft consisting of a trapezoidal main body, two solar arrays, and a boom-mounted magnetometer. The satellite's trapezoidal body is fabricated from rigid aluminum honeycomb. The trapezoidal shape was selected to conserve volume and to allow the mounting of multiple satellites under the launch vehicle's payload fairing. The heart of a Globalstar satellite is its communications systems. There are C-band antennas for communications with Globalstar gateways, and L- and S-band antennas for communications with user terminals. These antennas are of a phased array design that projects a pattern of 16 spot beams on the Earth's surface, covering a service area, or "footprint", of several thousand kilometers in diameter. The solar panels provide the satellite with 1,100 watts of power, and they automatically track the sun as the satellite orbits the EarMass of the satellite is approximately 450 kilograms. The Globalstar constellation experience indicates these first generation spacecraft will operate beyond their 7.5- year engineered design life.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-047D ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 68 ; Starsem's Press Kit
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Globalstar FM70
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #99 ; 2007-048D ; 6,590th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Globalstar Inc.
Launch: 20 October 2007 at 20h12 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmocrome's LC-6,  by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: Initial: 914 km x 930 km x 51.98° x 103.47 min.
920 km x 920 min x 52.0 °
Mission: These four Globalstar satellites (FM 66, 67, 68 and 70), each of mass 420 kg, are the last of the first generation of global mobile communications network which offers global, digital real time voice, data and fax via a constellation of 48 spacecraft.  This launch completes the first generation fleet of 40 satellites (+8 spares), with further additions from second generation models. The fleet services mobile telephones and fixed point transmitters carrying voice and data transmissions by an array of C-band transponders and mediated by dedicated ground stations. The constellation operates in a 1410-km orbit inclined at 52 degrees.
     Each first-generation Globalstar satellite, designed by Space Systems/Loral, is a three-axis stabilized spacecraft consisting of a trapezoidal main body, two solar arrays, and a boom-mounted magnetometer. The satellite's trapezoidal body is fabricated from rigid aluminum honeycomb. The trapezoidal shape was selected to conserve volume and to allow the mounting of multiple satellites under the launch vehicle's payload fairing. The heart of a Globalstar satellite is its communications systems. There are C-band antennas for communications with Globalstar gateways, and L- and S-band antennas for communications with user terminals. These antennas are of a phased array design that projects a pattern of 16 spot beams on the Earth's surface, covering a service area, or "footprint", of several thousand kilometers in diameter. The solar panels provide the satellite with 1,100 watts of power, and they automatically track the sun as the satellite orbits the EarMass of the satellite is approximately 450 kilograms. The Globalstar constellation experience indicates these first generation spacecraft will operate beyond their 7.5- year engineered design life.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-046B ; SkyRocket's Globalstar 70 ; Starsem's Press Kit
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Kosmos 2430
Spacecraft:  US-RS 73D6
Chronologies: 2007 payload #100 ; 2007-049A ; 6,591st spacecraft.
Type: Missile Early-Warning
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia Defense Ministry
Launch: 23 October 2007 at 4h39 UTC, from Plesetsk Cosmodrome, by Molniya M.
Orbit: Initial: 522 km x 39,170 km x 62.8° x 704 min. 
560 km x 39,200 km x 62.8° x 702 min.
Mission: Kosmos 2430 is a new 73D6 satellite of the US-KS early-warning system (also known as Oko). It is deployed in an orbital plane that has about opposite to that occupied by the only US-KS satellite that has been in operation on highly-elliptical orbit, Kosmos 2422, launched in July 2006. But even after the Kosmos 2430 begins operations, the Russian early-warning system will not be able to maintain 24-hour coverage of the U.S. territory. The US-KS (Oko) satellites are built by NPO Lavochkin and has diameter of 1.7 meter. Total mass of a satellite at launch is estimated to be 2,400 kg, of which 1,250 kg is dry mass. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-049A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2430 ; RSNF's 23 Oct 07 ;
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STS 120 / ISS 10A
Spacecraft:  Discovery (OV-103)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #101 ; 2007-050A ; 6,592nd spacecraft.
Type: Piloted Spaceship
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: NASA
ISS as it will appear after Discovery undocks following rolocation of ITS-P5 abd delivery of Harmony. Discovery Orbiter with its payloads. ISS with the Note 2 Harmony attached on its front (in the middle of this drawing)
Launch: 23 October 2007 at 15h38 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle
Orbit: 340 km x 344 km x 51.6° x 91.4 min.
Mission: STS-120 carried seven astronauts (Pam Melroy, George Zamka, Scott Parazynski, Stephanie Wilson, Doug Wheelock, Paulo Nespoli, Daniel Tani) and several tonnes of material (including the Harmony Node-2) to the International Space Station. Discovery docked with the PMA-2 port on Destiny on 25 October 2007 at 12h40 UTC.
     Four spacewalks were conducted during the mission. On the first EVA, On 26 October Parazynski and Wheelock prepared the ITS-P6 truss for separation from ITS-Z1, and supervised the installation of Harmony. Thie module was unberthed from Discovery's payload bay by the ISS Canadarm2 and installed on Node-1 Unity at 15h38 UTC. On 28 October at 11h03 UTC, the ITS-P6 truss was unberthed from Z1 and moved to a park position. Parazynski and Tani.then installed handrails and a grapple fixture on Harmony and inspected the malfunctioning Solar Array Rotary Joint (SARJ) on the ITS-S3/S4 truss. They discovered that it is in need of repair/replacement. On 29 October, the Shuttle RMS grappled ITS-P6 and the Station arm released it; then the Station arm on its MBS truck moved along the truss and regrappled P6. The following morning, the Station arm moved P6 to near the end of P5. On 30 October, Parazynski and Wheelock supervised the mating of P6 to P5 which was completed at 11h10 UTC. The P6 Solar Array Wing-2B as well as the SAW-4B (on the other side of P6) were deployed, but a tear developed in the 4B solar array and the process was halted. On 3 November, Parazynski and Wheelock made a fourth spacewalk to repair the SAW-4B. Parazynski was moved to the vicinity of the solar array tear. He then installed five 'cuff-link' straps to strengthen the solar array and prevent further tearing. The array was then fully extended, ensuring an adequate electrical power supply for the Station in the near term, The SARJ problem was deferred until the next Shuttle mission. The contemplated additional inspection of the shuttle tiles was also determined to be ignorable. Additionnally, Daniel Tani replaced Clayton Anderson as ISS Flight Engineer 2 and  remain aboard the station with Whitson and Malenchenko.
     Discovery undocked from ISS on 5 November at 10h32 UTC. The deorbit burn occured on 7 November at 16h58 UTC, with lands at Kennedy Space Center runway 33 at 18h01 UTC.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 & 588 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-051A ; SkyRocket's STS-120 ; Press Kit ;
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Node 2 “Harmony
Spacecraft:  Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) – Starboard 5 (S5)
Chronologies: 2007 payload #102 ; n/a ; 6,593rd spacecraft.
Type:
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor:
Launch: 23 October 2007 at 15h38 UTC, from Kennedy Space Center's LC-39A, by the Space Shuttle.
Harmony was installed on Node-1 Unity on 26 October 2007 at 15h38 UTC.
Orbit: Part of the International Space Station.
Mission: “Harmony” is an aluminum node (Node 2) 7.2 meters long and 4.4 meters in diameter that provides a passageway between four station science experiment facilities: the U.S. Destiny Laboratory, the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module, the European Columbus Laboratory and the Centrifuge Accommodation Module. It also provides connecting ports for Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules, the Japanese HTV and the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2 to which Space Shuttles dock. Its pressurized volume is 70 cubic meters, and its launch weight is approximately 13,600 kilograms. It was built bu Alenia Spazio under contract of the Italian Space Agency. It was built for NASA under a barter agreement with the European Space Agency in exchange for the launch of the European Columbus Laboratory. The installation of Node 2 denotes the U.S. Core Complete stage of International Space Station assembly and increases the living and working space inside the station to approximately 500 cubic meters. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report No.  587   ; SkyRocket's Node 2 ; NASA STS-120 Press Kit ;
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Chang'e 1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #103 ; 2007-051A ; 6,594th spacecraft.
Type: Planetary Probe (Lunar)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China
Launch: 24 October 2007 at 10h05 UTC, from Xichang Satellite Launch Center's LC-3, by a Chang Zheng 3A.
Orbit:
Mission: Chang'e 1 (named after a Chinese goddess who flew to the Moon) is the first Chinese lunar-orbit mission, It is also China's first deep space/ probe.  The 2.3 tonne (with fuel) craft is based on the DFH-3 Comsat Bus,  It will map the lunar surface to get three-dimensional images. The mission will also analyze the content and distribution of minerals on the lunar surface, measure the density of lunar soil and explore the lunar space environment. Chang'e 1 entered a 210 x 8600 km polar lunar orbit on 5 November 2007 at 3h37 UTC, after three Earth orbits with perigee augmentation each time.
     After orbiting for 494 days and intentionally crashing onto the lunar surface, Chang'e-1 sent back 1.37 terabytes of data, producing China's first complete moon picture.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 & 588 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-051A ; SkyRocket's Chang'e 1 ; China Daily's 9 Oct 01, 14 Oct 01, 24 Oct 07, 1 Oct 10 ; Xinhua’s 7 Dec 03, 9 Dec 13,;
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Kosmos 2431
Spacecraft:  Glonass-M 718
Chronologies: 2007 payload #104 ; 2007-052A ; 6,595th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia
Launch: 26 October 2007 at 7h35 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton K / Block DM.
Orbit: 19,120 km x 19130 km x 64.8° 
Mission: Three Uragan-M navigation satellites (Nos. 718, 719 and 720) are the latest craft to join the Russian Glonass fleet of navigational satellites. The satellites were given Kosmos cover names after deployment. GLONASS (Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System) is a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system, which consistsi of Uragan spacecraft. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. GLONASS provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. The Glonass fleet will be completed in 2008, expanded to 24 satellites from the current 13, to become fully operational at all hours of the day. This launch had been delayed until Kazakhstan lifted the ban on Proton launches after the explosion of a Proton-M (on 06 September) spilled 219 tonnes of toxic heptyl fuel.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-052C ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2431 ;
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Kosmos 2432
Spacecraft:  Glonass-M 719
Chronologies: 2007 payload #105 ; 2007-052B ; 6,596th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia
Launch: 26 October 2007 at 7h35 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton K / Block DM.
Orbit: 19,120 km x 19130 km x 64.8°
Mission: Three Uragan-M navigation satellites (Nos. 718, 719 and 720) are the latest craft to join the Russian Glonass fleet of navigational satellites. The satellites were given Kosmos cover names after deployment. GLONASS (Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System) is a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system, which consistsi of Uragan spacecraft. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. GLONASS provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. The Glonass fleet will be completed in 2008, expanded to 24 satellites from the current 13, to become fully operational at all hours of the day. This launch had been delayed until Kazakhstan lifted the ban on Proton launches after the explosion of a Proton-M (on 06 September) spilled 219 tonnes of toxic heptyl fuel.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-052A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2432 ;
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Kosmos 2433
Spacecraft: Glonass-M 720
Chronologies: 2007 payload #106 ; 2007-052C ; 6,597th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia
Launch: 26 October 2007 at 7h35 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton K / Block DM.
Orbit: 19,120 km x 19130 km x 64.8°
Mission: Three Uragan-M navigation satellites (Nos. 718, 719 and 720) are the latest craft to join the Russian Glonass fleet of navigational satellites. The satellites were given Kosmos cover names after deployment. GLONASS (Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System) is a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the American GPS system, which consistsi of Uragan spacecraft. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. GLONASS provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals. The Glonass fleet will be completed in 2008, expanded to 24 satellites from the current 13, to become fully operational at all hours of the day. This launch had been delayed until Kazakhstan lifted the ban on Proton launches after the explosion of a Proton-M (on 06 September) spilled 219 tonnes of toxic heptyl fuel.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 587 ; Spacewarn No. 648 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-052A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2433 ;
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SAR-Lupe 3
Spacecraft:  SAR means Synthetic Aperture Radar and  Lupe magnifying glass. 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #107 ; 2007-053A ; 6,598th spacecraft.
Type: Surveillance (radar
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Germany Defense Ministry

Source: OHB-System
Launch: 1 November 2007 at 0h51 UTC, from Plesetsk Cosmodrome's LC-133/1, by a Kosmos 3M.
Orbit: 471 km x 504 km x 81.8° 
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-053AOHB-System's SAR-Lupe & SAR-Lupe 3 ; SkyRocket's SAR-Lupe 3 ;
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DSP-23 (USA 197)
Spacecraft:  DSP-23 means Defense Support Program-23
Chronologies: 2007 payload #108 ; 2007-054A ; 6,599th spacecraft.
Type: Missile Early Warning
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Air Force

Source: Northrop Grumman
Launch: 11 November 2007 at 1h50 UTC, from Cape Canaveral's SLC-39, by a Delta IV Heavy
Orbit: Geostationary
Mission: àDSP-23 is the final 2.5-tonne Defense Support Program satellite which provide early warning for intercontinental ballistic missile launches. It will be especially useful in providing vital intelligence on new Chinese as well as Iranian missiles and tactics.  The spacecraft is expected to function until 2022, thus bridging the gap between the DSP system and the new Space Based Infrared (Sbirs) system satellites. Total cost of the flight is about $700 million, with the DSP worth $400 million of that amount.
     DSP-23 is also carrying a special 25-kg payload designed specifically to detect even extremely small nuclear tests that might be done in space, the kind that could be attempted covertly by Iran or North Korea. This special Space Atmospheric Burst Reporting System (Sabrs) package is to prove out hardware that is to be added at a later date to the Sbirs GEO-3 spacecraft. The device has five miniature nuclear detection sensors that will be used on Sbirs to replace the heavier detectors carried on all DSPs. 
     DSP satellites use infrared sensors to detect heat from missile and booster plumes against the Earth’s background.  The key is innovative analysis of infrared missile plume and other signatures from the DSPs' 6,000-detector mercury cadmium telluride infrared telescope. The instrument rotates at 6 rpm.
     The launch of DSP-23 extends the service of a constellation that has been the nation's eyes in the sky for 35 years. On average, DSP have operated four times beyond their specified design. Most DSPs launched since 1991 have had at least a 15-year lifetime, despite just a 3 to 5-year operational specification. This longevity has provided an extra 162 satellite-years on-orbit to date, the equivalent of delivering 30 to 50 additional satellites.
     This launch also marks the first operational mission for the United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy, which flew a partially successful first mission in December 2004.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588  & 589 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-054A ; SkyRocket's DSP 23 ; ULA's   Aviation Week Blogs' 9 Nov 07 & Press Kit ; Northrop Grumman's 11 Nov 07
Source: United Launch Alliance
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Yaogan III
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #109 ; 2007-055A; 6,600th spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveillance or Earth Remote Sensing ?
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: China
Launch: 11 November 2007 at 22h48 UTC, , from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, by a Chang Zheng 4C 
Orbit:
Mission: According to Chinese report, the 2,700-kg Yaogan III remote sensing satellite will be used for scientific research, land surveys, crop yield estimates and disaster prevention and relief. Both the satellite and the carrier rocket were developed by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, which is affiliated to the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.
     This mission marks the first launch of a a new variant of the Chang Zheng (Long March) rocket. The CZ-4C is like the CZ-4B but includes a restart capability in the upper stage. It also has a new interstage adapter between the first and second stages.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588 & 589 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-055A ; SkyRocket's Yaogan 3 ; China Daily's 12 Nov 07 ;
The Yoagan III launch by a Chang Zheng 4C. (Source China Daily

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Skynet 5B
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #110 ; 2007-056A ; 6,601st spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: United Kingdom Ministry of Defense
Launch: 14 November 2007 at 22h06 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA
Orbit: Geostarionary at 53° East longitude.
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-056B ; SkyRocket's Skynet 5B ; Paradigm's ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ;
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Star One C1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #111 ; 2007-056B ; 6,602nd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Star One
Launch: 14 November 2007 at 22h06 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 ECA
Orbit: Geostarionary at 65° East longitude.
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-056A ; SkyRocket's Star One C1 ; Star One's
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Sirius 4
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #112 ; 2007-057A ; 6,603rd spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: SES Sirius

Source: ILS
Launch: 17 November 2007 at 22h39 UTC, from Baikonur Cosmodrome's LC-200/39, by Proton M/Briz M 
Orbit: Geostationaur at 5° East longigude
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 588 ; Spacewarn No. 649 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-057A ; SkyRocket's Sirius 4 ; ILS Blog & 10 Nov 07
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Kosmos 2434 (Raduga 1-8)
Spacecraft:  Globus-1/Raduga-1
Chronologies: 2007 payload #113 ; 2007-058A ; 6,604th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia Defense Ministry
Launch: 9 December 2007 at 0h15 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrom's LC-81/24, by Proton M/Briz M.
Orbit: Geostarionary
Mission: Raduga-1M-1 is the first in the series of Raduga-1M communication relay satellites. It apparently completed operations in the spring of 2013. The satellite was first reported nonoperational in May 2013 and was been moved to a "graveyard" orbit on June 8, 2013.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-058A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2434 ; RSNF's 9 Dec 07, 29 Jun 13 ;
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COSMO SkyMed-2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #114 ; 2007-059A ; 6,605th spacecraft.
Type: Radar Surveillance
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Italian Space Agency and Italian Ministry of Defence
Launch: 9 December 2007 at 2h31 UTC, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, by a Delta II 7420-10.
Orbit: 620 km x 637 km x 97.8?
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-059A ; SkyRocket's  ;
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NROL-24 (USA 198)
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #115 ; 2007-060A ; 6,606th spacecraft.
Type: Communications (Data Relay)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. National Reconnaissance Office 
Launch: 10 December 2007 at 22h05 UTC, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, by an Atlas V.
Orbit:
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 & 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-060A ; SkyRocket's SDS 3-6 ; NRO's 11 Dec 07 ;
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Radarsat 2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #116 ; 2007-061A ; 6,607th spacecraft.
Type: Earth Remote Sensing (Radar)
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Canadiian Space Agency

Source: CSA
Launch: 14 December 2007 at 23h17 UTC, from  Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-31, by a Soyuz-FG/Fregat.
Orbit: 790 km x 798 km x 98° 
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-061A ; SkyRocket's Radarsat 2 ; CSA's Rddarsat 2 & 14 Ðec 07 ;
Radarsat 2 launched by a Soyuz rocket (Photos: CSA)
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Navstar 57 (USA 199)
Spacecraft:  Navstar SVN 57 / GPS 2R-18
Chronologies: 2007 payload #117 ; 2007-062A ; 6,608th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: U.S. Department of Defense 
Launch: 20 December 2007 at 20h04 UTC, from  Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's SLC-17A, by a Delta II 7925.
Orbit:
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 & 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-062A ; SkyRocket's Navstar-2RM 5 ;
RM 
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RASCOM-QAF1
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #118 ; 2007-063A ; 6,609th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: RASCOMSTAR-QAF
Launch: 21 December 2007 at 21h42 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 GS.
Orbit: Geostarionary at 2.85° East longitude.
Mission:
     On 4 February 2008, Thales Alenia Space announced today that the RASCOM-QAF1 satellite has been placed in its final geostationary orbit at 2.85° East longitude. This final injection has been made from the LEOP procedure that make the best possible use of the remaining helium pressurant. This 4-week process has started by a first apogee boost completed by the main apogee boost motor, followed by 18 additional apogee manoeuvres completed by smaller thrusters.  The satellite's lifetime is subject to further refinement, but is expected to be slightly over 2 years.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589& 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-063A ; SkyRocket's RASCOM-QAF1 ; Chronologie Ariane 2007 ; Thales Alenia Space's 4 Feb 08 ;
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Horizons-2
Spacecraft: 
Chronologies: 2007 payload #119 ; 2007-063B ; 6,610th spacecraft.
Type: Communications
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Horizons Satellite LLC (Intelsat/JSAT)
Launch: 21 December 2007 at 21h42 UTC, from Kourou Space Center's ELA-3, by an Ariane 5 GS.
Orbit: Geostarionary
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 589 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-063B ; SkyRocket's Horizons 2 ;
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Progress M-62 / ISS 27P
Spacecraft:  Progress M (7K-TGM) No. 362
Chronologies: 2007 payload #120 ; 2007-064A ; 6,611th spacecraft.
Type: Cargo delivery to the International Space Station
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russian Federal Space Agency
Launch: 23 Decembert 2007 at 7:13 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by a Soyuz U.
Orbit: Initial: 193.63 km x 251.56 km x 51.65° x 88.65 min 
Deorbited: 15 February 2008.
Mission: Progress M-62 undocked on 4 February 2008 at 10h32 UTC and then carry out Earth observations for 10 days before being deorbited. This free flight program also calls for conducting space experiments to study plasma blobs occurring during its thruster firings.
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. . & 591  ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-064A ; SkyRocket's Progress-M 62 ; RSC Energiya's 23 Dec 07 & 26 Dec 07 ;
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Kosmos 2435
Spacecraft:  Uragan-M  No. 21 / Glonass-M No. 21
Chronologies: 2007 payload #121 ; 2007-065A ; 6,612th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia Defense Ministry
Launch: 25 December 2007 at 19h33 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton-M/DM-2.
Orbit: Circular at 19 130 km x 64,7°
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-065C  ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2435 ; RSNF's 25 Dec 07 ;
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Kosmos 2436
Spacecraft:  Uragan-M  No. 22 / Glonass-M No. 22
Chronologies: 2007 payload #122 ; 2007-065B ; 6,613th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia Defense Ministry
Launch: 25 December 2007 at 19h33 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton-M/DM-2.
Orbit: Circular at 19 130 km x 64,7°
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-065C ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2436 ; RSNF's 25 Dec 07 ;
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Kosmos 2437
Spacecraft:  Uragan-M No. 23 / Glonass-M No. 23
Chronologies: 2007 payload #123 ; 2007-065C ; 6,614th spacecraft.
Type: Navigation
Families:
Ranks:
Sponsor: Russia Defense Ministry
Launch: 25 December 2007 at 19h33 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-81/24, by a Proton-M/DM-2.
Orbit: Circular at 19 130 km x 64,7°
Mission:
Source: Jonathan Space Report No. 590 ; Spacewarn No. 650 ; National Space Science Data Center's 2007-065A ; SkyRocket's Kosmos 2437 ; RSNF's 25 Dec 07 ;

 
 
Home 1957 Summary
Master List 1958 spacecrafts
...
The 3 spacecrafts launched in 1957:
1) Sputnik 2) Sputnik 2 3) Vanguard TV-3
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Spacecraft Entries

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Pre-Sputnik flight
Notes: In September 1956, the U.S. Army launched a Jupiter C missile from Cape Canaveral, that could have put a satellite into orbit if it had included a live third stage.
Source: Asif Siddiqi, Challenge To Apollo, p. 153 ;
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Sputnik
Spacecraft:  PS 1 / 1-y ISZ
Chronologies: 1957 payload #1 ; 1957-001A ; 1st spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families: 1st technology satellite (1st Soviet)
Ranks: 1st civilian spacecraft (1st Soviet) ; 1st Soviet spacecraft (1st civilian satellite)
Sponsor: Soviet Union (Korolev's Design Bureau)
Launch: 4 October 1957 at 19h12 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by an A/"Sputnik" (8K71PS M1-1PS).
Orbit: 227 km x 947 km x 65,1° x 96,8 min.
Decayed: 4 January 1958
Mission: Sputnik was the first artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit around the Earth and was launched from the "Baykonur Cosmodrome" at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baykonur) in Kazakhstan. The Russian word "Sputnik" means "companion" ("satellite" in the astronomical sense). It is a 58- cetimeter diameter aluminum sphere that carried four whip-like antennas that were 2.4 to 2.9 meters long. On-orbit dry mass: 83.60 kg. The antennas looked like long "whiskers" pointing to one side. The instruments and electric power sources were housed in a sealed capsule and included transmitters, the emissions taking place in alternating groups of 0.3 second in duration. The downlink telemetry included data on temperatures inside and on the surface of the sphere. The satellite transmitters operated for three weeks, until the on-board chemical batteries failed, and were monitored with intense interest around the world. The spacecraft obtained data pertaining to the density of the upper layers of the atmosphere and the propagation of radio signals in the ionosphere.
     The small but highly polished sphere was barely visible as a sixth magnitude object and was more difficult to follow optically than the rocket booster that also reached Earth orbit and was visible from the ground at night as a first magnitude object. Sputnik decayed 92 days after is launch, having completed about 1400 orbits around the Earth over a cumulative distance traveled of 70 million kilometers. The satellite and the launcher were developed by Sergei Korolyov's design bureau at NII-88/Podlipki (now RKK-Energiya).
Notes: The 8K71PS launch vehicle (also designated "A" or "Sputnik") is a minor modification of the experimental 8K71 R-7 ICBM. The launch vehicle earmarked for the satellite was a slightly uprated version of the basic 8K71 ICBM variant, renamed the 8K71 PS. The modifications included omitting the 300-kilogram radio package from the top of the core booster, changing the burn times of the main engines, removing a vibration measurement system, using a special nozzle system to separate the booster from the satellite installed at the top of the core stage, and installing a completely new payload shroud and container, which replaced the warhead configuration. The length of the booster with the new shroud was 29.167 meters, almost four meters shorter than the ICBM version. Because there was some doubt as to whether ground observers would be able to observe the tiny satellite in orbit, Korolev ensured that the central core of the launch vehicle was sufficiently reflective.
     The seconds counted down to zero, and Nosov shouted the command for liftoff. Chekunov immediately pressed the launch button. At exactly 2228 hours, 34 seconds, Moscow Time, the engines ignited, and the 272,830-kilogram booster lifted off the pad in a blaze of light and smoke. The five engines of the R-7 generated about 398 tons of thrust at launch. Although the rocket lifted off gracefully, there were problems. Delays in the firing of several engines could have easily resulted in a launch abort. Second, at T+16 seconds, the Tank Emptying System malfunctioned, resulting in a higher than normal kerosene consumption. A turbine failure because of this resulted in main engine cutoff one second prior to the planned moment. Separation from the core stage, however, occurred successfully at T+324.5 seconds, and the 83.6-kilogram PS-1 successfully fell into a free-fall elliptical trajectory. The first human-made object had entered orbit around Earth. A new era had begun. The Soviet media did not ascribe a specific name for the satellite, generally referring to it as Sputnik, the Russian word for "satellite," often also loosely translated as "fellow traveler."
Sputnik origins: The first Soviet satellite to be launched was the 1-tonne "Object D". But delays that occured during 1956 prompted Korolev to ordered, on 25 November 1956, a young engineer at OKB-1, Nikolay Kutyrkin, to begin designing a new smaller satellite. Another young man, Georgiy Grechko (a twenty-six-year-old engineer who would fly into space from the same site eighteen years later), set about calculating preliminary ballistics on the launch. On January 5, 1957, Korolev asked for permission to launch two small satellites, each with a mass of forty to fifty kilograms, during the period of April-June 1957, that is immediately prior to the beginning of the International Geophysical Year. Each satellite would orbit Earth at attitudes of 225 to 500 kilometers and contain a simple shortwave transmitter with a power source sufficient for ten days of operation. By January 25, 1957, Korolev had approved the initial design details of the satellite officially designated the Simple Satellite No. 1 (PS-1). On February 15, the USSR Council of Ministers formally signed a decree (no. 171-835s) titled "On Measures to Carry out in the International Geophysical Year," agreeing to the new proposal. The two new satellites, PS-1 and PS-2, would weigh approximately 100 kilograms and be launched in April-May 1957, after one or two fully successful R-7 ICBM launches. Meanwhile, the Object D launch was pushed back to April 1958. In the summer, Korolev, Glushko, and the other chief designers had informally targeted the satellite launch for the 100th anniversary of Tsiolkovskiy's birth on September 17th, but achieving this date proved increasingly unrealistic.
Source: Jonathan Space Report's Master List ; Mark Wade’s Encyclopedia Astronautica ; National Space Science Data Center's 1957-001B ; TRW Space Log ; Asif Siddiqi, Challenge To Apollo, p. 154-5, 164, 165, 167 ;
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Sputnik 2
Spacecraft:  PS 2 / 2-y ISZ 
Chronologies: 1957 payload #2 ; 1957-002A ; 2nd spacecraft.
Type: Technology, science and biology
Families: 1st biosatellite (1st Soviet)
Ranks: 2nd civilian spacecraft (2nd Soviet) ; 2nd Soviet spacecraft (2nd civilian satellite)
Sponsor: Soviet Union (Korolev's Design Bureau)
Launch: 3 November 1957 at 19h12 UTC, from Baykonur Cosmodrome's LC-1, by an A/"Sputnik" (8K71PS M1-2PS).
Orbit: 225 km x 1671 km x 65,3° x 103,75 min.
Decayed: 14 April 1958
Mission: Sputnik 2 was the first biological spacecraft, carrying a dog. It was a 4-meter high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 meters, weighinbg 508.30 kg. It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. A separate sealed cabin contained the experimental dog Laika, a stray-dog found on the streets of Moscow. A television camera was mounted in the passenger compartment to observe Laika. The camera could transmit 100-line video frames at 10 frames/second. The spacecraft provided data on the behavior of a living organism in the space environment.
     The first being to travel to outer space was a female part-Samoyed terrier originally named Kudryavka (Little Curly) but later renamed Laika (Barker). She weighed about 6 kg. The pressurized cabin on Sputnik 2 allowed enough room for her to lie down or stand and was padded. An air regeneration system provided oxygen; food and water were dispensed in a gelatinized form. Laika was fitted with a harness, a bag to collect waste, and electrodes to monitor her vital signs. The early telemetry indicated Laika was agitated but eating her food. There was no capability of returning a payload safely to Earth at this time, so it was planned that Laika would run out of oxygen after about 10 days of orbiting the Earth.
     After reaching orbit the nose cone was jettisoned successfully but the Blok A last-stage of the booster did not separate as planned. This inhibited the operation of the thermal control system. Additionally some of the thermal insulation tore loose so the interior temperatures reached 40 °C. Doctors monitoring Layka in day following the launch began to notice a significant rise in the internal temperature of the biological compartment, apparently a result of inefficiencies and malfunctions in the spacecraft's thermal control system. For almost the entire period of her flight, Layka suffered a modicum of discomfort because of these high temperatures. The poor dog finally succumbed to heat exhaustion on the fourth day of the mission on November 7. Later analysis on the ground based on incoming telemetry confirmed the suspicions of doctors that overheating had in fact caused her death. Since Sputnik 2 had no descent capsule, the dog burned up along with the satellite as it returned to the Earth's atmosphere after 162 days in orbit.
     The Soviets revealed one striking piece of information unrelated to Layka many years later. The scientific instruments on the PS-2 had performed without any problems for a week and had detected evidence for the existence of a radiation belt around Earth. Soviet scientists on the ground who studied the data were, however, "circumspect in their interpretations" of the information. In the end. the first U,S. satellite, Explorer 1, returned the same data a few months later, and the United States claimed one of the great discoveries of the early space age: the existence of a continuous band of radiation belts around Earth. 
Origins of 
Sputnik 2
Korolev, who returned to Moscow on 5 October 1957, elected to play with an ambitious idea to sustain the successes of the new space program. Soviet leader Khrushchev immediately called him to find out all the details of the Sputnik launch. During the conversation, he asked casually whether Korolev could launch another satellite, possibly in time for the fortieth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution on November 7. Without any hesitation, Korolev suggested that his team could launch a dog. Khrushchev was ecstatic about the idea, stipulating only that the launch had to take place by the holiday. The official order for the launch was issued on October 12, 1957, eight days after the launch of the first Sputnik. The new satellite was designated Simple Satellite No. 2 (PS-2), later named the "Second Artificial Satellite" in the Soviet press. Technical operations on the construction of the PS-2 formally began on October 10. No provision was made to return the dog from orbit because neither the technology nor the time was available to prepare for such a mission. Doctors expected to put the animal to sleep with an automated injection of poison prior to oxygen depletion in the life support system.  The total mass of the payload was 508.3 kilograms, a significant leap from the modest PS-1. 
Source: Jonathan Space Report's Master List ; Mark Wade’s Encyclopedia Astronautica ; National Space Science Data Center's 1957-002A ; TRW Space Log ; Asif Siddiqi, Challenge To Apollo, p. 171-2, 173, 175 ;
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Vanguard TV-3
Spacecraft:  Vanguard TV-3 / Vanguard Test Satellite
Chronologies: 1957 payload #3 ; 1957 1st loss ; 3rd spacecraft.
Type: Technology
Families 2nd technology satellite (1st American) ; 1st failure.
Ranks: 3rd civilian spacecraft (1st American) ; 1st American spacecraft (1st civilian satellite)
Sponsor: U.S. NRL / Naval Research Laboratory
Launch: 6 December 1957 at 16h45 UTC, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's LC-18A, by a Vanguard (TV-3).
Orbit: None.
Mission: First US orbital attempt. The Vanguard TV-3 launcher was the first with three live stages. It failed to launch a test satellite weighting 1.35 kg, when it lost thrust after only 2 seconds after liif-off. The satellite was thrown clear from the explosion and is now on display at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C.
Origins of the Vanguard program: In the spring of 1955, scientific interest in orbiting an artificial earth satellite for International Geophysical Year (1st July 1957 to 31 December 1958) was growing. Several launch vehicle proposals were developed for placing a U.S. satellite in orbit. The proposal chosen in August 1955 to be the U.S. satellite project for the IGY was the one offered by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), based on Milton W. Rosen's concept of a new launch vehicle combining the Viking first Stage, Aerobee second stage, and a new
third stage. Rosen became technical director of the new project at NRL.
     The name "Vanguard" applied to both the first satellite series undertaken by the United States and to the launch vehicle developed to orbit the satellites. It was suggested by Rosen's wife, Josephine. Rosen forwarded the name to his NRL superiors, who approved it. The Chief of Naval Research approved the name 16 September 1956. The word denoted that which is "out ahead, in the forefront."
Source: Jonathan Space Report's Master List ; Mark Wade’s Encyclopedia Astronautica's Vanguard page ; National Space Science Data Center's VAGT3 ; TRW Space Log ; Vanguard, A History (NASA SP-4202) Chapter 11 ; NASM Vanguard article ; KSC's Vanguard Fact Sheet ; Origins of NASA Names (NASA SP-4402) Chapter 2 p. 78-79;

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© Claude Lafleur, 2004-10 Mes sites web: claudelafleur.qc.ca