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(manned and unmanned programs).
This graph shows the number of piloted craft launched by the Soviet Union/Russia (in red), the United States (in blue) and other (that is China, in white).  In average, there are 10½ craft launched every year, 6½ by Russians and 4 by Americans.  This count included manned and unmanned craft (see the list below). Note that the number of craft is relatively constant over the last fifty years.
This graph shows the number of piloted (manned) missions launched every year by the Soviet Union/Russia (in red), by the United States (in blue) and by China (in white).  There are also “international” missions, that is Expedition crews launched to the International Space Station.  There is an average of 5½ piloted missions done every year.  From 1961 to 2007, USSR/Russia has logged 95 piloted missions, USA 153 and China 2 as well as 16 International Expeditions (11 launched by Russian Soyuz and 5 onboard the American Space Shuttle). 
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Click on a particular year to access directly the list of Piloted Spaceships launched in that year:
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
2000 2001 2002 20030 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Abreviatons:
UT stands for Universal Time (Greenwhich Mean Time), MT for Moscow time and EST for Eastern time of the East Coast of North America (New York / Washington / Cape Canaveral time).
Cdr stands for Commander, Plt for Pilot, FE for Flight Engineer, MS for Mission Specialist, CR for Cosmonaut Researcher and SFP for Spaceflight Participant.

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1 9 6 0 (8 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 44 missions = 18 %)
1)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik 1
Launched: 15 May 1960 at ~00h00 UT
Decayed: Main body: 5 September 1962
Capsule: 15 October 1965.
Duration: 843 days / 1,979 days.
Ranks: 1st Soviet
Result: Partial Failure
First orbital unmanned testflight of a Vostok ("East") spaceship (photo). The primary goal of the mission was to test the basic elements of the vessel, in particular its orientation system. The craft was not designed to be recovered, it had no thermal shielding and no life-support system. The flight was simply designated "Korabl Sputnik" (satellite-ship), offering no indication that it had any relevance to a piloted spaceship; in the West, it was called Sputnik 4. Planned to last 3 or 4 days, the flight proceeded without incident with successful tests of the electrical and power source systems. Reentry was scheduled for the early morning of 19 May. On the 64th orbit, the orientation system malfunctioned and, instead of reentering Earth's atmosphere, the retrorockets boosted the capsule into a higher orbit.
2)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik
Launched: 28 July 1960 at 7h12 UT
Destroyed: 28 July 1960 at 7h12 UT
Duration: 28.5 seconds
Ranks: 2nd Soviet
Result: Failure
Second unmanned testflight of a Vostok with the goal to complete a 24-hour mission (photo). The craft was equipped with an operational life-support system and a means of recovery. Two dogs, Chayka and Lisichka, were onboard. But 19 seconds after launch, the booster began to fork to one side as a result of a fire and a breakdown of the combustion chamber in one of the four strap-on engines. The inert strap-on broke away from the vehicle and the booster exploded at 28.5 seconds. Although the capsule separated from the rocket, the explosion killed its passengers. The problem with the launcher was easily identified and rectified, for Soviet pressed on for another testflight a mere 18 days later!
3)
Mission: Mercury-Atlas 1 / MA-1
Launched: 29 July 1960 
at 14h13 UT / 9h13 EST
Destroyed: 29 July 1960 
at 14h16 UT / 9h16 EST
Duration: 3 min. 18 sec.
Ranks: 1st American
Result: Failure
First unmanned test of a Mercury capsule (photo). The mission was expected to demonstrate that a capsule could live up to its design expectations in a 16-minute test that would carry it to an altitude of 181 km, at a speed of nearly 21,000 km/hr and bring it back to a splashdown 2,400 km from its launch pad. Heavy rain pelted the Cape early on the launch morning, but the cloud ceiling rose high enough to be considered acceptable for a launch. (Photo) But the rocket was out of sight in seconds as it pierced the cloud cover, and could still be heard roaring off in the distance. The initial phases of the launching appeared to be normal until about a minute into the flight, at an altitude of 9.75 km, as all telemetry ceased as the rocket broke up under the force of maximum dynamic pressure. The flight was abruptly terminated sy approximately 58.5 seconds by an in-flight failure. Since the capsule separation systems were not to be armed until three minutes after launch, therefore the capsule remained attached to the Atlas until impact. It tumbled back to the Atlantic 12 km from the pad.  The weather had been so bad that it prevented visual and photographic coverage; “Solid cloud cover at the time of launch precluded the use of optical records in the investigation of this failure.”
4)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik 2
Launched: 19 August 1960 
at 8h44 UT / 11h44 MT
Recovered: 20 August 1960 
at 11h02 UT / 14h02 MT
Duration: 1 d. 2 hr. 18 min.
Ranks 3rd Soviet
Result: Success
Third orbital unmanned testfight of a Vostok (photo). On the pilot's ejection seat (photo) were placed 2 dogs (Strelka and Belka), 12 mice, insects, plants, fungi, cultures, seeds of corn, wheat, peas, onions, microbes, strips of human skin and other specimens. In addition, there were 28 mice and 2 white rats in the capsule but outside the ejection seat. The craft was fully equipped with a functioning catapult, a life-support system and parachutes. Upon entering orbit, it was named the "Second Korabl Sputnik" (Sputnik 5, in the West). Throughout the 1-day flight, doctors monitored the medical condition of the dogs while various parameters of the life-support system were given a rigorous workout. Because there were two cameras aboard, they were able to observe the reactions of the dogs; the results were not encouraging. Initially, the dogs appeared deathly still, and without the incoming data stream on their life signs, it would have been impossible to tell if they were alive or not. Later, they became more animated, but their movements seemed convulsive. Belka squirmed and finally vomited on the fourth orbit. Thus, doctors recommaned that a flight with a cosmonaut be limited to only one orbit. On the 18th orbit, the backup orientation system performed without anomalies and the capsule successfully entered Earth's atmosphere at the correct angle. The catapult system ejected the dogs in the mock-up of the ejection seat. The cabin landed safely by parachute only ten kilometers from the designated point of touchdown. Belka and Strelka thus became the first living beings recovered from orbit. The capsule itself was only the second object retrieved from orbit (the American Discoverer 13 had preempted Korabl Sputnik 2 by only 9 days.) Doctors found both dogs in good condition despite the concerns during the mission; extensive physiological tests proved that there had been no fundamental changes in their health. The flight verified almost all the primary elements of the Vostok design.
5)
Mission: Mercury-Redstone 1 / MR-1
Launched: 21 November 1960 
at 14h00 UT / 9h00 EST
Stopped: 21 November 1960 
at 14h00 UT / 9h00 EST
Duration: 1 second
Ranks: 2nd American
Result: Failure
Scheduled as a suborbital unmanned testflight of a Mercury capsule (photo) up to a 105-km high and a 370-km downrange. At the planned launch time, the rocket engine fired, thundered for a second or two and then shut down. The roar stopped as suddenly as it had started. Watching by periscope from the blockhouse, the startled engineers saw the booster wobble slightly on its pedestal and settle back on its fins after a four- or five-inch liftoff (10-13 cm). (Photo) Then, the Mercury's escape tower rocketed into the air and landed some 400 metres away. Three seconds later, the drogue package shot upward, the main chute spurted out of the top of the capsule followed by the reserve parachute, and both fluttered down alongside the Redstone. It was as if Pandora's box had suddenly opened and colored scarves were unfolding. With the booster destruct system still armed, nobody could approach the Redstone until the batteries that powered the system ran down next morning. It was later discovered that the engine cut-off was caused by premature loss of electrical ground power to the rocket.
     Mercury-Redstone 1 was the most distressing, not to say embarrassing, failure so far in Project Mercury. “November 21, 1960 marked the absolute nadir of morale among all the men at work on Project Mercury. That was the day the MR-1 countdown reached zero, and when all we did was to launch the escape tower." (Photo) This mission was subsequently nicknamed the “The four-Inch Flight.“
6)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik 3
Launched: 1 December 1960 
at 7h26 UT
Burned up: 2 December 1960
at ~10h35 UT
Duration: 1 d. 3 hr. 9 min.
Ranks: 4th Soviet
Result: Failure
Fourth unmanned testflight of a Vostok (photo). The craft was inserted into the orbit planned for a piloted mission. Aboard this “Third Korabl Sputnik” (Sputnik 6, in the West) were two dogs: Pchelka and Mushka. The flight went well up to about a day in orbit when, on the 17th orbit, the retrorocket was to fire to initiate reentry. Unfortunately, there was a malfunction in the stabilization system of the engine and the resulting firing was far shorter than had been planned. Although the craft would still reenter, computations showed that the landing would overshoot Soviet territory. The spacecraft made one and a half more revolution, after which the capsule separated from the rest of the vehicle. At this point, a self-destruct system aboard went into operation and destroyed the spacecraft along with its passengers. At the time, the Soviet press merely announced that, because of the incorrect attitude, the capsule had burned up on reentry - which is technically correct.... (Such a destruct system was only earmarked on the Vostok precursor missions, not for any actual piloted craft.)
7)
Mission: Mercury-Redstone 1A / MR-1A
Launched: 19 December 1960 
at 16h15 UT / 11h15 EST
Recoverd: 19 December 1960
Duration: 15 min, 45 sec.
Ranks: 3rd American
Result: Success
Repeat of the second unmanned suborbital testflight of a Mercury capsule (MR-1). Objectives of the flight were to qualify the spacecraft for space flight and to qualify the flight system for a primate flight scheduled shortly thereafter. (Photo) As scheduled, the rocket engine shut down at 2 minutes and 23 seconds into the flight, at a speed of 7,812 km/hr.  Coasting on up to 210 km, the capsule separated from the top of the booster, turned around and made its reentry and descent by parachute. It behaved perfectly in its attitude control and came down along its predestined trajectory to impact 375 km from Cape Canaveral, 29 km beyond the desired target impact point. About 35 minutes after launch, a Marine helicopter retrieved the capsule and returned it to the flight deck of its carrier. This time, "the launching was an unqualified success."
8
Mission: Korabl Sputnik
Launched: 22 December 1960 
at 7h45 UT / 10h45 MT
Recovered: 22 December 1960
Duration: 425 seconds
Ranks: 5th Soviet
Result: Partial Success
Fifth unmanned testflight of a Vostok (photo). The craft carried two dogs: Kometa and Shutka, At launch, the first two stages of the booster performed without fault, but the third stage engine prematurely cut off at 425 seconds. The emergency escape system went into operation and the capsule successfully separated as its flight trajectory, described an arc across the Soviet Union. It reached an altitude of 214 kilometers and landed about 3,500 kilometres downrange, in one of the most remote and inaccessible areas of Siberia. A search party was dispatched and, on 24 December, they found themselves in waist-deep snow. Once the team found the capsule, they had to approach it with great care because the emergency explosive system was to automatically detonate the vehicle 60 hours after landing. By the time the rescuers reached the craft, it had already been 60 hours, but the capsule had still not exploded, forcing them to disengage the explosive.  Although both hatches had been discarded, the ejection seat had remained within the capsule, instead of ejecting out with the dogs. (Later investigation showed that during ejection, the seat had slammed into the side of the exit porthole and remained within the craft.) The dogs were finally taken out, a little cold but alive, and flown to safety. For its part, the capsule had to be drag through kilometres of snow, and it was the first week of January 1961 before it arrived in Moscow.
1 9 6 1 (12 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 60 missions = 20 %)
9)
Mission: Mercury-Redstone 2 / MR-2
Launched: 31 January 1961 
at 16h54 UT / 11h54 EST
Recovered: 31 January 1961 
17h12 TU / /12h12 EST
Duration: 16 min. 39 sec.
Ranks: 4th American
Result: Success
Third suborbital unmanned testflight of a Mercury capsule (photo). The mission was scheduled for a high point of 185 km and a downrange splashdown 487 km from the launch pad. Onboard was a 17-kg chimpanzee named Ham (photo). During the powered phase of the flight (photo), the rocket thrust was considerably higher than planned. In addition, the early depletion of its liquid oxygen supply, nearly at the time of engine cutoff, triggered the abort system, sending the capsule further up to an apogee of 253 km (68 km higher than planned).
     Onboard, Ham endured weightless for 6.6 minutes (instead of 4.9 minutes). (During this phase, onboard cameras recorded a surprising amount of dust and debris floating around inside the capsule.) At waist level in the chimpanzee's couch was a dashboard with two lights and two levers; Ham knew well how to avoid a series of electrical shocks by actionning the levers on time. During all the flight, he was stable and working his levers perfectly, pushing the continuous avoidance lever about 50 times and receiving only two shocks for bad timing. On the discrete avoidance lever, his score was perfect. Reaction time averaged .82 second, compared with a preflight performance of .8 second.
     The capsule then re-entered at a faster speed, taking it 212 km further downrange from where the recovery forces were waiting. Ham received a load of nearly 15 G (instead of 12 G). Soon after impact into the Atlantic, the capsule punctured and capsized. Ham was in serious danger of drowning by the time helicopters arrived an hour later. The capsule was slowly raised from the ocean as water poured from the hull like the cascade from a punctured water-can. Ham was safe, but emotionally disturbed by his experience. On the deck of the carrier, he readily accepted an apple and half an orange. (Photo) But back at Cape Canaveral, the surge of eager newsmen upset the fraught chimp, who became aggressive and threatening at the noisy, unruly crowd.  Calmed by trainers, he again displayed agitation when taken back to spacecraft. (Photo)
10))
Mission: Mercury-Atlas 2 / MA-2
Launched: 21 February 1961 
at 14h12 UT / 9h12 EST
Recovered: 21 February 1961
at 14h30 UT / 9h30 EST
Duration: 17 min. 56 sec.
Ranks: 5th American
Result: Success
Fourtth suborbital unmanned testflight of a Mercury capsule (photo). It followed a flight path essentially the same as that for MA-1 to check maximum heating and its effects during the worst reentry design conditions. A collective relief spread about one minute after liftoff when it was announced that the booster had gone through max q intact. (Photo) The flight closely matched the desired trajectory and attained a maximum altitude of 183 km and a range of 2,300 km. Hhelicopters were dispatched to pick up the capsule after only 24 minutes in the water. Its inspection aboard the recovery ship some 55 minutes after launch indicated that test objectives were met, since the structure and heat protection elements appeared to be in excellent condition. This was a magnificent flight, "nominal in nearly every respect." 
11)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik 4
Launched: 9 March 1961 
at 6h29 UT / 9h29 MT
Recovered: 9 March 1961 
at 8h15 UT / 11h15 MT
Duration: 1 hr. 46 min.
Ranks: 6th Soviet
Result: Success
Sixth orbital unmanned testflight of a Vostok (photo). This first human-rated craft, called the “Fourth Korabi-Sputnik” in the Soviet press (or Sputnik 7, in the West), carried the dog Chernushka and 40 white and 40 black mice, several guinea pigs, reptiles, plant seeds, human blood samples, human cancer cells, micro-organisms, bacteria, and fermentation samples. Unlike the previous flights, the ejection seat was taken up by a life-sized mannequin (“Ivan lvanovich” photo) fully dressed in a functional spacesuit. Additional mice, guinea pigs, microbes and other biological specimens were placed in the mannequin's chest, stomach, thighs and other parts of the body. One of the main purpose of the mission was to ensure reception of voice transmissions from the ship, so the dummy emit a taped popular Russian choir. In rehearsal for the exact sequence of events of an actual piloted flight, the retrorocket fired on time at the end of the first orbit. Ten seconds later, the instrument section separated from the capsule, the latter making a ballistic reentry. The mannequin was safely ejected out, while the capsule with the dog landed by parachute. The mission was a complete success.
--
Mission: Mercury-Redstone BD / MR-BD
Launched: 24 March 1961 at 12h30 EST
No recovery
Duration: n/a
Ranks: n/a
Result: Success
Booster test (with only a Mercury boilerplate model) to correct minor problems that occured as MR-1A and MR-2 overpowered. Modifications were made to the thrust regulator and velocity integrator in hopes that booster would be physically incapable of exceeding the speed limit again. And to diminish harmonic vibrations induced by aerodynamic stress, four stiffeners were added to the ballast section and insulation was applied to the inner skin. Also, to test procedures for the launch pad rescue crews, a manned M-113 armored personnel carrier was parked only 300 metres from the launch pad. The firemen in this vehicle were going to endure bone-jangling noise and vibration during the launch to see how much emergency rescue crews could stand. 
     When the MR-BD lifted off (photo), the people in the armored vehicle watched it all without discomfort. Although the actual exit velocity was a little bit higher than planned, there was hardly a difference between the actual and the nominal trajectory. The booster impacted in the Atlantic 494 km downrange (8 km short of the plan) and sank to the bottom. The testflight was highly successful, demonstrating that all major booster problems have been eliminated. The Redstone was now trustworthy enough to be called "man-rated.” MR-BD might have been the first piloted flight had it been the MR-3, as originally scheduled. But the decision of a month before froze the Mercury-Redstone schedule for at least two months afterward. And the Mercury team, aware of but not dominated by the space race, could only hope that the "Sputnik Spacecraft Team" was having comparable final checkout difficulties...
12)
Mission: Korabl Sputnik 5
Launched: 25 March 1961
at 5h54 UT / 8h54 NT
Recovered: 25 March 1961 
at 7h40 UT / 10h40 MT
Duration: 1 hr. 56 min.
Ranks: 7th Soviet
Result: Succees
Seventh (and last) orbital unmanned testflight of a Vostok (photo). This “Fifth Korabi Sputnik” (Sputnik 8) carried another managery of animals and biological samples, including the dog Zvezdochka, on a single-orbit mission. The flight was uneventful, and all reentry procedures were conducted without problems. As with several of the previous missions, the recovery was delayed by bad weather; the capsule and the ejection seat landed during a heavy snowstorm, causing difficulties in locating the exact touchdown point.
     Three days later, on 28 March, Academy of Sciences Vice-President Aleksandr Topchiyev summarized the results of the five official Korabi Sputnik flights in a press conference in Moscow. Six of Strelka's pups, as well as four other space dogs, were on exhibit as evidence and harbingers of the imminent flight of man into space. In attendance were not only Soviet and foreign journalists, but also Gagarin, Titov and other cosmonauts. Of course, no one had any knowledge that one of them was slated to fly in a spacecraft within 15 days. But, on 10 April, foreign correspondents in Moscow reported rampant rumors sweeping the city that the U.S.S.R. had placed a man into space.
13)
Mission: Vostok
Launched: 12 April 1961 
at 6h07 UT / 9h07 MT 
Recovered: 12 April 1961 
at 7h55 UT / 10h55 MT 
Duration: 1 hr. 48 min. (World record)
Crew: Plt Gagarin
Ranks: 8th Soviet
(1st human spaceflight, 1st Soviet)
Result: Success
Note: Note: Gagarin was on top 
of the 17th 8K72 “Vostok”
launcher; half of the previous 
16 launches had failed!
The first piloted mission. Seconds before liftoff, the 27-year-old pilot Gagarin's pulse rate reached an excited 157 beats per minute. For the first few minutes after launch, he reported feeling the G-loads on him rise, but he gave no indication of any lack of comfort. At about five G's, he reported some difficulty in talking, saying that all the muscles in his face were drawn and strained. During the powered flight, Gagarin's pulse reached a maximum of 150 beats per minute.  Orbital insertion occurred after 11 minutes and 16 seconds of powered flight; for the first time in history, a human being had entered outer space. The orbit was some 70 km higher than planned, indicating a poor performance by the launcher. Gagarin reported that he was feeling excellent and vividly described what he saw outside his porthole: “In weightlessness, you feel as if you are suspended. I got used to it and had no unpleasant sensations.” He spent most of his time observing through the porthole and the systems in its spacecraft. He also ate and drank normally. No experiments were planned for the mission and no anomalies were detected during his time in orbit. After one revolution, the ship was oriented to the proper attitude and its retrorocket successfully fired. There was a sharp jolt and the craft began to rotate around its axis at a very high velocity: “head, then feet, head, then feet, rotating rapidly.”  Normally, the instrument section of the craft was soon to separate from the spherical capsule. but it was at this point that the only major malfunction occurred on the mission: there was no separation. The capsule and its instrument section remained loosely connected by a few cables. Although the situation was of serious concern, Gagarin's life was not in jeopardy (as suggested by some Western analysts when this incident was finally revealed in 1991). Gagarin remained remarkably calm. Separation finally occurred ten minutes later than intended, saving the craft from a dangerous tumbling reentry. “Suddenly, a bright purple light appeared in the porthole. I heard crackling sounds. Next, the overloads began to rise gradually. The ball was constantly oscillating along all axes… I felt that the load factor reached about 10 G. There was a moment for about 2 or 3 seconds when the instrument readings became blurred. My vision became somewhat greyish…” At an altitude of 7 km, the capsule parachutes opened and the hatch shot off. Two seconds later, Gagarin was ejected from the capsule. Looking down at the land, he immediately recognized the region where he had jumped many times in training. His personal parachute opened and he landed softly in a field. His first concern was to report that he was safe. (Later, Gagarin was forced to lie about the fact that he parachuted out of his capsule because international standards for aerospace record stipulate that the passenger must take off and land in the same vehicle.) Since the news out of the Soviet Union was neither crisp nor very detailed, for a few days a great deal of speculation over conflicting reports, fuzzy photographs, and the lack of eyewitnesses encouraged some who wished to believe that Gagarin's flight had not occurred.
14)
Mission: Mercury-Atlas 3 / MA-3
Launched: 25 April 1961 
at 16h15 UT / 11h15 EST
Recovered: 25 April 1961
at 16h22 UT / 11h22 EST
Duration: 7 min. 19 sec.
Ranks: 6th American
Result: Partial Success
First unmanned orbital testflight of a Mercury capsule. The spacecraft carried a "mechanical astronaut." an electronic mannequin that could "inhale" and "exhale" man-like quantities of gas, heat and water vapor. But seconds after lift-off, the launch vehicle failed to roll to a 70° heading and to pitch over into the proper trajectory. It was thus destroyed by the range safety officer after only 40 seconds of flight. However, the Mercury escape system worked perfectly and the recovery team responded exactly as if there had been a pilot's life at stake. The capsule reached an altitude of 7.3 km, it then deployed its parachutes and splasdown in the Atlantic some 2 km north of its launch pad. It came through this relatively easy abort with only minor damages and was thus quickly recovered and refurbished for reuse on MA-4.
15)
Mission: Mercury 3 (MR-3 / 
Mercury-Redstone 3)
Launched: 5 May 1961 
at 14h35 UT / 9h35 EST
Recovered: 5 May 1961 
at 14h50 UT / 9h50 EST
Duration: 15 min. 28 sec.
Crew: Plt Shepard
Ranks: 7th American
(2nd human spaceflight, 
1st American)
Result: Success
First Mercury manned suborbital flight. The 37-year-old pilot Shepard had been onboardFreedom 7 four hours and 14 minutes when  his 15-minute flight began. His pulse rate rose to 126 at the liftoff signal. He raised his hand to start the elapsed-time clock that ticked off the seconds of the flight. The Redstone performed well during the boosted phase, although there were some vibrations, and cutoff was well within specified limits. The buffeting became rugged at the point of maximum aerodynamic pressures, about 88 seconds into the flight; Shepard's head and helmet were bouncing so hard that he could not read his panel dials. Pressed by 6 G at two minutes after launch, Shepard still was able to report "all systems go." He spend approximately 5 minutes in weightlessness. Now almost at the top of his suborbital trajectory, he went to work on his most important task, determining whether an astronaut could control his spacecraft's attitude. When Shepard assumed control of all three axes, he was pleased to find that the feel was about the same as in the Mercury simulator. When he tried to carry out another of his flight objectives, observing the scene below him, Shepard immediately noticed that the periscope had the medium gray filter in place. He observed the wondrous sights below through the gray slide. Shepard was able to distinguish clearly the continental land masses from the cloud masses. After separation, he exercised manual control of the spacecraft in the fly-by-wire and manual proportional modes. The attitude control system operated well, with few thruster fuel leaks. Reentry and landing were accomplished without any difficulty. During the flight, the spacecraft attained a maximum speed of 8,335 km/h, rose to an altitude of 187 km and splashdown 486 km downrange from Cape Canaveral. The pilot experienced a maximum of 6 G during the booster acceleration phase and slightly less than 12 G upon reentry. Recovery operations were perfect, as helicopters were able visually to follow the descent of the capsule. There was no damage to the spacecraft and Shepard was in excellent condition. The flight was a success.
16)
Mission: Mercury 4 (MR-4 / 
Mercury-Redstone 4)
Launched: 21 July 1961 
at 12h20 UT / 7h20 EST
Recovered: 21 July 1961 
at 12h36 UT / 7h36 EST
Duration: 15 min. 37 sec.
Crew: Plt Grissom
Ranks: 8th American
(3rd human spaceflight, 
2nd American)
Result: Success
This second Mercury suborbital manned flight was launched with the 35-year-old pilot Grissom onboard a capsule designated Liberty Bell 7. From lift-off to reentry, operational sequences were similar to those of Mercury 3. Grissom later admitted that he was "a bit scared" at liftoff, but that he soon gained confidence along the ascension. Like Shepard, he was amazed at the smooth quality of the liftoff, but then he noticed gradually more severe vibrations, but never violent enough to impair his vision. By his window, he noticed a sudden change in the color of the horizon, from light blue to jet black. At 2 minutes and 22 seconds, the Redstone's engine cut off after building a velocity of 5,979 km/h. Grissom had a strong sensation of tumbling during the transition from high to zero G and, for a moment, he lost his bearings. He never caught sight of his launch vehicle. He then assumed manual control and found it easy to control his spacecraft’s attitude. But a constant urge to look out the window made concentrating on his tasks difficult. He radioed that the panorama of Earth's horizon, presenting a 1,300 km arc at peak altitude, was fascinating. Some land beneath the clouds appeared in the hazy distance, but Grissom was unable to identify it. Suddenly, Cape Canaveral came into view so clearly that Grissom found it hard to believe that he was 240 km away.  These observations got him behind in his work procedures. With Liberty Bell 7 at a peak altitude of 190 km, it was now time to position it in its reentry attitude. He tried to see the stars out his observation window. Instead the glare of sunlight filled his capsule, making it difficult to read the panel dials. Grissom spent 5 minute in weightlessness and reported no ill effects. He then initiated the retrorocket sequence and the capsule was arcing downward. His pulse reached 171 beats per minute. Reentry presented no problem. Parachute deployed on schedule and Grissom felt some resulting pulsating motion, but not enough to worry him. Impact, some 480 km downrange, was milder than he had expected, although the capsule heeled over in the water. "I was lying there, minding my own business, when I heard a dull thud." The hatch cover blew away and salt water swished into the capsule. Suddenly, Grissom was faced with a serious emergency: Liberty Bell 7 was sinking fast!  He had difficulty recollecting his actions at this point, but he was certain that he had not touched the hatch-activation plunger. He scurried out the sloshing hatchway. Floating in the sea, he was thankful that he had unbuckled himself earlier from most of his harness, as otherwise he might not have been able to abandon ship. Once out, he swam away. 
     Instead of turning their attention to Grissom, the helicopter pilots approached the sinking capsule. They were having difficulty raising the submerged craft.  Then, Grissom suddenly realized that he was not riding as high in the water as he had been. Swimming was becoming difficult. Bobbing under the waves, he was now scared, angry and looking for a swimmer to help him tread water. Suddenly, he received a "horse-collar" lifeline from a second helicopter. He immediately wrapped himself into the sling backwards and soon, he was on his way to safety onboard the helicopter. His first thought was to get a life preserver on. Grissom had been in the water for only four or five minutes, "although it seemed like an eternity to me," he said afterward. The first helicopter struggled valiantly to raise the capsule high enough to drain the water from it. Once the capsule was almost clear of the water, it weighed 500 kilos beyond the helicopter's lifting capacity. The pilots decided not to chance losing two craft in one day and finally cast loose, allowing the capsule to sink swiftly at the bottom of the ocean.  On the carrier deck, Grissom was extremely tired but he elected to proceed with his preliminary debriefing.
17)
Mission: Vostok 2
Launched: 6 August 1961
at 6h00 UT / 9h00 MT
Recovered: 7 August 1961 
at 7h10 UT / 10h08 MT
Duration: 1 d. 1 hr. 18 min..(World record)
Crew: Plt Titov
Ranks: 9th Soviet
(4th human, 2nd Soviet)
Result: Success
Second manned orbital flight of a Vostok spaceship with the 25-year-old pilot Titov. The launch occurred without problem as the rocket performance normally. But immediately after entering orbit, Titov began to feel disoriented, as if he was flying upside down and turning in a somersault. He was in a "strange fog," unable to distinguish Earth from the sky or to read his instrument panel. The unpleasant sensations continued to grow, and by the second orbit, he even briefly contemplated asking permission to return to Earth. Doctors on the ground were aware of the situation and on the third orbit, they inquired about his general condition; Titov reported "Everything is in order."  He decided to take his first meal in space during his sixth orbit, a three-course lunch in paste form delivered in tubes. Television pictures showed him with soup puree, liver pâté and black currant jam in plastic dispensers. He elected not to eat much, and only squeezed some black currant juice into his mouth, which eventually made him vomit. After a short rest, he conducted some experiments, manually firing the attitude control jets on the spacecraft. He encountered no problems during the two occasions he took over manual control. But he was still having a difficult time maintaining a sense of balance. The scope of his discomfort was fairly serious and included vertigo, nausea, aches in the head and eyes, disorders of the vestibular system and loss of appetite. Passing over Moscow 9 hours and 15 minutes into his flight, Titov announced: "Now, I'm going to lie down and sleep. You can think what you want, but I'm going to sleep.” Except for two minor wake up, he rested peacefully for 8 hours, even oversleeping by about 35 minutes. Unfortunately, he felt just as worse after waking up. He tried some cursory experiments, such as handwriting, opening and shutting his eyes, and testing coordination. His reflexes were much better than during the first portion of the flight, although the "strange fog" was still with him. He drank a little liquid chocolate, but immediately regurgitated what little food he had in his stomach. For inexplicable reasons, he began to feel better at the end of his twelfth orbit and, by the later orbits, he was completely functional and fully fit. Titov used a movie camera to take a 10-minute-long movie of Earth's horizon; the results were fairly impressive and they were later showed in the Soviet media amid much fanfare. During the mission, there were no major technical anomalies. After retrofire, Titov heard a loud crack, indicating that the two compartments of Vostok had separated. But soon after, he realized that the instrument section was still attached to the capsule by several straps. The two wobbling modules reentered Earth's atmosphere, with the instrument section eventually burning up. Titov ejected safely from his capsule and landed without further incident. He was in a fit of euphoria after landing and on the flight back, he talked excitedly about his flight. In complete violation of rules, he opened up a beer and downed it quickly. During debriefing, he was candid about all health problems he had encountered, describing in great detail his experience with motion sickness. But none of this was reported to the public at the time. 
18)
Mission: Mercury-Atlas 4 / MA-4
Launched: 13 September 1961 
at 14h04 UT / 9h04 EST
Recovered: 13 September 1961 
at 10h55 EST
Duration: 1 hr. 49 min. 20 sec.
Ranks:
Result: Success
Second orbital unmanned testflight of a Mercury capsule; the first Mercury spacecraft to achieve orbit. The capsule carried a mechanical crewman simulator. During the first 20 seconds from liftoff, fairly severe booster vibrations occurred but the booster passed its max-q test. The powered phase provided a velocity of 23,426 km/h, G loads during the powered phase reached a peak of 7.6. After separation from its booster, the capsule made a turnaround maneuver to reverse its ends to heatshield forward. Throughout the flight, the crewman simulator used oxygen to produce moisture and carbon dioxide, and it recorded heat and suit pressure changes. Onboard computers indicated that the mission could go for more than seven orbits. Communications between the capsule and the tracking stations were good, especially on high frequencies, which on the earlier suborbital flights had been virtually unsuccessful. Retrofire, triggered by the spacecraft clock, went as planned and the capsule was in the proper reentry attitude. It splashed down east of Bermuda. During the one-orbit mission, only three slight deviations were noted: a small leak in the oxygen system, loss of voice contact over Australia, and the failure of an inverter in the environmental control system..Overall, the flight was highly successful: the Atlas booster performed well and demonstrated that it was ready for the manned flight, the spacecraft systems operated well, and the Mercury global tracking network and telemetry operated in an excellent manner and was ready to support manned orbital flight. NASA officials concluded that a man would have survived the flight.
19)
Mission: Mercury-Scout 1 / MS-1
Launched: 1 November 1961 at 15h32 UT
Destroyed: 1 November
Duration: 43 seconds.
Ranks: 10th American
Result: Failure
This flight was intend to orbit a communications package to qualify the radar tracking of the Mercury global network prior to manned orbital flight. The payload consisted a small rectangular box containing a C- and S-band beacon, two minitrack beacons, two command receivers and two telemetry transmitters, all with antennas. It was to function for 18½ hours in orbit, to provide data equivalent to three full missions, to gather a wealth of information for comparison, and to give the Department Of Defense and NASA trackers a good workout. But immediately after liftoff, the launcher developed erratic motions and, after 28 seconds, it began tearing apart. The range safety officer gave the destruct signal 43 seconds after launch. The failure, it was later determined, resulted from a personal error by a technician who had transposed the connectors between the pitch and yaw rate gyros, so that yaw rate error signals were transmitted to pitch control, and vice versa. So, six months of plans and labors had disintegrated in less than a minute. No further such testflight were planned since the Mercury-Atlas 4 and 5 missions confirmed that the network met all requirements.
20)
Mission: Mercury-Atlas 5 / MA-5
Launched: 29 November 1961 
at 15h08 UT / 10h08 EST
Recovered: 29 November 1961
at 18h29 UT / 13h29 EST
Duration: 3 hr. 20 min. 59 sec.
Ranks: 11th American
Result: sUCCESS
The second (and final) orbital qualification testflight of the Mercury capsule prior to manned flight. It was launched with the 17-kg chimpanzee Enos onboard. The ascent phase went well, with the guidance system keeping the booster on an almost perfect insertion trajectory. At engine cutoff, the velocity, flight angle and altitude were nearly perfect. Enos fared well as he withstood a peak of 7.6 G during liftoff. During the flight, he pulled correctly his levers and was rewarded with measures of water and banana pellets. However, the center lever malfunctioned, causing shocks even if the chimp pulled the correct lever. Event if Enos received 79 shocks, he nevertheless kept pulling the levers. At the end of the first orbit, the capsule environmental control system malfunction and temperatures were rising; Enos' body temperature climbed to 38°. Then, the craft began to deviate from its attitude. The engineers felt that there simply was not enough attitude fuel left to complete the third orbit and only 12 seconds before the retrofire point was reached for the second-orbit primary recovery point, Flight Director decided to bring the craft back to Earth. Reentry went according to plan and the capsule splasdowned at the predicted impact point southeast of Bermuda. Enos had been weightless for 181 minutes and had performed his psychomotor duties with aplomb. Upon recovery, he was found to be in excellent physical condition. The flight was termed highly successful since the two inflight failutres could have been corrected had an astronaut been onboard. Thus, tyhe Mercury spacecraft was considered qualified to support manned orbital flight. 
1 9 6 2 (5 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 96 missions = 5 %)
21)
Mission: Mercury 6 (MA-6 / 
Mercury-Atlas 6)
Launched: 20 February 1962 at 14h48 UT (9h48 EST)
Recovered: 20 February 1962 19h43 (14h43 EST)
Duration: 4 h. 55 min. 23 sec.
Crew: Glenn
Ranks: 12th American
(5th human, 3rd American)
Result:: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 3-orbit, 5-hour mission (Glenn).

A 60- by 90-cm “stainless steel” metal fragment, part of the Atlas booster, was found on a farm in South Africa on February 21. Four fragments were recovered on Earth, the first pieces known to have re-entered from an orbiting object without burning up.  Local reports of an explosion about 1:00 on 21 February indicated that the fragment came to Earth after about 8 hours in orbit. 

22)
Mission: Mercury 7 (MA-7 / 
Mercury-Atlas 7)
Launched: 24 May 1962 at 12h45 UT (7h45 EST)
Recovered: 24 May 1962 at 17h41 (12h41 EST) 
Duration: 4 hr. 56 min. 5 sec.
Crew: Carpenter
Ranks: 13th American
(6th human, 4th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 3-orbit, 5-hour mission (Carpenter).

Metal fragments resembling top of gasoline drum, thoughtto have fallen from the Atlas booster, were discovered near Barkly East, South Africa. 

23)
Mission: Vostok 3
Launched: 11 August 1962 
at 8h30 UT / 11h30  MT
Recovered: 15 August 1962 
at 6h34 UT / 9h34 MT
Duration: 3 d. 22 hr. 10 min. (World record)
Crew: Nikolaïev
Ranks: 10th Soviet
(7th human, 3rd Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 4-day mission (Nikolayev). First dual flight (with Vostok 4).
24)
Mission: Vostok 4
Launched: 12 August 1962 
at 8h02 UT / 11h02 MT
Recovered: 15 August 1962 
at 6h47 TU / 9h47 MT
Duration: 2 d. 22 hr. 45 min.
Crew: Popovitch
Ranks 11th Soviet
(8th human, 4th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 3-day mission (Popovich). Launched only one day after Vostok 3 and passed within a few kilometers of the spaceship.
25)
Mission: Mercury 8 (MA-8 / 
Mercury-Atlas 8)
Launched: 3 October 1962 at 12h15 UT (7h15 EST)
Recovered: 3 October 1962 at 21h28 UT (16h28 EST) 
Duration: 9 hr. 13 min. 11 sec.
Crew: Schirra
Ranks: 14th American
(9th human, 5th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 9-hour mission (Schirra).
1 9 6 3 (3 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 97 missions = 3 %)
26)
Mission: Mercury 9 (MA-9 / Mercury-Atlas 9)
Launched: 15 May 1963 at 13h04 UT (8h04 EST)
Recovered: 16 May 1963 at 23h24 UT (18h24 EST)
Duration: 1 d. 10 hr. 19 min. 49 sec.
Crew: Cooper
Ranks: 15th American
(10 human, 6th American)
Result:: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 1½-day mission (Cooper).
27)
Mission: Vostok 5
Launched: 14 June 1963 at 11h58 UT
Recovered: 19 June 1963
Duration: (World record)
Ranks: 12th Soviet
(11th human, 5th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 5-day mission (Bykovsky). Dual mission with Vostok 6.
28)
Mission: Vostok 6
Launched: 16 June 1963 at 9h29 UT
Recovered: 19 June 1963
Duration:
Ranks: 13th Soviet
(12th human, 6th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): 3-day mission for first female cosmonaut (Terechkova).
1 9 6 4 (3 piloted Spaceships in 127 missions = 2 %)
29)
Mission: Gemini 1
Launched: 8 Apr 64
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 16th American
Result:: Success
Unmanned test: 5-hour testflight, no recovery.
30)
Mission: Kosmos 47 (Voskhod 3KV 2)
Launched: 6 Oct 64
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 14th Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned test: 1-day testflight of Voskhod three-seater spaceship.
31)
Mission: Voskhod
Launched: 12 Oct 64
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 15th Soviet
(13th human,7th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first three-crewmember mission (1 day).
1 9 6 5 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 180 missions = 5 %)
32)
Mission: Gemini 2
Launched: 19 Jan 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 17th American
Result:: Success
Unmanned test: suborbital testflight (apogee: 169 km).
33)
Mission: Kosmos 57 / Voskhod 3KD 1
Launched: 22 Feb 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 16th Soviet
Result: Partial Success
Unmanned test: EVA-Voskhod testflight, spacecraft accidentally autodestrucked.
34)
Mission: Voskhod 2
Launched: 18 Mar 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 17th Soviet
(14th human, 8th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first EVA (Leonov), first two-cremmember mission, a very turbulent flight.
35)
Mission: Gemini 3 / Gemini III
Launched: 23 Mar 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks 18th American
(15th human, 7th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): 5-hour testflight of Gemini capsule.
36)
Mission: Gemini 4
Launched: 3 Jun 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 19th American
(16th human, 8th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first U.S. EVA (White), longuest American mission to dare (4 days).
37)
Mission: Gemini 5
Launched: 21 Aug 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 20th American
(17th human, 9th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): 8-day mission (longuest spaceflight to date).
38)
Mission: GATV 6
Launched: 25 Oct 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 21st American
Result: Failure
Rendezvous target: launch failed.
-- 
Mission: Gemini VI
Launched: (25 Oct 65)
R:
Duration:
Ranks: n/a
Result: n/a
Piloted (2 crewmembers): mission cancelled following the loss of GATV 6.
39)
Mission: Gemini 7
Launched: 4 Dec 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 22nd American
(18th human, 10th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): 14-day mission (longuest to date).
40)
Mission: Gemini VI-A
Launched: 15 Dec 65
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 23rd American
(19th human, 11th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first rendezvous (with Gemini 7). A very short-notice success.
1 9 6 6 (15 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 174 missions = 9 %)
41)
Mission: Apollo AS-201
Launched: 26 Feb 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 24th American
Result:: Success
Unmanned test: suborbital testflight, recovered.
42)
Mission: GATV 8 / TDA 3
Launched: 16 Mar 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 25th American
Result: Success
Rendezvous target, docked by Gemini VIII.
43)
Mission: Gemini VIII
Launched: 16 Mar 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 26th American
(20th human, 12th American)
Result: Partial Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first docking (with GATV 8), mission cut short following attitude control problems, crew saved.
44)
Mission: GATV 9 / TDA 5
Launched: 17 May 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks 27th American
Result: Failure
Rendezvous target, launch failed. 
(Gemini IX mission cancelled.)
45)
Mission: ATDA / TDA 4
Launched: 1 Jun 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 28th American
Result: Failure
Rendezvous target: unavailable for docking following fairing separation failure (the craft was nicknamed the "Angry alligator").
46)
Mission: Gemini IX-A
Launched: 3 Jun 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 29th American
(21st human, 13th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): rendezvous with ATDA (did
not docked). Third EVA (Cernan), nearly a failure.
47)
Mission: GATV 10 / TDA 1A
Launched: 18 Jul 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 30th American
Result: Success
Rendezvous target, docked by Gemini X.
48)
Mission: Gemini X
Launched: 18 Jul 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 31st American
(22nd human, 14th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): docked with two GATV and accomplish two EVA - a very complex and successful mission.
49)
Mission: Apollo AS-202
Launched: 25 Aug 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 32nd American
Result: Success
Unmanned test: 1½-hour suborbital testflight, recovered.
50)
Mission: GATV 11 / TDA 6
Launched: 12 Sep 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 33rd American
Result: Success
Rendezvous target, docked by Gemini XI.
51)
Mission: Gemini XI
Launched: 12 Sep 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 34th American
(23rd human, 15th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): docked with GATV 11, two EVAs and tethered experiment between Gemini and GATV.
M1)
Mission: MOL / Gemini B
Launched: 2 Nov 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (1st military)
Result: Success
Technology: military modular station concept tested.
52)
Mission: GATV 12 / TDA 7
Launched: 11 Nov 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 35th American
Result: Success
Rendezvous target: docked by Gemini XII.
56)
Mission: Gemini XII
Launched: 11 Nov 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 36th American
(24th human, 16th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): docked with GATV 11 and made three EVAs.
54)
Mission: Kosmos 133 / Soyuz 7K-OK 2
Launched: 28 Nov 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 18th Soviet
Result: Partial Success
Unmanned test: first testflight of Soyuz, attitude control problems, recovery aborted and capsule destroyed.
55)
Mission: Kosmos / Soyuz 1
Launched: 14 Dec 66
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 19th Soviet
Result: Failure
Unmanned test: major launch pad accident.
1 9 6 7 (10 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 172 missions = 6 %)
56)
Mission: Apollo 1 (Apollo 204)
Launched: 27 Jan 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 37th American
(25th human, 17th American)
Result:: Failure
Piloted (3 crewmembers): crew perished on launch pad fire (three weeks before schedule launch).
57)
Mission: Kosmos 140 / Soyuz 3
Launched: 7 Feb 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 20th Soviet
Result: Partial Success
Unmanned test: control problems, capsule 
damaged and sanked, but recovered.
58)
Mission: Kosmos 146 / L-1 2P
Launched: 10 Mar 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 21st Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned test: Earth-orbit (first) testflight 
of a Zond circumlunar spaceship.
56)
Mission: Kosmos 154 / L-1 3P
Launched: 8 Apr 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks 22nd Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: failed to leave Earth orbit due 
to Proton's Block D injection stage failed to ignite.
60)
Mission: Soyuz 1
Launched: 23 Apr 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 23rd Soviet
(26th human, 9th Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (1 crewmember): first manned testflight of Soyuz, control problems, Komarov killed on landing (multiple failure).
61)
Mission: Zond / L-1 4L
Launched: 27 Sep 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 24th Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: launch failed.
62)
Mission: Kosmos 186 / Soyuz 6
Launched: 27 Oct 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 25th Soviet
Result: Success
Rendezvous test: first dual flight of Soyuz (with Kosmos 188).
63)
Mission: Kosmos 188 / Soyuz 5
Launched: 30 Oct 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 26th Soviet
Result: Success
Rendezvous test: first automated rendezvous and 
docking of two spacecrafts. 
64)
Mission: Apollo 4 (AS-501)
Launched: 9 Nov 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 38th American
Result: Success
First unmanned test:of a Saturn V Moon rocket (first "all-up" test). Capsule recovered.
65)
Mission: Zond L-1 5L
Launched: 22 Nov 67
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 27th Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: launch failed.
1 9 6 8 (14 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 166 missions = 8 %)
66)
Mission: Apollo 5 (AS-204)
Launched: 22 Jan 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 39th American
Result:: Success
Unmanned test of the first Apollo Lunar Module in Earth orbit. 
67)
Mission: Zond 4
Launched: 2 Mar 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 28th Soviet
Result: Partial Sucess
Testflight of a piloted spacecraft able to make a lunar flyby and return to Earth. The circumlunar flight was successful, but the capsule destruction was ordered on reentry, following navigation deviation.
68)
Mission: Apollo 6 (SA-502)
Launched: 4 Apr 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 40th American
Result: Success
Second unmanned test of a Saturn V with a modified Command and Service Module and a Lunar Module test article. Severe pogo effect and two of the Saturn's second-stage J-2 engines shut down early, the remaining three were extended to compensate. Capsule recovered.
69)
Mission: Kosmos 212 / Soyuz 8
Launched: 14 Apr 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks 29th Soviet
Result: Success
Second automatic rendezvous test (with Kosmos 213). First completely successful test of the Soyuz attitude control, automatic rendezvous and docking systems. Capsule recovered.
70)
Mission: Kosmos 213 / Soyuz 7
Launched: 15 Apr 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 30th Soviet
Result: Success
Target for Kosmos 212 in a successful test of Soyuz rendezvous and docking systems.  Capsule recovered, but was dragged by heavy wind across the steppes when the parachute lines didn't jettison at touchdown.
71)
Mission: Zond
Launched: 22 Apr 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 31st Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: the launch was aborted at 260 seconds and the capsule landed safely 520 km downrange.
72)
Mission: Zond
Launched: 21 Jul 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 32nd Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: Proton's upper stage exploded on pad, killing three people. Booster and the Zond spacecraft were still intact however.
73)
Mission: Kosmos 238 / Soyuz 9
Launched: 27 Aug 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 33rd Soviet
Result: Success
Succesful final test of the redesigned Soyuz, clearing the way for Soyuz 3 piloted mission. Capsule recovered. 
74)
Mission: Zond 5
Launched: 15 Sep 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 34th Soviet
Result: Success
First successful circumlunar flight with capsule recovery. The craft flew at 1,950 km around the Moon, take high-quality photographs of Earth rise. A biological payload of turtles, wine flies, meal worms, plants, seeds, bacteria and other was onboard. The capsule splashed down in the Indian Ocean after a ballistic 20-G reentry.
75)
Mission: Apollo 7
Launched: 11 Oct 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 41st American
(27th human, 18th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): 11-day testflight of the Apollo Command and Service Module in Earth orbit. 
76)
Mission: Soyuz 2
Launched: 25 Oct 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 35th Soviet
Result: Success
Rendezvous target for Soyuz 3. Capsule recovered. 
77)
Mission: Soyuz 3
Launched: 26 Oct 68
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 36th Soviet
(28th human, 10th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): testflight of a piloted Soyuz capsule. Rendezvoused with the unmanned Soyuz 2, but failed to dock (pilot errors). Capsule recovered.
78)
Mission: Zond 6
Launched:
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 37th Soviet
Result: A Certain Success
Second successful circumlunar flight by an unmanned spacecraft, loop around the Moon at 2,420 km. Took spectacular photos of the Moon’s limb with the Earth in the background. The craft made the first successful double skip trajectory, dipping into the Earth's atmosphere over Antarctica, slowing from 11 km/sec to suborbital velocity, then skipping back into space before making a final reentry. The captule landed only 16 km from its launch pad. Its main parachute ejected prematurely, leading to the capsule being destroyed on impact. 
79)
Mission: Apollo 8
Launched:
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 42nd American
(29th human, 19th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers). first human deep-space flight and first piloted flight up to the Moon.  The crew spent Christmas around the Moon, circling 10 times. The astronauts became the first men to see the far side. Their views of Earth rising from Moon's horzion changed our perspectives of our world.  Capsule recovered with great success.
1 9 6 9 (18 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 155 missions = 12 %)
80)
Mission: Soyuz 4
Launched: 14 Jan 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 38th Soviet
(30th human, 11th Soviet)
Result:: Success
Piloted (1 crewmember): first crew transfer in space. The spacecraft was launched with one cosmonaut onboard but return with three. This mission finally successfully completed the simulated lunar orbit docking and crew transfer for a Soviet lunar-landing mission.
81)
Mission: Soyuz 5
Launched: 15 Jan 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 39th Soviet
(31st human,12th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first two-manned spaceships docking.  Two crewmembers made an EVA to tranfer from Soyuz 5 to Soyuz 4. Capsule recovered after a near-fatal  “nose-first” reentry.
82)
Mission: Zond
Launched: 20 Jan 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 40th Soviet
Result: Failure
Circumlunar testflight: launcher failed at 501 seconds, but the abort system functioned perfectly, taking the capsule to a safe landing... in Mongolia. 
83)
Mission: N-1 test
Launched: 21 Feb 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks 41st Soviet
Result: Failure
First testflight of the Soviet giant lunar rocket: the launcher ran into trouble immediately at lift-off. A fire developed in its tail compartment. The engine monitoring system detected the fire, but then gave an incorrect signal, shutting down all engines at 68.7 seconds into the flight. 
84)
Mission: Apollo 9 Gumdrop
Launched: 3 Mar 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 43rd American
(32nd human, 20th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first testflight of the complete Apollo lunar spaceship (CSM Gumdrop and LM Spider) in Earth orbit. A very successful mission.
85)
Mission: Apollo 9 Spider
Launched: 3 Mar 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 44th American
Result: Success
First tesflligh of a manned Apollo Lunar Module (in Earth orbit).
86)
Mission: Apollo 10 Charlie Brown
Launched: 18 May 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 45th American
(33rd human, 21st American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): second manned mission to the Moon. Testflight of the Apollo spaceship (CSM Charlie Brown and LM Snoopy) and docking maneuvers in lunar orbit. A very successful mission that paved the way to the first lunar landing.
87)
Mission: Apollo 10 Snoopy
Launched: 18 May 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 46th American
Result: Success
Tesflight of an Apollo lander around the Moon. It descended along the Apollo 11 trajectory up to 10 km altitude.
88)
Mission: L-3S
Launched: 3 Jul 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 42nd Soviet
Result: Failure
Second launch test of the Soviet lunar rocket: it began to fail 0.25 second after liftoff when the oxidizer pump of engine #8 ingested a slag fragment and exploded. A fire ensued as the vehicle climbed past the top of the tower, then the vehicle began to fall back to the pad at a 45 degree angle. The escape tower fired at the top of the brief trajectory, taking the dummy descent module away from the pad. Upon impact, the vehicle exploded, destroying the launch pad.
89)
Mission: Apollo 11 Columbia
Launched: 16 Jul 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 47th American
(34th human, 22nd American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first lunar landing and first man on the Moon. On 20 July 1969 at 16h18 EDT, Neil Armstrong reported: "Houston, Tranquillity Base here.  The Eagle has landed." At 22:56 EDT, he radioed: "That's one small step for a man... one giant leap for mankind."  He and Aldrin spent 21½ hours on the Moon, 2½ hours walking on Tranquility Base. They brought back 22 kg of lunar soil sample and photos of a new world. 
90)
Mission: Apollo 11 Eagle
Launched: 16 Jul 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 48th American
Result: Success
The first Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Tranquility Basin (by 0.67408° North latitude and 23.47297° East longitude).
91)
Mission: Zond 7
Launched: 7 Aug 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 43rd Soviet
Result: Success
Second complete sucessful circumlunar testflight. The craft flew past the Moon at 1,985 km and conducted two picture taking sessions. Successfully accomplished double-dip reentry and landed 50 km from its aim point in the USSR. This Zond mission is the only complete success flight that could have returned cosmonauts alive and uninjured to Earth.
92)
Mission: Soyuz 6
Launched: 11 Oct 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 44th Soviet
(35th human, 13th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the first (and only) three-manned space mission. Tested spacecraft systems and maneuvring of spaceships with respect to each other, conducted scientific, technical and medico-biological experiments. Carried Vulkan welding furnace for vacuum welding experiments in depressurized orbital module. Soyuz 6 was to have taken spectacular motion pictures of Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 8 docking, but failure of rendezvous electronics in all three craft did not permit such rendezvous and dockings.
93)
Mission: Soyuz 7
Launched: 12 Oct 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 45th Soviet
(36th human, 14th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): part of the first (and only) three-manned space mission.
94)
Mission: Soyuz 8
Launched: 13 Oct 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 46th Soviet
(37th human, 15th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): part of the first (and only) three-manned space mission.
95)
Mission: Apollo 12 Yankee Clipper
Launched: 14 Nov 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 49th American
(38th human, 23rd American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): second manned lunar landing. The Saturn V/Apollo spacecraft was struck by lightnings (at 36.5 seconds and 52 seconds into the flight), but the vehicle stayed on course and no damage was done. The lunar module Intrepid landed on 19 November 1969 at 1h55 EST and Conrad set foot on the Moon at 6h44 EST. Being shorter than Armstrong, he said: "Whoopee! Man, that may have been a small step for Neil, but that's a long one for me." He and Bean spent 31½ hours on the Moon, performed two spacewalks (total: 7h½ hours), brought back 34,4 kg of soil some pieces of the Surveyor 3 probe. 
96)
Mission: Apollo 12 Intrepid
Launched: 14 Nov 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 50th American
Result: Success
The second Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Ocean of Storms (by 3.01239° South latitude and 23.42157° West longitude), about 163 meters from the Surveyor 3 probe that had landed in April 1967.
97)
Mission: Kosmos / L-1e No 1
Launched: 28 Nov 69
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 47th Soviet
Result: Failure
Attempted testflight of Proton's fourth (Block D) upper stage in a lunar crasher configuration. Payload was a modified circumlunar craft, which provided guidance to the Block D and was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D propellants under zero-G conditions. The launch was a failure because of a first-stage malfunction. (The mission was successfully flown over a year later, as Kosmos 382.)
1 9 7 0 (6 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 142 missions = 4 %)
98)
Mission: Apollo 13 Odyssey
Launched: 11 Apr 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 51st American
(39th human, 24th American)
Result:: Failure
Piloted (3 crewmembers): third manned lunar attempt.  The mission failed when an oxygen tank in the CSM Odyssey exploded en route to the Moon.  On 13 April 1970 at 22h08 EST, the crew reported an undervoltage alarm on the CSM main bus B, rapid loss of pressure in SM oxygen tank No. 2, and dropping current in fuel cells 1 and 3 to a zero reading. The crew was recovered with great difficulties. Apollo 13 is considered a “sucessful failure” because the crew was saved.
99)
Mission: Apollo 13 Aquarius
Launched: 11 Apr 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 52nd American
Result: Success
Aquarius was schedule to make the third manned lunar landing, but became a (very robust) lifeboat that preserved the life of the crew up to an hour prior Earth reentry.  It performed well above its design limits. 
100)
Mission: Soyuz 9
Launched: 1 Jun 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 48th Soviet
(40th human, 16th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the longuest manned spaceflight to date: 17 days, 16 hours and 59 minutes. The crew returned successfully on Earth, but in poor physical condition. 
101)
Mission: Zond 8
Launched: 20 Oct 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks 49th Soviet
Result: Success
Final circumlunar testflight: it obtained photographs of Earth from a distance of 64,480 km and transmitted images during three days. Zond 8 flew past the Moon at 1,110 km and used a new variant of the double-dip reentry, coming in over the North pole and then making a splashdown in the Indian Ocean.
102)
Mission: Kosmos 379 / T2K 1
Launched: 24 Nov 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 50th Soviet
Result: Succes
Soviet lunar lander test: the craft made a series of engine burns, simulating the lunar landing profile. After 3½ days in orbit, the first burn was made in imitation of a descent to the lunar surface. After 4 days, a large maneuvre was made, simulating the ascent from the lunar surface. Then followed a series of small adjustments simulating rendezvous and docking with the mother ship. These tests proceed without major problems. 
103)
Mission: Kosmos 382 (Soyuz)
Launched: 2 Dec 70
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 51st Soviet
Result: Sucess
Earth-orbit test of Proton's upper stage (Block D) in its N1 lunar crasher configuration. Three maneuvres simulated the lunar-orbit insertion burn; the lunar-orbit circularization burn and the descent burn to bring the lander just over the surface. Payload was equipped with television cameras that viewed the behavior of the Block D stage propellants under zero-G conditions.
1 9 7 1 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 175 missions = 6 %)
104)
Mission: Apollo 14 Kitty Hawk
Launched: 31 Jan 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 53rd American
(40st human, 25th American)
Result:: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): third manned lunar landing. Antares landed on 3 February 1971 at 4h17 EST, less than 20 meters from its planned landing point. Shepard and Mitchell made two EVAs (total: 9h22) during their 33h30 stay on the Moon. They use a small cart to carry equipement and sample. They walked some 4 km, the farthest point traveled from the LM was 1,474 meters. They brought back 42.3 kg of soil but failed to find the Cone Crater in a “sea of craters” (they were within only 15 meters from the rim of the crater). Shepard “played golf” on the Moon; on the third swing, he drove a golfball to some 365 meters.
105)
Mission: Apollo 14 Antares
Launched: 31 Jan 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 54th American
Result: Success
The third Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Fra Mauro region (by 3.64398° South latitude and 17.47748° West longitude), the intended landing site for Apollo 13.
106)
Mission: Kosmos 398 / T2K 2
Launched: 26 Feb 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 52nd Soviet
Result: Success
Second space test of the Soviet lunar lander: it followed the same program as Kosmos 379.
107)
Mission: Salyut 1
Launched: 19 Apr 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks 53rd Soviet
Result: Success
First manned space station: two crews were launched to board it, the first one failed, but the second stayed for three weeks. Primarily a civilian space station, Salyut 1 included a number of military experiments: the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterising rocket plumes and the highly-classified Svinets radiometer. 
     By the end of the first orbit, ground controllers discovered that the large cover on the exterior protecting the scientific apparatus compartment – that is, the OST-1 telescope -- had not been jettisoned, thus jeopardizing at least 90 percent of the scientific experiments program.  Apparently, the explosive devices for the cover had failed to fire.
     The station orbited Earth for 180 days; it was learned that although much more comfortable than the Soyuz, the station needs many improvements, including: a unit for ejecting liquids, solar panels and scientific instruments that can be automatically pointed at the Sun or their target and stabilised, an improved control section, and better crew rest provisions. Only with such improvements will it be possible to make flights of two months or longer. 
108)
Mission: Soyuz 10
Launched: 22 Apr 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 54th Soviet
(42nd human, 17th Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first crew launched to live onboard an orbital space station.  Two of the three crewmembers (Shatalov and Yeliseyev) became the first Soviets to make three spaceflights.) Soyuz 10 soft-docked with Salyut 1, but hard-docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. The spaceship was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. But when it tried to undock, a mechanism impeded the separation. After several attempts, Soyuz 10 was finally able to undock and return to Earth, after a 2-day flight. The capsule made USSR's first night landing, falling some 50 meters from the edge of a lake (from which it was saved at the last moment by a gust of wind).
109)
Mission: Soyuz 11
Launched:
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 55th Soviet
(43rd human, 18th Soviet)
Result: Partial Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first crew to live onboard a space station. Soyuz 11 docked normally to Salyut 1 and the crew was able to enter.  It soon began its schedule four-week work program. On 16 June at 13h00, the cosmonauts report a strong burning smell and smoke in the station. They retreat to the Soyuz. Later, the commander reports that all was normal - there was no more smoke or burning smell - and requested permission to continue the flight. (The crew never found the origin of the fire.) The mission was still planned for the full 30 days, but the physical training program has not been followed due to many problems and breakdowns aboard the station, requiring the cosmonauts to spent a lot of time in unplanned repair activities. Finally, the Soyuz capsule was recovered on 29 June at 23h17 TU, but when the hatch was opened, it was found that the crew had perished due to a loss of cabin atmosphere. A pressure equalization valve was jerked loose at the jettison of the orbital module. The crew did not have space suits to protect them.
110)
Mission: LK (N-1 test)
Launched: 26 Jun 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 56th Soviet
Result: Failure
Third launch test of the Soviet lunar rocket: it developed a roll beyond the capability of the control system to compensate and began to break up as it went through Max Q. Control was lost at 50.2 seconds and the vehicle was destroyed by range safety a second later.
111)
Mission: Apollo 15 Endeavour
Launched: 26 Jul 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 55th American
(44th human, 26th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): fourth manned lunar landing. The lunar module Falcon landed on 30 July 1971 at 18h16 EDT. During the most complex lunar mission yet, Scott and Irwin performed three EVAs (totalling 18h35). Color pictures from  the lunar surface were excellent. Moonwalkers used a jeep to travel 27.9 km to explore a vast area and to collect 77.3 kg of lunar samples during their 66h54 they spend on the Moon. The farthest point traveled from the LM was 5,02 km. While the LM was on the surface, the CSM pilot completed 34 lunar orbits, conducting scientific experiments and operating cameras to obtain data concerning the lunar surface and the lunar environment. Liftoff of Falcon's ascent stage was televised for the first time via a camera placed at a distance on the lunar rover. The crew also eject a scientific subsatellite into lunar orbit and the CSM pilot performed the first deep-space EVA (en route from the Moon to Earth) to retreive film cassettes.  On splasdown, one of the three main parachutes failed to deployed (no injury to the crew).
112)
Mission: Apollo 15 Falcon
Launched: 26 Jul 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 56th American
Result: Success
The fourth Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Hadley-Apennine region (by 26.13222° North latitude and 3.63386° East longitude), 600 meters north-northwest of the proposed target.
113)
Mission: Lunar Rover (LRV-1)
Launched: 26 Jul 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 57th American
Result: Success
Apollo 15 crew used for the first time and with great success a lunar jeep called the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-1), nicknamed the Rover. Onboard the Rover, they traveled a total distance of 27.9 km during 3h00 of driving time.
114)
Mission: Kosmos 434 / T2K 3
Launched: 12 Aug 71
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 57th Soviet
Result: Success
Final Soviet lunar lander test.
1 9 7 2 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 143 missions = 6 %)
115)
Mission: Apollo 16 Casper
Launched: 16 Apr 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 58th American
(45th human, 27th American)
Result:: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): fifth manned lunar landing. The Orion module landed on 20 April 1972 at 21h23 EST.  During their 3-day on the Moon, Young and Duke made three spacewalks (totalling 20h15), travelled 26.7 kilometers with a jeep, collecting 96.6 kilograms of soil. 
116)
Mission: Apollo 16 Orion
Launched: 16 Apr 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 59th American
Result: Success
The fifth Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Descartes region (by 8.97301° South latitude and 15.50019° East longitude), about 230 meters northwest of the planned target area.
117)
Mission: Lunar Rover (LRV-2)
Launched: 16 Apr 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 60th American
Result: Success
The second Rover used by an astronaut crew on the Moon.
118)
Mission: Kosmos 496 (Soyuz)
Launched: 26 Jun 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks 58th Soviet
Result: Success
10-day testflight of a redesigned two-seat Soyuz spacecraft following the Soyuz 11 accident. Little is known about the flight except that there was one orbital maneuver, and the descent capsule returned to Earth.
119)
Mission: Salyut
Launched: 29 Jul 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 59th Soviet
Result: Failure
The second Salyut civilian space station: failed to reach orbit because of the Proton's second-stage malfunctioned 162 seconds into the flight.
120)
Mission: N-1 test
Launched: 23 Nov 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 60th Soviet
Result: Failure
Fourth (and final) launch test of the Soviet lunar rocket. The launcher incorporated significant changes to the previous ones, including roll 'steering' engines to prevent the loss of control that destroyed the precedent N1. At launch, the rocket's engines ran up to 107 seconds, only seven seconds before completion of first stage burnout. But programmed shutdown of some engines to prevent overstressing the structure led to propellant line hammering, rupture of propellant lines and an explosion of engine number 4. Following this fourth failure in four launches, the N1 lunar rocket program was cancelled.
121)
Mission: Apollo 17 America
Launched: 7 Dec 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 61st American
(46th human, 28th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): sixth and last manned lunar landing. The Challenger module landed on 11 December 1972 at 14h55 EST. Cernan and Schmitt spent three days on the Moon, making three EVAs (totalling 22h05), driving 35 km on a jeep and collecting 115 kg of soil. This mission marks the last time man walked on another world in the 20th Century.
122)
Mission: Apollo 17 Challenger
Launched: 7 Dec 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 62nd American
Result: Success
The sixth Apollo Lunar Module landed in the Taurus-Littrow region (by 20.19080° North latitude and 30.77168° East longitude).
123)
Mission: Lunar rover (LRV-3)
Launched: 7 Dec 72
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 63rd American
Result: Success
The third Rover used by an astronaut crew on the Moon.
1 9 7 3 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 146 missions = 6 %)
M2)
Mission: Salyut 2
Launched: 3 Apr 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (2nd military)
Result:: Failure
First military (Almaz) orbital space station. Following a successful launch, Salyut 2 conduct at least two major orbital corrections, on April 4 and 8. Throughout the first few days in orbit, all onboard systems seemed to be working without fault. Trouble struck on the thirteenth day of flight, on April 15, when controllers reported that the main telemetry system had failed and that pressure in the main hull had dropped by half. Precise measurements of the station's orbital trajectory showed that its path had deviated slightly, as if given some kind of thrust. Apparently, when Salyut 2's main engine was fired, it had caused punctures in the main hull. (Some suggest that the station might have been hit by residual debris from the Proton booster on April 15.) Western reports suggested that the actual hull breach had been so violent that the station's solar panels and boom-mounted rendezvous radar and radio transponder had been ripped off. 
     On 28 April, TASS announced that "having checked the design of improved on-board systems and carried out experiments in space, Salyut 2 had completed its flight program" - notably omitting the word "successfully" which it normally used in such press releases. Lost and tumbling, the station decayed on 28 May (after 55 days in space).
124)
Mission: Kosmos 557 (Salyut
Launched: 11 May 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 61st Soviet
Result: Failure
Third civilian space station launched to upstage Skylab orbited 3 days later. But, on the very first orbit, Salyut's attitude-control engines spuriously begun firing because of a failure in an ion sensor. As a result, it depleted all its fuel reserves. The fact that the accident occurred in the first few orbits allowed the Soviet press to disguise the mission by calling it Kosmos 557. On 22 May, the craft's main engine was fired to raise its orbit, but because of improper orientation, it reentered the atmosphere and burned up over the Indian Ocean, after only 11 days.
125)
Mission: Skylab 1
Launched: 14 May 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 64th American
Result: Success
First (and only) American (civilian) space station. Severly damaged during its launch: the protective thermal/meteoroid shield was ripped off 63 seconds into ascent, tearing away one of the two main solar array wings as some debris jammed the second. The station was repaired by the first two crews. During its 9 months of occupation, Skylab received three crews (for 1, 2 and 3 months stays). Following the manned phase, ground controllers performed engineering tests on the craft that they were reluctant to do while men were aboard. Results helped determine causes of failures during the mission and provide data on long-term degradation of space systems. It was expected that Skylab would remain in orbit for 8 to 10 years. It was then hope that it could be visited by an early Space Shuttle crew, reboosted into a higher orbit and used again. But delays in first Shuttle flights and intense Solar activities made this impossible. After a worldwide scare over its pending crash, Skylab made an uncontrolled entry over the Pacific Ocean on 11 July 1979 (after 2,249 days in space). It fell into the south-east Indian Ocean and Western Australia. Some of its pieces were found.
126)
Mission: Skylab 2
Launched: 25 May 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks 65th American
(47th human, 29th American)
Result: §uccess
Piloted (3 crewmembers): first crew to board the Skylab space station. It was an epic repair mission: the crew performed two EVAs to repair the damaged station. Following a flyaround inspection on 25 June, Apollo docked with Skylab at 17h56 EDT. It undocked at 18h45, so the astronaut could improvised an EVA to try to deploy the solar array with a long pole. The attempt failed. They succeed during a second EVA performed on 7 June. They also deployed a lightweight solar shield, which brought the temperatures inside Skylab down to tolerable levels. The astronauts then spent a “normal” month in the cavernous station. They also complete a large scientific experiments program. With the completion of this 28-day mission, the United States took back the manned spaceflight duration record.
127)
Mission: Kosmos 573 (Soyuz)
Launched: 15 Jun 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 62nd Soviet
Result: Success
First testflight of the Soyuz variant without any solar panel (thus able to stay for only two days in space). The craft performed a single orbital maneuver, to lower apogee, before returning to Earth after 2 days and 9 minutes. Presumably, the flight was sufficiently successful to warrant a return-to-flight mission in the program (Soyuz 12).
128)
Mission: Skylab 3
Launched: 28 Jul 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 66th American
(48th human, 30th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): second crew to live onboard Skylab. The astronauts continued repair of the station - a second twin-boom sunshade was deployed over the parasol installed by the prevous crew - and performed major inflight maintenance. One of the Apollo atttitude-control engine oxidizer valve leaked (but was later isolated). Since this problem could impede the return to Earth of the craft, another Apollo capsule was prepared to rescue the crew. Skylab 3 crewmembers also completed an extensive scientific and medical experiments, including 1,081 hours of Solar and Earth observations. The 56-day mission doubled the record for length of time passed in space.
129)
Mission: Soyuz 12
Launched: 27 Sep 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 63rd Soviet
(49th human, 19th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first manned testflight following the Soyuz 11 accident (2 years earlier). The Soyuz underwent a major redesign to increase its reliability; it is now able to carry only two cosmonauts (instead of three) and the flight last only two days, the time needed to go between Earth and a Salyut space station. Within seven hours of launch, the crew fired the Soyuz main engine to alter their orbital parameters, simulating a rendezvous with an imaginary station. To preclude rumors of a failed mission, the Soviet press announced that the mission would last only two days. sufficient to test its capabilities as a crew transport ship. One of the primary goals was to test the Sokol-KI new pressure suits; the crew depressurized part of the ship to test these suits. In another scientific investigation, as one took Earth resources photos using a multispectral camera, the other usied a standard camera while others in airplanes took photos of the same areas to compare distortions introduced by the atmosphere. Small biological payloads were apparently carried onboard. On the second day, there were some serious defects in the life-support system, followed by a failure in the ship's attitude control system, but the crew managed to successfully returned to Earth.
130)
Mission: Skylab 4
Launched: 16 Nov 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 67th American
(50th human, 31th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): third and last crew to live in the Skylab space station. Planned duration of the mission was 56 days, with the option of extending it to a maximum of 84 days. This final Skylab mission included observations and photographs of Comet Kohoutek. Rebellion by the astronauts against ground controllers led to none of them ever fly again. The 84-day flight increased manned space flight time record by 50%.
131)
Mission: Kosmos 613 (Soyuz)
Launched: 30 Nov 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 64th Soviet
Result: Success
Long-duration unmanned testflight of a Soyuz. Over a period of six days, the spacecraft rnaneuvered into a working orbit similar to ones planned for future Salyut civilian stations, and then powered down, simulating conditions when such ferries would be docked. After an apparently successful mission, it returned to Earth on 29 January 1974 (after 60 days and 9 minutes).
132)
Mission: Soyuz 13
Launched: 18 Dec 73
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 65th Soviet
(51st human, 20th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): a unique flight of a modified Soyuz launched primarily to perform scientific experiments that were delayed by repeated failures in the Salyut program. As soon as it entered orbit, Soyuz 13 marked the first time that men from both the United States and the Soviet Union were in space at the same time. The spaceship was equipped with solar arrays and carries as its main payload the Orion-2 astrophysical telescope which was mounted outside in place of the docking system. The instrument was designed to observe stars in the ultraviolet band and also x-ray emissions from the Sun, as the mission was timed to coincide with Comet Kohoutek's approach to Earth. During an immensely successful flight, the crew took 10,000 spectrograms of more than 3,000 stars using NASA-supplied film. it also performed a wide range of scientific experiments in medicine, biology, Earth resources, astronomy and navigation. The crew successfully returned to Earth on 26 December 1973, after eight days.
1 9 7 4 (6 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 136 missions = 4½ %)
133)
Mission: Kosmos 638 (Soyuz)
Launched: 3 Apr 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 66th Soviet
Result:: Success
10-day unmanned testflight of a Soyuz.
134)
Mission: Kosmos 656 (Soyuz)
Launched: 27 May 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 67th Soviet
Result: §ucess
2-day unmanned testflight of the Soyuz variant designed to dock with the military Almaz space station.
M3)
Mission: Salyut 3
Launched:
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (3rd military)
Result: Success
Second, but the first successful, Almaz military space station. Tested a wide array of reconnaissance sensors. Only one of the three planned crews managed to board it; one failed to dock and the other was never launched. On 23 September 1974, the station ejected a film return capsule, which suffered damage during reentry but all its film were recoverable. On 24 January 1975, the onboard Nudelmann aircraft cannon was test-fired. The next day, Salyut 3 was commanded to a destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean, after 214 days in space.
M4)
Mission: Soyuz 14
Launched: 3 Jul 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks (4th military)
(52nd human, 21st Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first military piloted Almaz mission. The crew docked with Salyut 3 and two cosmonauts spent two weeks onboard. Their planned experimental program included military reconnaissance of the Earth's surface, assessing the fundamental value of such observations, and some supplemental medico-biological research. All objectives were successfully completed and the Soyuz capsule landed within 2 km of its aim point.
135)
Mission: Kosmos 670 (Soyuz)
Launched: 6 Aug 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 68th Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned testflight of a Soyuz, recovered after 3 days. 
136
Mission: Kosmos 672 (Soyuz)
Launched: 12 Aug 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 69th Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned testing of an Apollo-Soyuz version of the Soyuz. The craft maneuvered 5 times and was recovered after 6 days.
M5)
Mission: Soyuz 15
Launched: 26 Aug 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (5th military)
(53rd human, 22nd Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (2 crewmembers): Soyuz 15 was to have conduct the second manned mission aboard the Salyut 3 military space station. But its Igla rendezvous system failed and no docking was possible. Since the Soyuz had no reserves or backup systems for repeated manual docking attempts, it had to land after only two days. The crew was safely recovered.
     The state commission later found that the Igla system needed serious modifications. Since this could not be done before Salyut 3 decayed, there was no time to launch the planned third mission. (The craft was later flown as Soyuz 20, although it had surpassed its two-year storage life.)
137)
Mission: Soyuz 16
Launched: 2 Dec 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 70th Soviet
(54th human, 23rd Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): piloted testflight of the Soyuz part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. During its 6-day flight, the crew check-out onboard systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the US-USSR joint flight. The crew also conducted scientific and technical experiments.
138)
Mission: Salyut 4
Launched: 26 Dec 74
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 71st Soviet
Result: Success
Highly-successful fourth civilian space station. During 1975, it received two long-duration crews and then conducted a long-term unmanned technical tests program. Salyut 4 was deorbited over the Pacific Ocean on 2 February 1977, after 769 days in space.
1 9 7 5 (7 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 168 missions = 4 %)
139)
Mission: Soyuz 17
Launched: 10 Jan 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 72nd Soviet
(55th human, 24th Soviet)
Result:: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first crew to board the Salyut 4 civil space station. Two cosmonauts spent nearly a month doing experiments.
140)
Mission: April 5 anomaly
Launched: 5 Apr 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 73rd Soviet
(56th human, 25th Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (2 crewmembers). Cosmonauts of this “Soyuz 18” were scheduled to spent two months in Salyut 4 but, instead, they survived the first launch abort accident. Launcher's third stage failed to separate from the second stage still ignited. The Soyuz was separated by ground control at 192 km altitude and, following a 20+ G ballistic reentry, it landed in the Altai mountains, tumbled down a mountainside and snagged in some bushes just short of a precipice. The crew was worried that they may have landed in China and would face internment. But after an hour sitting in the cold next to the capsule, they were discovered by locals speaking Russian. Lazarev suffered internal injuries and never flew again. This is the first launch failure ever acknowledged by the Soviets; on the eve of the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the accident caused some concern in the United States.
141)
Mission: Soyuz 18
Launched: 24 May 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 74th Soviet
(57th human, 26th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the “April 5th Anomaly” backup crew spent two months inside Salyut 4. The cosmonauts completed a large series of scientific and technical experiments. Since they remained aloft during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project joint flight, they caused concern to the U.S. on the Soviet ability to conduct two complexe piloted missions. The crew returned on Earth five days after the Soyuz 19 crew, setting a new Soviet long-duration flight record: 63 days.
142)
Mission: Soyuz 19
Launched: 15 Jul 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks 75th Soviet
(58th human, 27th Soviet)
Result: Sucess
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the Soviet half of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), the first joint piloted mission between the Soviet Union and the United States. For the first time in the Soviet space program, the launch was show live on TV around the world. On 17 July at 11h10, Apollo docked with Soyuz. Crewmembers rotated between the two crafts and conducted various ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5h43, while Kubasov spent 4h57. After being docked for nearly 44 hours, the crafts parted and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the Sun to create an eclipse. After this experiment, Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking. Three hours later, they undocked for the final time. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways. After years of meticulous preparations and development of a common docking system, the mission was a great success. Soyuz 19 returned on Earth after 6 days while Apollo continued for another 3 days.
143)
Mission: Apollo ASTP
Launched: 15 Jul 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 68th American
(59th human, 31th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): the American half for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). The last Apollo lift-off 7h30 after Soyuz to test a common docking system for space rescue. Stafford spent 7h10 aboard Soyuz, Brand 6h30 and Slayton 1h35 (see previous entry).
    After the joint flight, the American crew conducted Earth observations, experiments in a multipurpose furnace, extreme ultraviolet survey, etc. The crew splasdown after 9 days in space.  During reentry, the astronauts suffered some pulmonary problems by inhaling fumes. They were incommodated, but not severly injured.
     Their return marks the end of an era for the U.S. space program: the last time a capsule was used. The first Space Shuttle was schedule to be launched in March 1978 but, in fact, no American flew for six years. Also, 20 years will past before any joint spaceflight occured: Shuttle-Mir missions, before the International Space Station.
144)
Mission: Kosmos 772  (Soyuz)
Launched: 29 Sep 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 76th Soviet
Result: Failure
Unmanned military Soyuz testflight: unsuccessful mission. The craft transmitted only on 166 MHz frequency, but at none of the other usual Soyuz wavelengths. Recovered after 4 days.
145
Mission: Soyuz 20
Launched: 17 Nov 75
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 77th Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned long-duration testflight of a Soyuz transport vehicle, precursor to the Progress cargoship. The craft docked automatically to Salyut 4. Carried living organisms that were exposed to three months in space before being recovered.
1 9 7 6 (2 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 164 missions = 1 %)
M6)
Mission: Salyut 5
Launched: 22 Jun 76
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (6th military)
Result:: Success
Third (and last) military Almaz space station, second operated with success. Two crews visited the station and one failed to dock. (A fourth mission was planned, but was cancelled due to low orientation fuel on Salyut 5.) During flights, a 'parallel crew' was inside a duplicate station on the ground, to conduct the same operations in support of over 300 science and technology experiments.  Onboard Salyut 5 were a pair of Russian tortoises and Zebrafish. Presumably, the station was equipped with a side-looking radar for reconnaissance of land and sea targets. A film capsule was ejected on 22 February 1977 and recovered. The station was deorbited on 8 August 1977, after 411 days.
     The results of both Salyut 3 and 5 flights showed that manned reconnaissance was not worth the expense. There was minimal time to operate the equipment because the crew need time for maintenance of station housekeeping and environmental control systems. The experiments themselves showed good results, especially the value of reconnaissance of the same location in many different spectral bands.
M7)
Mission: Soyuz 21
Launched: 6 Jul 76
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (7th military)
(60th human, 28th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the first crew to operate the Salyut 5 military station.  The craft docked with the station after failure of the Igla system at the last stage of the rendezvous. The crew operated successfully the stations's equipement during 1½ month. Towards the end of the mission, an early return to Earth was requested due to the poor condition of flight engineer Zholobov (who was suffering from space sickness and psychological problems).
145)
Mission: Soyuz 22
Launched: 15 Sep 76
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 78th Soviet
(61st human, 29th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): a unique week-long civilian Earth observation mission. This surplus Soyuz ASTP spacecraft was modified with the addition in its orbital module of a multi-spectral camera manufactured by Carl Zeiss-Jena. Eight days were spent photographing Earth.
147)
Mission: Soyuz 23
Launched: 14 Oct 76
R:
Duration:
Ranks (8th military)
(62nd human, 30th Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (2 crewmembers): second crew launched to operate the Salyut 5 military space station. The ferry craft suffered a docking system failure: sensors indicated an incorrect lateral velocity, causing unnecessary firing of the thrusters during rendezvous. The automatic system was turned off, but no fuel remained for a manual docking by the crew. The capsule landed safely after 2 days.
147)
Mission: Kosmos 869 (Soyuz)
Launched: 29 Nov 76
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 79th Soviet
Result: Success
Unmanned military Soyuz testflight. Made six orbital maneuvers and transmitted only on 20.008 MHz and 166 MHz frequencies, at none of the other usual Soyuz radio wavelengths. Recovered after 18 days. 
M9)
Mission: Kosmos 881 (TKS)
Launched: 15 Dec 78
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (9th military)
Result: Success
First testflight of a pair of reusable capsule able to carry a three-person crew for 31 hours of autonomous flight. These capsules were similar in configuration to an Apollo capsule, but was 30% smaller. This first test was a one-orbit flight: once the Proton final stage shut down, the first capsule separated and, two seconds later, the second capsule. All systems of both crafts were in operation and their guidance system oriented each for retrofire. The pair than began the return to Earth. At 10 km altitude, the three-cupola drogue parachute was ejected and the soft landing was accomplished with higher accuracy than Soyuz. Both capsules were recovered after a 1½-hour and less than one revolution flight. (At the time, this Cosmos 881-882 double flight was very confounding for Western observers, many believiug them to be some tests of a manned spaceplane prototypes.)
M10)
Mission: Kosmos 882 (TKS) 
Launched: 15 Dec 78
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (10th military)
Result: Success
First testflight of a pair of reusable Apollo-type piloted capsule (see above).
1 9 7 7 (3 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 147 missions = 2 %)
M11)
Mission: Soyuz 24
Launched: 7 Feb 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (11th military)
(63rd human, 31st Soviet)
Result:: Success
Piloted (2 crewmembers): second (and last) crew to work inside the Salyut 5 military space station.  The crew brought repair equipment and for a change of cabin atmosphere.  However, even if analysis showed no toxins in the air, the crew changed the cabin air anyway, then returned to Earth. The mission, although a short 18 days, was characterised as a busy and successful mission, accomplishing nearly as much as the earlier Soyuz 21's 50-day mission.
M12)
Mission: Kosmos 929 (TKS)
Launched: 17 Jul 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (12th military)
Result: Success
First test of the Soviet new manned ferry vehicle. This TKS (Transportniy Korabl Snabzheniya) vehicle was designed to provide a reusable resupply and crew return spacecraft much more capable and flexible than either the Soyuz or Apollo designs. On its first flight, the TKS maneuvered extensively (13 times) and its capsule returned to Earth after a month. 
M13)
Mission: Kosmos (TKS)
Launched: 4 Aug 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: (30th military)
Result: Failure
Second test of a pair of reusable capsules, but they were lost when Proton's first stage engine steering unit failed at 40 seconds into the flight.
M14)
Mission: Kosmos (TKS)
Launched: 4 Aug 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks (14th military)
Result: Failure
Second test of a pair of reusable capsules, but they were lost when Proton's first stage engine steering unit failed at 40 seconds into the flight.
148)
Mission: Salyut 6
Launched: 29 Sep 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 80th Soviet
Result: Success
Fifth civilian Soviet space station, operated with great success during 3½ years. Salyut 6 is considered a second-generation space station because it had two docking ports, which made possible the presence of two visiting spaceships at a time. With Salyut 6, the very secretive Soveit space program open up greatly because the station was visited by international crews.  Five long-duration crews stayed onboard for a cumulative 22 months. They received 11 visiting crews, as well as 12 Progress resupply ships (in addition, 2 crews missed their docking). For the first time, citizens from other countries (than USSR and US) orbited the Earth: they were representatives of 9 Communis states.  Three EVAs were performed from Salyut 6 to conduct surveys and repairs. The station was deorbited over the Pacific Ocean on 29 July 1982, after 1,764 days in space. Salyut 6 represents one of the finest achievement of the Soviet space program.
149)
Mission: Soyuz 25
Launched: 9 Oct 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 81st Soviet
(64th human, 32nd Soviet)
Result: Failure
Piloted (2 crewmembers): first crew schedule to board the newly launched Salyut 6 civilian space station. The craft failed to dock and was recovered after 2 days.
150)
Mission: Soyuz 26
Launched: 10 Dec 77
R:
Duration:
Ranks: 82nd Soviet
(65th human, 33rd Soviet)
Result: Succe=ss
Piloted (2 crewmembers): the first crew to work inside the Salyut 6. Conducted a vast series of science and technology experiments during three months, as well as joint operations with two visiting crews. The occupants were also resupplied by the first Progress cragoship and performed an EVA to inspect the forward docking port of the station, possibly damaged during the Soyuz 25 failed docking (no damage were found). With 96 days in space, the Soyuz 26 crew established a new a world record.
1 9 7 8 (10 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 174 missions = 6 %)
151) Soyuz 27 83rd Soviet
(66th human,
34th Soviet)
10 Jan 78 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first visiting crew to a space station. Two Russian cosmonauts spent a week in Salyut 6 to proceed to the first Soyuz exchange by returning on Earth in Soyuz 26 (and leaving their Soyuz 27 to the resident crew).
152) Progress 1 84th Soviet 20 Jan 78 S First cargo delivery to the Salyut 6 space station: the Progress craft delivered 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. It undocked on 6 February, after 15 days, and was destroyed two days later on reentry in the upper atmosphere.
153) Soyuz 28 85th Soviet
(67th human,
35th Soviet)
2 Mar 78 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): second visiting crew to the Salyut 6 space station and first flight of a citizen from a third courntry: the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. This first Intercosmos team spent a week onboard the station carrying a jointly developed program.
M15) Kosmos 997 (TKS) (15th military) 30 Mar 78 S Third test of a dual TKS reusable Apollo-type capsule. Given the destruction of the second attempt, plans to crew the upper reentry capsule in this test was abandoned. Both capsules were recovered after one orbit. One of the capsules was on its second flight to orbit; this was said to have demonstrated the multiple reentry capability of the heat shield and the first planned reuse of a spacecraft. (Gemini 2 was refurbished and reflown as MOL-1 in the 1960's, but was not designed for that purpose.)
M16) Kosmos 998 (TKS) (16th military) 30 Mar 78 S Third test of a dual TKS  reusable capsule, recovered after one orbit (see above).
154) Kosmos 1001 (Soyuz) 86th Soviet 4 Apr 78 F Unsuccessful testflight of a Soyuz capsule, recovered after 11 days.
155) Soyuz 29 87th Soviet
(68th human,
36th Soviet)
15 Jun 78 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): second long-duration crew which stay three months onboard Salyut 6 space station. The crew received two Intercosmos visiting crews, were resupplied by two Progress cargoships and performed an EVA to retrieve externally-mounted experiments. With a 139½-day flight, it established a new world endurance record. 
156) Soyuz 30 88th Soviet
(69th human,
37th Soviet)
27 Jun 78 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): third visiting crew to Salyut 6 space station and the second Intercosmos crew, with a citizen of Poland. It spent a week perforrming joint experiments with the resident crew. 
157) Progress 2 89ath Soviet 7 Jul 78 S Second cargo delivery to Salyut 6. The craft carried 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the station. It undocked from Salyut on 2 August, after 24 days, and was destroyed two days later in the upper atmosphere.
158) Progress 3 90th Soviet 7 Aug 78 S Third cargo delivery to Salyut 6, with 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the station. The craft undocked from Salyut on 21 August, after 12 days, and was destroyed on reentry two days later.
159) Soyuz 31 91st Soviet
(70th human,
38th Soviet)
 26 Aug 78 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): fourth visiting crew to Salyut 6 space station and third international crew, with a citizen from the German Democratic Republic. It spent a week peforrming joint experiments with the resident crew. Also, it performed the second Soyuz exchange by returning to Earth in the Soyuz 29 capsule.
160) Progress 4 92nd Soviet 3 Oct 78 S Fourth cargo delivery to Salyut 6, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment to the station. The craft undocked from Salyut on 24 October, after 18½ days, and burned on reentry two days later.
1 9 7 9 (8 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 134 missions = 6 %)
161) Kosmos 1074 (Soyuz) 93rd Soviet 31 Jan 79 S Unmanned testflight of the new Soyuz T spaceship, the next generation three-seat transport capsule. During its 60 days solo flight, the craft maneuvered 6 times and was recovered on 1st April 1979.
162) Soyuz 32 94th Soviet
(71st human,
39th Soviet)
25 Feb 79 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): third long-duration crew onboard Salyut 6. This first six-month mission was full of events. The crew received no visitors since the one expected missed its docking. The station residents received one unmanned Soyuz and three resupply Progress and had to improvize an EVA to dislodge a large parabolic antenna stuck on the aft end of their station. Their 175-day flight set a new world record. (Soyuz 32 returned unmanned on 15 June 1979, see Soyuz 34 below.)
163) Progress 5 95th Soviet 12 Mar 79 S This fifth cargo delivery to Salyut 6 carried 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. It undocked from the station on 3 April, after 20 days, and was destroyed in the upper Earth atmosphere two days later.
164) Soyuz 33 96th Soviet
(72nd human,
40th Soviet)
10 Apr 79 F Piloted (2 crewmembers): fifth visiting crew to Salyut 6 space station and fourth Intercosmos crew, with a citizen from Bulgaria. The crew failed to dock with the station and had to return to Earth after only two days. Since this mission was scheduled to exchange the Soyuz 32 capsule, program managers were forced to launch unmanned the next Soyuz. Also, this international failure marks a blow to the Soviet Union's claim to always succeed in its space operations.
165) Progress 6 97th Soviet 13 May 79 S Sixth cargo delivery to the Salyut 6 space station. The cargoship carried 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. It undocked from the station on 8 June, after 24 days, and burn up the next day.
M17) Kosmos 1100 (TKS) (17th military) 22 May 79 S Fourth test of a pair of TKS reusable Apollo-type capsule. The capsules launched were the twins from the third test. One capsule failed when its automatic system suffered an electrical distribution failure and did not land correctly, spending two orbits in space. The other capsule landed as planned after one orbit. The launch again demonstrated the reusability of the capsule. But plans to launch the upper capsule with a crew were scrubbed due to the inability to get two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS. (As for the three precedent tests, for the Western observers at the time, this mission was considered a strange “spaceplane test”.)
M18) Kosmos 1101 (TKS) (18th military) 22 May 79 S The second TKS capsule part of the fourth dual testflight (see above).
166) Soyuz 34 98th Soviet 6 Jun 79 F Launched unmanned to provide return capability to Salyut 6 residents. Since the failed docking of Soyuz 33, which was supposed to serve as the recovery ship, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed. Fortunately, after checkout of its propulsion system, the craft docked successfully with Salyut 6. On 19 August 1979, it transported back on Earth the Salyut 6 residents.
167) Progress 7 99th Soviet 28 Jun 79 S Seventh cargoship that delivered fuel, consumable materials and equipment to Salyut 6. It also carried the 10-meter diameter radio telescope KRT-10. Attached to the station docking hatch, the antenna was deployed after the separation of Progress on 18 July 1979 (after 18 days docked). Unfortunately, the telescope get stucked and cosmonauts had to make an urgent EVA to discarde it. Meanwhile, Progress 7 was commanded to a destructive reentry two days after its undocking.
168) Soyuz T 100th Soviet 16 Dec 79 S Unmanned test of the three-seat Soyuz T design. The craft docked and stayed three months at the unoccupied Salyut 6. It was recovered on 25 March 1980, after 100 days in space. 
1 9 8 0 (10 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 144 missions = 7 %)
169) Progress 8 101st Soviet 27 Mar 80 S Eight cargo delivery to Salyut 6. In prevision of the arrival of the fourth resident crew, this new cargoship brought fuel, consumable materials and equipment. It undocked on 25 April, after 26½ days, and was destroyed two days later. 
170) Soyuz 35 102nd Soviet
(73rd human,
41st Soviet)
9 Apr 80 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): fourth long-duration crew to stay in Salyut 6. During 6 months, the crew lived a much less evenfull mission than their predecessors, receiving four visiting crews (3 international) and resupplied by four Progress cargoships. A new endurance record was set: 185 days.
170) Progress 9 103rd Soviet 27 Apr 80 S Ninth cargo delivery to Salyut 6, briging 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 20 May, after 21½ days, and was destroyed two days later.
172) Soyuz 36 104th Soviet
(74th human,
42nd Soviet)
26 May 80 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): sixth visiting crew to the Salyut 6 space station and fifth Intercosmos crew, with a citizen of Hungary. The crew spent a week doing joint experiments with the resident crew.
173) Soyuz T-2 105th Soviet
(75th human,
43rd Soviet)
5 Jun 80 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first piloted testflight of the new version of the Soyuz T transport ship. The crew made a short visit to Salyut 6 and returned on Earth after less than 4 days in space.
174) Progress 10 106th Soviet 29 Jun 80 S Tenth cargo delivery to Salyut 6 with 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 17 July, after 17 days, and was burned two days later.
175) Soyuz 37 107th Soviet
(76th human,
44th Soviet)
23 Jul 80 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): eighth visiting crew to Salyut 6 and sixth Intercosmos, with a citizen from Viet Nam. The crew spent a week along with the residents and proceed to the third exchange of Soyuz, retutning to Earth with the Soyuz 35.
176) Soyuz 38 108th Soviet
(77th human,
45th Soviet)
18 Sep 80 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): ninth visiting crew to Salyut 6 and seventh Intercosmos crew, with a citizen from Cuba. The crew spent a week with the residents doing joint experiments.
177) Progress 11 109th Soviet 28 Sep 80 S Eleventh cargo delivery to Salyut 6.carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 9 december, after 70 days, and was destroyed two days later.
178) Soyuz T-3 110th Soviet
(78th human,
46th Soviet)
27 Nov 80 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): short resident crew launched toward Salyut 6 to carry-out important repairs to the station during a 12-day mission.
1 9 8 1 (6 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 160 missions = 4 %)
179) Progress 12  111th Soviet 24 Jan 81 S 12th cargo delivery to Salyut 6, launched in advance of the arrival of the sixth resident crew. It carried 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 19 March, after 52 days, and was destroyed the day after.
180) Soyuz T-4 112th Soviet
(79th human,
47th Soviet)
12 Mar 81 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): sixth crew to live and work onboard the Salyut 6 space station. During 75 days, the crew carried out repairs and preventive maintenance as well as scientific research. It received two visiting crews and was resupplied by two Progress cargoships. 
181) Soyuz 39 113th Soviet
(80th human,
48th Soviet)
22 Mar 81 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): tenth visiting crew to Salyut 6 and eighth Intercosmos crew, with a citizen from the Mongolian People's Republic. The crew spent a week with the residents doing joint experiments.
182) STS-1 / OFT-1 69th American
(81st human,
33th American)
12 Apr 81 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first flight of the first reusable spaceship: NASA's Space Transportation System, or Space Shuttle. For the first time, a crewed space vehicle was tested with people onboard. For the first time too, a human-rated spacecraft used solid propellant as fuel. At launch, shock waves from the ignition of the Orbiter's engines caused damage to the thermal tiles. On its debut flight, the winged-spaceship proved that it could safely reach Earth orbit and then return through the atmosphere to land like an airplane. In space, the crew tested Columbia’s on-board systems; and fired the Orbital Maneuvering System to changing orbits and the Reaction Control System engines for attitude control. The crew also opened and closed the large payload-bay doors (the bay was empty for this flight). After 36 orbits, the Orbiter made a smooth touchdown in the dry lakebed of Edwards AFB, in California (making the first landing of a US spaceship) after a 2¼-day flight. This flight marks American astronauts return to space after six years of absence.
M19) Kosmos 1267 (TKS)  (19th military) 25 Apr 81 S First TKS flgiht toward a (Salyut) space station. A capsule was recovered on 24 May but the military ferry craft docked to Salyut 6 on 19 June, after 57 days of autonomous flight. It stayed on the station until both were destroyed on 29 July 1982. 
183) Soyuz 40 114th Soviet
(82nd human,
49th Soviet)
14 May 81 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): eleventh visiting crew to Salyut 6 and ninth (and last) Intercosmos crew, with a citizen from Romania. The crew spent a week with the residents doing joint experiments.
184) STS-2 / OFT-2 70th American
(83rd human,
34th American)
12 Nov 81 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first flight of a reused spaceship (Columbia). To eliminate the problem created by the Shuttle’s main engine’s shock wave at ignition, a sound-suppressing (water deluge) system was installed on the pad. Originally intended to last five days, the testflight was cut short when problems developed with one of three onboard fuel cells that produce electricity. However, the crew had time to conduct the first tests of the Canadian Remote Manipulator System arm (Canadarm) and operated the first payload: a package of Earth-viewing instruments. Columbia returned safely after only 2¼ days at Edwards AFB.
1 9 8 2 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 160 missions = 7 %)
185) STS-3 / OFT-3 71st American
(84th human,
35th American)
22 Mar 82 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): The longest of the four Shuttle testflights, Columbia's carried space-viewing instruments for the first time, as the crew continued engineering evaluations of the Orbiter. After rains flooded the dry lakebed at the primary landing site at Edwards AFB, the Orbiter made the Shuttle program’s first (and only) landing at White Sands, New Mexico, after 8 days.
186) Salyut 7 115th Soviet 19 Apr 82 S Sixth civilian Soviet space station and the 2nd second-generation station with two docking ports. Also, the station was designed to allow the installation of an additional large solar array to increase its power supply. Salyut 7 was not operated as successfully as Salyut 6 since it suffured numerous and major breakdowns. The station was inhabited by five resident crews during 3½ years of operations and received 5 visiting crews. It was also resupplied by 13 Progress and received two TKS unmanned large military cargo-carrying craft. With the cancellation of Almaz military space stations, a large proportion of the experiments done onboard Salyut 7 had military objectives. Also, witt the permanent addition of one of the large military TKS module (Kosmos 1686) at the end of its piloted oprations, Salyut 7 became the first orbital space complex (precursor to the multi-modular Mir complex). In August 2006, engines on Kosmos 1686 boosted the station  to a record-high mean orbital altitude of 475 km to forestall reentry.
     In the spring of 1986, Salyut 7 was briefly revisited by a sixth crew and then maintained in automatic operations for five years. In January 1990, the station was out of fuel, unable to maneuver: uncontrolled reentry was expected in three to four years. But Salyut 7 reentered early on, on 7 February 1991, over Argentina. Controllers attempted to control impact point (set for Atlantic Ocean) by setting the craft in tumble. But the maneuver failed and many fragments fell on the town of Capitan Bermudez, 400 km from Buenos Aires. The inhabitants discovered numerous metal fragments at various locations in the city but, luckily, no one was hurt by the metallic shower. Salyut 7 had spent 3,216 days in space, or 8.8 years.
187) Soyuz T-5 116th Soviet
(85th human,
50th Soviet)
13 May 82 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first crew to reside onboard Salyut 7. During its record 211-day flight, the crew received three visiting crews, four Progress resupply ships and performed an EVA to retrieve experimental samples from the outside the station. On 17 May, the crew ejected through the waste disposal hatch Iskra 2, an experimental amateur-radio satellite.
188) Progress 13 117th Soviet 23 May 82 S 1st cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. Progress 13 propulsion engines were used to lower the station orbit in preparation for the Soyuz T-6 mission. The craft undocked on 4 June, after only 10 days, and was destroyed two days tater.
M20) Kosmos 1374 / BOR-4 404 (20th military) 3 Jun 82 S First testflight of the BOR-4 subscale versions of the Spiral manned spaceplane. After a circuit around Earth, the craft deorbited, performed a gliding re-entry, followed by parachute deployment and splashdown in the ocean. After 1¼ revolution, the craft made a 600 km cross-range maneuver. It was recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean, 560 km south of Cocos Islands. The recovery was filmed by an Australian Orion reconnaissance aircraft, revealing the configuration to the West for the first time.
189) Soyuz T-6 118th Soviet
(86th human,
51st Soviet)
24 Jun 82 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): first visiting crew to Salyut 7. Onboard was the first non-communist passengers, a French “spationaut” who performed a week of scientific experiments. 
190) STS-4 / OFT-4 72nd American
(87th human,
36th American)
27 Jun 82 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): fourth and final testflight of the Space Shuttle and the first mission to carry payloads for the Department of Defense. It also included the first small Get-Away Special low-cost easy-access-to-space experiments. After 7 days, Columbia landed for the first time on a concrete runway (instead of the dry lakebed) at Edwards AFB. Following this successful flight, President Reagan declared the Space Shuttle operational.
191) Progress 14 119th Soviet 10 Jul 82 S 2nd cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 10 August, after 29½ days, and was destroyed on 13 August.
192) Soyuz T-7 120th Soviet
(88th human,
52nd Soviet)
19 Aug 82 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): second visiting crew to Salyut 7, which carry the first woman to fly in space since Valentina Terechkova in 1963. This flight was set to upstage the first flight of an American woman set for the following year. During a week, the trio performed experiments with the resident crew and, at the end of its flight, proceed to the exchange of the Soyuz return vehicle for the resident crew.
193) Progress 15 121st Soviet 18 Sep 82 S 3rd cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 14 October, after 24 days, and was destroyed two days later.
194) Progress 16 122nd Soviet 31 Oct 82 S 4th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. It also includes the small experimental amateur-radio satellite, Iskra 3, which was ejected through Salyut 7 waste disposal hatch on 18 November. The craft undocked from the station on 13 December, after 41 days, and was destroyed the day after.
195) STS-5 73rd American
(89th human,
37th American)
11 Nov 82 S Piloted (4 crewmembers): first operational flight of the Space Shuttle program. First piloted spaceship to carry 4 crewmembers and two commercial satellites. SBS-3 and Anik C-3 comsats were ejected from the payload bay (another first) and put into geostationary orbit using the PAM rocket-stage designed for the Shuttle. A planned spacewalk was canceled when problems developed onboard with the two EVA spacesuits. Columbia returned from its fifth flight after 5 days.
1 9 8 3 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 162 missions = 5½ %)
M21) Kosmos 1443 (TKS-M) (21st military) 2 Mar 83 s Testflight of the TKS manned ferry spacecraft. Docked to the forward port of Salyut 7 a week after launch and separated from it 163 days later. The 20-tonne spacecraft carried some cargo to the station.  The reentry capsule separated itself from the TSK on 19 September and continued in space for four days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully reentering on 23 September. It returned 350 kg of material from the station.
M22) Kosmos 1445 (BOR-4 ) (22nd military) 15 Mar 83 S Second testflght of the BOR-4 subscale Spiral spaceplane. As for the first test, after 1¼ revolution, the craft deorbited and was recovered by Soviet naval forces in the Indian Ocean, 556 km south of the Cocos Islands.
196) STS-6 74th American
(90th human,
38th American)
4 Apr 83 S Piloted (4 crewmembers):  first flight of the second Space Shuttle Orbiter (Challenger). Mission's main objective was to deploy NASA's first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). The comsat initially failed to reach its geosynchronous orbit because of an upper stage guidance error, but it was eventually maneuvered into the correct position. The flight also feature the first spacewalk in the Shuttle program: two men spent 4h10 testing the new spacesuits and mobility aids and evaluating their own ability to work outside in the cargo bay. The Orbiter landed safely after 5 days.
197) Soyuz T-8 123th Soviet
(91st human,
53rd Soviet)
20 Apr 83 F Piloted (3 crewmembers): second resident crew scheduled to live onboard Salyut 7. Unfortunately, the craft was unable to dock with the station because the pylon supporting its rendezvous radar aerial had been damaged during launch (possibly by the Soyuz rocket's shroud ejection). The crew had to return to Earth after only two days.
198) STS-7 75th American
(92nd human,
39th American)
18 Jun 83 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): the first of a dozen week-long very complex (and often dramatic) Space Shuttle missions executed prior to the Challengeraccident. STS-7 had a record five people onboard, including Sally Ride, the first American woman in space. In only 6 days, the astronauts released two communications satellites (Anik C-2 and Palapa B-l) and deployed the German-built Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) experiment platform, which took the first full pictures of an Orbiter in space. They made rendezvouz exercice with the craft and retrieved it with the Canadarm. They also activated a series of materials processing experiments fixed in the cargo bay. Except for the Commander, all the crewmembers were from the 1978 class of the first astronauts chosen for the Space Shuttle program.
199) Soyuz T-9 124th Soviet
(93rd human,
54th Soviet)
27 Jun 83 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): second Salyut 7 resident crew which received, during its 150 days in space, only two Progress resupply ships (as the first Soyuz T-10 missed its launch). The crew also take care of the Kosmos 1443 TKS visits to the station and made 2 spacewalks to add banks of solar cells to Salyut 7 upper solar panel. 
200) Progress 17 125th Soviet 17 Aug 83 S 5th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 17 September, after 29 days, and was deorbited the same day.
201) STS-8 76th American
(94th human,
40th American)
30 Aug 83 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): the 6-day mission featured the Shuttle program’s first night launch and landing, as well as the first African American in space. The crew orbited Insat 1-B comsat, conducted the first tests of Shuttle-to-ground communications with the new TDRS, and exercised the Canadarm with a test article weighing 3,384 kg.
202) Soyuz' "Sept, 26 Anomaly" 126th Soviet
(95th human,
55th Soviet)
26 Sep 83 F Piloted (2 crewmembers): the first pad-abort in the history of the piloted spaceflight as the Soyuz launcher caught fire on the pad. The crew was saved when their cabin was pulled clear by the Soyuz emergency escape rocket. They landed heavily some five kilometres from the launch pad. 
203) Progress 18 127th Soviet 20 Oct 83 S 6th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. On 4 November, it reboosted the station into a 326 x 356 km orbit. The craft undocked from the station on 13 November, after 21½ days, and was destroyed 3 days later.
204) STS-9 / Spacelab 1 77th American
(96th human,
41st American)
28 Nov 83 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): this first flight of the European Spacelab multi-modular science laboratory. The mission was a 10-day multidisciplinary science flight, with 73 experiments in a wide range of fields, including space physics, materials processing, life sciences, Earth and atmospheric studies, astronomy, and solar physics. The record six-person crew included the first two Payload Specialists, guest (scientists, foreigners, politicians) invited for special purpose. One of the PS was West German's Ulf Merbold, who became the first non-U.S. citizen to fly on an American spacecraft.
M23) Kosmos 1517 / BOR-4 405 (23rd military) 27 Dec 83 S Third testflight of the BOR-4 subscale Spiral spaceplane. In a new mission profile, it braked out of orbit over the South Atlantic and was recovered in the Black Sea after one orbit.
1 9 8 4 (13 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 169 missions = 8 %)
205) STS 41-B 78th American
(97th human,
42nd American)
3 Feb 84 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): this mission feature the first-ever untethered spacewalks. Two astronauts tested the new MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) backpacks that allowed them to travel as far as 97.5 meters from the orbiter. Two comsats deployed (Westar V-I and Palapa B-2) failed to reach their proper orbits when their PAM upper stages did not ignite. Both were later retrieved (on STS 51-A). After 8 days in space, Challenger made the first landing at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. 
206) Soyuz T-10 128th Soviet
(98th human,
56th Soviet)
8 Feb 84 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): third crew to live and work onboard Salyut 7. During a record 237 days in space, the crew received two visiting crews and five Progress resupply ships. It also performed a record of 6 spacewalks. During five of them, the two astronauts performed surgical work on the outside of the station to isolate the portion of the fuel line that was damaged in September 1983 (apparently from a meteor strike) and installing a bypass segment into the system. The crew also made an additional spacewalk to add extra banks of solar cells to the right hand (when facing forward) of Salyut 7 three solar panels.
207) Progress 19 129th Soviet 21 Feb 84 S 7th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 31 March, after 37 days, and was destroyed a day later.
208) Soyuz T-11 130th Soviet
(99th human,
57th Soviet)
3 Apr 84 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): third visiting crew to Salyut 7, which carried the second (and last) international crew to the station, an Indian citizen. The visiting crew performed a week of scientific experiments with the resident. 
209) STS 41-C 79th American
(100th human,
43rd American)
6 Apr 84 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): the first repair mission of the Shutle program. The crew rendezvoused and retrieved the Solar Maximum Mission satellite which had failed after four years of operations. With the satellite anchored in the cargo bay, two spacewalking astronauts  replaced a faulty attitude control system and one science instrument, and the repaired Solar Max was placed back into orbit. The crew also deployed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), a bus-size passive satellite for testing the effects of space exposure on different materials. Originally, LDEF was to have remained in orbit for only 10 months, but it was retrieved six years later on STS-32, due to the Challengeraccident.
210) Progress 20 131st Soviet 15 Apr 84 S 8th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 6 May, after 19 days, and was destroyed a day later.
211) Progress 21 132nd Soviet 7 May 84 S 9th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 26 May, after 16½ days, and was destroyed the same day.
212) Progress 22 133rd Soviet 28 May 84 S 10th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 15 July, after 46 days, and was destroyed the same day.
213) Progress 23 134th Soviet 14 Aug 84 S 11th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 26 August, after 10 days, and was destroyed two days later.
214) Soyuz T-12 135th Soviet
(101st human,
58th Soviet)
17 Jul 84 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): fourth visiting crew to Salyut 7, carrying for the second time Svetlana Savitskaya. She thus became the first woman to fly two times in space and she performed the first spacewalks by a female. Her mission upstages the upcoming second flight of Sally Ride and of the first EVA by an American women (both schedule for STS 41-G).
215) STS 41-D 80th American
(102nd human,
44th American)
30 Aug 84 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): the first flight of Discovery and the first Shuttle mission to deploy three comsats: Syncom IV-2, SBS-4 and Telstar 3-C. The crew also experimented with a 31-meter-high solar cell array, which was unfurled from a stowage container located in the cargo bay. The experiments included testing the structure’s stability when the Orbiter’s attitude control engines were fired. Charles Walker, a McDonnell Douglas engineer, was the Shuttle’s first commercially sponsored Payload Specialist, on board to tend to the company’s Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System for separating materials in microgravity.
216) STS 41-G 81st American
(103rd human,
45th American)
5 Oct 84 S Piloted (7 crewmembers). carried a suite of instruments (including a radar) dedicated to Earth observation - the primary purpose of this mission. Also, during a spacewalk, two astronauts - one being the first American woman - tested connections for an orbital refueling system. Also, this first-ever 7-people crew included two Payload Specialists: a Navy oceanographer (who observed ocean dynamics from orbit) and the first Canadian in space. Crew Commander Crippen made his fourth flight in only 2½ years, his second in six months (and Sally Ride made her second flight).
217) STS 51-A 82nd American
(104th human,
46th American)
8 Nov 84 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): This mission, which delivered two satellites into orbit (Anik D-2 and Syncom IV-I), also feature one of the spectacular rescue mission of the Space Shuttle program, returning back to Earth Palapa B-2 and Westar V-I, whose onboard boosters had failed after being deployed on STS 41-B. In two dramatic spacewalks using the MMU backpacks, two astronauts each docked with one of the satellite, stopped its rotation, then assisted as it was stowed in Discovery’s cargo bay by the Canadarm. Both satellites were later refurbished on the ground and relaunched.
M24) Kosmos 1614 / BOR-4 406 (24th military) 19 Dec 84 S Fourth and final flight of the BOR-4 subscale test versions of the Spiral manned spaceplane. Recovered in the Black Sea after one orbit.
1 9 8 5 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 173 missions = 6 %)
M25) STS 51-C (25th military)
(105th human,
48th American)
24 Jan 85 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): first Shuttle-dedicated military flight. For the first time in the US history, a piloted mission was completely executed “in the dark,” no information was ever published, even the exact launch time prior to liftoff. The cargo and details of the mission are still maintained classified, but during this short (3-day) mission, the crew reportedly placed into orbit a Magnum electronic intelligence (spy) satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office.
218) STS 51-D 83rd American
(106th human,
49th American)
12 Apr 85 S Piloted (7 crewmembers), another dramatic (and improvised) mission. First, the crew release into orbit two comsats, Anik C-l and Syncom IV-3. But when the upper stage attached to Syncom failed to ignite, the crew, with the help of engineers on the ground, attempted a fix. Two astronauts made an unscheduled spacewalk to attach an improvised “flyswatter” device to the Canadarm in the hope that it could trip the satellite booster’s sequence start lever. The plan failed. (However, the satellite was eventually “jump-started” on STS 51-I). Utah Senator Jake Garn became the first member of Congress to fly in space. 
219) STS 51-B / Spacelab 3 84th American
(107th human,
50th American)
29 Apr 85 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): Space Shuttle’s second Spacelab mission. It included 15 experiments in topics including materials processing, fluid behavior, atmospheric physics, astronomy and life sciences. During 7 days, the astronauts worked around the clock in shifts. They had trouble with a leaky animal-holding facility that was making its first (and only) test flight. 
220) Soyuz T-13 136th Soviet
(108th human,
59th Soviet)
6 Jun 85 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): a rescue team launched to salvage Salyut 7 since, on 11 February, a ground controller accidentally cut off all communications with the station. Salyut 7 was “dead” and out of control. For the first time ever, a crew manually docked to a totally disabled space station. When the cosmonauts entered, they found the station with no lights, heat, power or radio equipment working. Large icicles hung from the life support system pipes and all water aboard had frozen. After an intense operation to rehabilitate the station, Salyut 7 was put back in working order, the crew making a magnificent job. In September, the commander returned to Earth after 112 days, as the flight engineer stayed behind with the new resident crew (for 168 days). 
221) STS 51-G 85th American
(109th human,
51st American)
17 Jun 85 S Piloted (7 crewmembers), which successfully deployed 3 comsats (Morelos 1, Arabsat 1-B and Telstar 3-D) as well as the SPARTAN-I, a reusable, free-flying payload carrier with astronomy instruments onboard. The crew conducted materials science and biomedical experiments and participated in a Defense Department tracking experiment in which a laser beam directed from Hawaii was bounced from a reflector onboard Discovery back to the ground. The mission also feature two international Payload Spacecialists: a French astronaut and a Saudi Arabian prince.
222) Progress 24 137th Soviet 21 Jun 85 S 12th cargo delivery to Salyut 7, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 15 July, after 22½ days, and was destroyed the same day.
223) Kosmos 1669 (Progress) 138th Soviet 19 Jul 85 ? Apparently, this Progress cargoship was given a Kosmos designation because control was lost early in mission. (An alternative possibility is that there could have been an administrative confusion since a month after this Cosmos 1669, a TKS spacecraft that got the name Kosmos 1686 was launched. There is thus a possibility that the publicity system confused the two craft and, thinking the TKS had been launched rather than the Progress, applied the next available Kosmos number.) Whatever happened, the Progress craft docked to Salyut 7 on 21 July, brigning 2.3 tonnes of ressuply. Thirty-eight days later, on departure from the station, the craft briefly undocked and redocked to verify reliability of the system. It finally left the station on 28 August and was destroyed two days later.
224) STS 51-F / Spacelab 2 86th American
(110th human,
52nd American)
29 Jul 85 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): the third Spacelab mission, dedicated to astronomy. During launch ascent, Challenger made the Shuttle program’s first “abort to orbit” when one of its three main engines shut down. The Orbiter placed itself into a lower than planned orbit, but from which the science mission was done successfully. In this Spacelab 2 mission, the enclosed Spacelab’s habitable module was replaced by open pallets containing 13 instruments. During 7 days, and despite problems with an instrument pointing system, the crew was able to collect data on the Sun and other celestial targets. 
225) STS 51-I 87th American
(111th human,
53rd American)
27 Aug 85 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): one of the most challenging mission in the Shuttle program. But first, the crew launched three comsats (ASC 1, AUSSAT I and Syncom IV-4) and then rescued the Syncom IV-3 satellite stranded in orbit on STS 51-D. The craft was repaired and reboosted as a result of two spacewalks during which astronauts grabbed the satellite manually and installed it in Discovery’s cargo bay. They then attached hardware that allowed ground crews to activate Syncom’s still-live rocket motor after it was released it into orbit. A brilliant performance.
226) Soyuz T-14 139th Soviet
(102th human,
60th Soviet)
17 Sep 85 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): fifth (and final) resident crew onboard Salyut 7, and the first crew hand-over between resident crews. A two-man crew replaced the fourth Salyut 7 commander (as its flight enginneer stay onboard). During their short (64-day) mission, the residents received no visiting crew and no Progress ressuply ship and performed no spacewalk. But it received the new 20-ton TKS add-on module (Kosmos 1686). The mission was cut short for medical reason; the station commander (Vasyutin) succumbed to depression.
M26) Kosmos 1686 (TKS-M) (26th military) 27 Sep 85 S Following the cancellation of TKS military manned ferry program, this TKS craft was modified with all landing systems removed from the reentry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). The module docket with Salyut 7 and stayed with the station until the complex burned up in the atmosphere on 7 February 1991. 
M27) STS 51-J (27th military)
(103th human,
47th American)
3 Oct 85 S Piloted (5 crewmembers):  The first flight of Atlantis was the second Shuttle mission dedicated to the Department of Defense. The payload and on-board activities are still classified. During a short (4-day) “in the dark mission,” the crew reportedly released two DSCS communications satellites.
227) STS 61-A / Spacelab D-1 88th American
(114th human,
54th American)
30 Oct 85 S Piloted (8 crewmembers), the first U.S. manned spaceflight with a primary payload sponsored by another country (West Germany). It's also the only 8-person crew ever launched. On board this Spacelab D-1 mission were 76 experiments to investigate fluid physics, materials science, plant physiology, and human adaptation to weightlessness. Science experiments were directed from the German Space Operations Center and two of the Payload Specialists were German. The crew worked 24-hour-a-day during this 7 days mission.
228) STS 61-B 89th American
(115th human,
55th American)
27 Nov 85 S Piloted (7 crewmembers). After the crew deployed three comsats (Satcom Ku-2, Morelos 2 and AUSSAT-2), two spacewalkers conducted the first construction experiments in space, assembling and disassembling two Tinkertoy-like structures called Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) in the cargo bay of Atlantis. They attached beams, nodes, and struts to evaluate different methods of assembling large structures in space. One of the Payload Spacialist was a Mexican citizen, as the other, Charles Walker, was making his third flight in only 15 months.
1 9 8 6 (7 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 151 missions = 5 %)
229) STS 61-C 90th American
(116th human,
56th American)
12 Jan 86 S Piloted (7 crewmembers),  which deployed the RCA Satcom K-1 comsat and conducted a number of smaller experiments, including several materials science investigations mounted in the cargo bay of Columbia. An attempt to photograph Comet Halley was unsuccessful due to problems with the instrument’s battery. Florida Representative Bill Nelson was the second (and last) member of Congress to fly on the Shuttle.
230) STS 51-L 91st American
(117th human,
57th American)
28 Jan 86 F Piloted (7 crewmembers): the tragic flight in which the crew lost its life following the destruction of Challenger 73 seconds into the flight. The tragedy was the result of a leak in one of two Solid Rocket Boosters. The crew included 5 NASA astronauts and two Payload Spacialists: Gregory Jarvis, a Hughes employee, and Christa McAuliffe, the designated first Teacher in Space.
     The Shuttle program was grounded for 2½ years while the boosters were redesigned and other safety measures were added. A change in U.S. space policy also resulted from the accident: no longer would the Shuttle carry commercial satellites into orbit (and neither guest passengers).
231) Mir 140th Soviet 20 Feb 86 S 1st orbital space complex. Mir was boarded by 28 resident crews for 12½ years of its 15-year existence. It also received 26 visiting crews (9 were from American Space Shuttle). It was maintained continuously manned from September 1989 to August 1999 (10 years minus two weeks), even despite the collapse of the Soviet Union and the chaotic birth of the Russian Federation. In all, Mir received 136 visitors (101 different people), comprising 42 Russians as well as 42 Americans, 12 Europeans and 7 citizens from other countries. Five large specialized modules were added to the Mir core module and the complex was resupplied by 64 Progress cargoships (which delivered some 150 tons of supplies). Mir is thus considered the first truly International space station and the most impressive achievement of the whole Soviet/Russian space program. 
232) Soyuz T-15 141st Soviet
(118th human,
61st Soviet)
13 Mar 86 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): the first expedition (EO-1) to Mir space station. During their first 51-days onboard, the two cosmonauts unpacted and put into service the equipment of the new station. They also unloaded two Progress spacecraft. On 5 May, they undocked from Mir to journey toward Salyut-7, which was some 4,000 km ahead of Mir. The crossing required 29 hours and the docking occured on 6 May. This was the only flight in history by a single spacecraft between two space stations. Salyut-7 was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. The crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat and environmental control. During the 50 days it spend onboard the old station, the crew conducted two spacewalks (to retrive exterior experiments) and collected experiment results, apparatus and samples of materials left behind by the Soyuz T-14 crew. It also removed to bring to Mir 20 instruments with a total mass of 400 kg from Salyut 7, including a multichannel spectrometer, before returning to Mir. On 25 June, Soyuz T-15 undocked from the Salyut and began the 29-hr journey back to Mir. The crew then spent 20 days onboard, conducting Earth observations. (This mission was the last to use the Soyuz T, which was replaced by the Soyuz TM.)
233) Progress 25 142nd Soviet 19 Mar 86 S 1st cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 20 April, after 30 days, and was destroyed the next day.
234) Progress 26 143rd Soviet 23 Apr 86 S 2nd cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The carft endezvoused with the station on 25 April, but problem with Mir's radio communication system delays docking until the next day. It undocked from the station on 22 June, after 57 days, and was destroyed the next day.
235) Soyuz TM 144th Soviet  21 May 86 S Unmanned testflight of a modernized version of the Soyuz T with new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. It used a more durable metal body and lighter heat shield material. The lighter rendezvous system and improved launch escape tower permitted higher payloads, or more maneuvering propellant to be carried. This first Soyuz TM craft docked with Mir on 23 May (while the station was vacated by the Soyuz T-15 crew), undocked on 29 May, and was recovered the day after.
1 9 8 7 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 141 missions = 8 %)
236) Progress 27 145th Soviet 16 Jan 87 S 3rd cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft boosted Mir's mean altitude by 16 km, to 345 km, in preparation for the launch of the second resident crew. It undocked from the station on 23 February, after 36 days, and was destroyed two days later. 
237) Soyuz TM-2 146th Soviet
(119th human,
62nd Soviet)
5 Feb 87 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): the second expedition to Mir (EO-2) which, during its 11-month mission, received the first add-on module (Kvant), a visiting crew and a record of seven Progress freighters, and also performed three spacewalks.
     Following Kvant inhability to soft-dock with the station, the crew had to exit from Mir to solved the problem. They discovered a foreign object, disloged it and then Kvant could be mated solidly with the station. The crew used the new facility to make astronomical observations: in paticular, the Roentgen Observatory on Kvant was uniquely placed to study Supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The crew examined the exploding star during 115 sessions between June and September. It also conducted medical experiments and Earth resources photography. The crew performed two more spacewalks to install the solar array delivered by Kvant.
     In the middle part of the mission, Flight Engineer Laveykin developed some heart irregularities which made necessary his early return to Earth. He was replaced by Soyuz TM-3 Flight Engineer Alexandrov, who remained onboard with Commander Romanenko. The latter established long-duration record in space of 326 days when its crew was relieved by the third resident crew.
238) Progress 28 147th Soviet 3 Mar 87 S 4th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 26 March, after 21 days, and was destroyed two days later.
239) Kvant 148th Soviet 31 Mar 87 S 1st module added to the Mir base bloc, adding 40 cubic-metres of pressurised volume to orbital complex, bringing the total to about 130 cubic-metres. It contained scientific instruments for astrophysical observations and materials science experiments. It also carried more life support systems, including an Elektron oxygen generator, an extra solar panel (which was deployed on the core module in June 1987).
    Adding this module to Mir was not easy. For this maneuver, the 11-ton Kvant was couple with a tug called the Functional Service Module. On April 5, the first docking attempt failed whent the combination passed within 10 metres of the station. It than drifted 400 km from Mir before being guided back for a second attempt. Soft-dock occurred on 9 April, but Kvant’s probe would not retract fully, preventing hard docking. On 11 April, Soyuz TM-2 crew exited from Mir to examine the docking unit and discovered a foreign object lodged there (probably a trash bag left between Progress 28 and Mir’s drogue). On command from the ground, Kvant extended its probe unit, permitting the cosmonauts to pull the object free and discard it into space. Kvant then successfully completed hard-docking. The FSM was separated from Kvant on 12 April, freeing the module’s aft docking port.
240) Progress 29 149th Soviet 21 Apr 87 S 5th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 11 May, after 17½ days, and was destroyed the same day.
241) Progress 30 150th Soviet 26 May 87 S 6th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 19 July, after 59 days, and was destroyed the same day.
242) Soyuz TM-3 151st Soviet
(120th human,
63rd Soviet)
22 Jul 87 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): first visiting crew to Mir (EP-1), with a Syrian citizen, the 12th foreign guest to a Soviet space station. During a week onboard Mir, the visitors observed Syria and conducted materials processing experiments. The mission also served to replace the Soyuz return vehicle for the resident crew, and to replace the resident Flight Engineer.
243) Progress 31 152nd Soviet 4 Aug 87 S 7th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 21 September, after 47 days, and was destroyed two days later.
244) Progress 32 153rd Soviet 24 Sep 87 S 8th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel (850 kg), consumable materials (315 kg of food) and equipment . The craft undocked on 10 November, then redocked the same day. It finally undocked on 17 November, after 53 days, and was destroyed two days later.
245) Progress 33 154th Soviet 21 Nov 87 S 9th cargo delivery to Mir, carrying 2.3 tonnes of fuel, consumable materials and equipment. The craft undocked from the station on 19 December, after 26 days, and was destroyed the same day.
246) Soyuz TM-4 155th Soviet
(121st human,
64th Soviet)
21 Dec 87 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): the third resident two-men crew onboard Mir (EO-3) and the first ever to spend a year in orbite (365 days, 22 hours and 39 minutes). During its mission, the crew received a visiting crew and were ressupplied by five Progress cargoships and performed 3 spacewalks. 
1 9 8 8 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 155 missions = 7 %)
247) Progress 34 156th Soviet 21 Jan 88
248) Progress 35 157th Soviet 24 Mar 88
249) Progress 36 158th Soviet 13 May 88
250) Soyuz TM-5 159th Soviet
(122nd human,
65th Soviet)
7 Jun 88
251) Progress 37 160th Soviet 19 Jul 88
252) Soyuz TM-6 161st Soviet
(123rd human,
66th Soviet)
29 Aug 88
253) Progress 38 162nd Soviet 10 Sep 88
254) STS-26 92nd American
(124th human,
58th American)
29 Sep 88
255) Buran F-1 163rd Soviet 15 Nov 88
256) Soyuz TM-7 164th Soviet
(125th human,
67th Soviet)
26 Nov 88
M28) STS-27 (28th military
(126th human,
59th American)
2 Dec 88
257) Progress 39 165th Soviet 25 Dec 88
1 9 8 9 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 139 missions = 6½ %)
258) Progress 40 166th Soviet 10 Feb 89
259) STS-29 93rd American
(127th human,
60th American)
13 Mar 89
260) Progress 41 167th Soviet 16 Mar 89
261) STS-30 94th American
(128th human,
61st American)
4 May 89
M29) STS-28 (29th military)
(129th human,
62nd American)
8 Aug 89
262) Progress M-1 168th Soviet 23 Aug 89
263) Soyuz TM-8 169th Soviet
(130th human,
68th Soviet)
5 Sep 89
264) STS-34 95th American
(131st human,
63rd American)
18 Oct 89
M30) STS-33 (30th military)
(132nd human,
64th American)
23 Nov 89
365) Kvant 2 170th Soviet 26 Nov 89
266) Progress M-2 171st Soviet 20 Dec 89
1 9 9 0 (12 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 173 missions = 7 %)
267) STS-32 96th American
(133rd human,
65th American)
9 Jan 90
368) Soyuz TM-9 172nd Soviet
(134th human,
69th Soviet)
11 Feb 90
M31 STS-36 (31st military)
(135th human,
66th American)
28 Feb 90
269) Progress M-3 173rd Soviet 1st Mar 90
270) STS-31 97th American
(136th human,
67th American)
24 Apr 90
271) Progress 42 174th Soviet 6 May 90
272) Kristall 175th Soviet 31 May 90
273) Soyuz TM-10 176th Soviet
(137th human,
70th Soviet)
1 Aug 90
274) Progress M-4 177th Soviet 15 Aug 90
275) Progress M-5 178th Soviet 27 Sep 90
276) STS-41 98th American
(138th human,
68th American)
6 Oct 90
M32 STS-38 (32nd military)
(139th human,
69th American)
15 Nov 90
277) STS-35 - Astro 1 99th American
(140th human,
70th American)
2 Dec 90
278) Soyuz TM-11 179th Soviet
(141st human,
71st Soviet)
2 Dec 90
1 9 9 1 (11 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 143 missions = 8 %)
279) Progress M-6 180th Soviet 14 Jan 91
280) Progress M-7 181st Soviet 19 Mar 91
M33) STS-37 (33rd military)
(142nd human,
71st American)
5 Apr 91
281) STS-39 100th American
(143rd human,
72nd American)
28 Apr 91
282) Soyuz TM-12 182nd Soviet
(144th human,
72nd Soviet)
18 May 91
283) Progress M-8 183rd Soviet 30 May 91
284) STS-40 - SLS 1 101st American
(145th human,
73th American)
5 Jun 91
285) STS-43 102nd American
(146th human,
74th American)
2 Aug 91
286) Progress M-9 184th Soviet 21 Aug 91
287) STS-48 103rd American
(147th human,
75th American)
12 Sep 91
288) Soyuz TM-13 185th Soviet
(148th human,
73rd Soviet)
2 Oct 91
289) Progress M-10 186th Soviet 17 Oct 91
M34) STS-44 (34th military)
(149th human,
76th American)
25 Nov 91
1 9 9 2 (14 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 135 missions = 10 %)
290) STS-42 -- IML-1 104th American
(150th human,
77th American)
22 Jan 92
291) Progress M-11 187th Russian 25 Jan 92
292) Soyuz TM-14 188th Russian
(151st human,
74th Soviet)
17 Mar 92
293) STS-45 - Atlas-1 105th American
(152nd human,
78th American)
24 Mar 92
294) Progress M-12 189th Russian 20 Apr 92
295) STS-49 106th American
(153rd human,
79th American)
7 May 92
296) STS-50 - USML-1 107th American
(154th human,
80th American)
25 Jun 92
297) Progress M-13 190th Russian 30 Jun 92
298) Soyuz TM-15 191st Russian
(155th human,
75th Soviet)
27 Jul 92
299) STS-46 - TSS-1 108th American
(156th human,
81st American)
31 Jul 92
300) Progress M-14 192nd Russian 16 Aug 92
301) STS-47 - Spacelab-J 109th American
(157th human,
82nd American)
12 Sep 92
302) STS-52 - USML-1 110th American
(158th human,
83rd American)
22 Oct 92
303) Progress M-15 193rd Russian 27 Oct 92
M35) STS-53 (35th military)
(159th human,
84th American)
2 Dec 92
1 9 9 3 (14 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 118 missions = 12 %)
304) STS-54 111th American
(160th human,
85th American)
13 Jan 93
305) Soyuz TM-16 194th Russian
(161st human,
76th Soviet)
24 Jan 93
306) Progress M-16 195th Russian 21 Feb 93
307) Progress M-17 196th Russian 31 Mar 93
308) STS-56 - Atlas-2 112th American
(162nd human,
86th American)
8 Apr 93
309) STS-55 -  Spacelab-D2 113th American
(163rd human,
87th American)
25 Apr 93
310) Progress M-18 197th Russian 22 May 93
311) STS-57 114th American
(164th human,
88th American)
21 Jun 93
312) Soyuz TM-17 198th Russian
(165th human,
77th Soviet)
1st Jul 93
313) Progress M-19 199th Russian 11 Aug 93
314) STS-51 115th American
(165th human,
89th American)
12 Sep 93
315) Progress M-20 200th Russian 12 Oct 93
316) STS-58 - SLS-2 116th American
(167th human,
90th American)
18 Oct 93
317) STS-61 117th American
(168th human,
91th American)
2 Dec 93
1 9 9 4 (15 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 130 missions = 11½ %)
318) Soyuz TM-18 201st Russian
(169th human,
78th Soviet)
8 Jan 94
Valeriy Polyakov, a doctor, set the world's endurance record for continuous time spent in space: 438 days.
319) Progress M-21 202nd Russian 26 Jan 94
320) STS-60 118th American
(170th human,
92nd American)
3 Feb 94
321) STS-62 - USMP-2 119th American
(171st human,
93rd American)
4 Mar 94
322) Progress M-22 203rd Russian 22 Mar 94
323) STS-59 - SRL-1 120th American
(172nd human,
94th American)
9 Apr 94
324) Progress M-23 204th Russian 22 May 94
325) Soyuz TM-19 205th Russian
(173rd human,
79th Soviet)
1st Jul 94
326) STS-65 - IML-2 121st American
(174th human,
95th American)
8 Jul 94
327) Progress M-24 206th Russian 25 Aug 94
328) STS-64 - LITE 1 122nd American
(175th human,
96th American)
9 Sep 94
329) STS-68 - SRL-2 123rd American
(176th human,
97th American)
30 Sep 94
330) Soyuz TM-20 207th Russian
(177th human,
80th Soviet)
3 Oct 94
331) STS-66 - Atlas-3 124th American
(178th human,
98th American)
3 Nov 94
332) Progress M-25 208th Russian 11 Nov 94
1 9 9 5 (16 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 113 missions = 14 %)
333) STS-63 125th American
(179th human,
99th American)
3 Feb 95
334) Progress M-26 209th Russian 15 Feb 95
335) STS-67 - Astro-2 126th American
(180th human,
100th American)
2 Mar 95
336) Soyuz TM-21 210th Russian
(181st human,
81st Soviet)
14 Mar 95
337) Progress M-27 211th Russian 9 Apr 95
338) Spektr 212th Russian 20 May 95
339) STS-71 127th American
(182nd human,
101st American
+ 183rd human,
+ 82nd Soviet)
27 Jun 95
340) STS-70 128th American
(184th human,
102nd American)
13 Jul 95
341) Progress M-28 213th Russian 20 Jul 95
342) Soyuz TM-22 214th Russian
(185th human,
83rd Soviet)
3 Sep 95
343) STS-69 129th American
(186th human,
103rd American)
7 Sep 95
344) Progress M-29 215th Russian 8 Oct 95
345) STS-73 - USML-2 130th American
(187th human,
104th American)
20 Oct 95
346) STS-74 131st American
(188th human,
105th American)
12 Nov 95
347) Stikovochniy Otsek 216th Russian 12 Nov 95
348) Progress M-30 217th Russian 18 Dec 95
1 9 9 6 (13 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 112 missions = 12 %)
349) STS-72 132nd American
(189th human,
106th American)
11 Jan 96
350) Soyuz TM-23 218th Russian
(190th human,
84th Soviet)
21 Feb 96
351) STS-75 133rd American
(191st human,
107th American)
22 Feb 96
352) STS-76 134th American
(192nd human,
108th American)
22 Mar 96
353) Priroda 219th Russian 23 Apr 96
354) Progress M-31 220th Russian 5 May 96
355) STS-77 135th American
(193rd human,
109th American)
19 May 96
356) STS-78 - LMS-1 136th American
(194th human,
110th American)
20 Jun 96
357) Progress M-32 221st Russian 31 Jul 96
358) Soyuz TM-24 222nd Russian
(195th human,
85th Soviet)
17 Aug 96
359) STS-79 137th American
(196th human,
111th American)
16 Sep 96
360) STS-80 138th American
(197th human,
112th American)
19 Nov 96
361) Progress M-33 223rd Russian 19 Nov 96
1 9 9 7 (14 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 158 missions = 9 %)
362) STS-81 139th American
(198th human,
113th American)
12 Jan 97
363) Soyuz TM-25 224th Russian
(199th human,
869th Soviet)
10 Feb 97
364) STS-82 140th American
(200th human,
114th American)
11 Feb 97
365) STS-83 - MSL-1 141st American
(201st human,
115th American)
4 Apr 97
366) Progress M-34 225th Russian 6 Apr 97
367) STS-84 142nd American
(202nd human,
116th American)
15 May 97
368) STS-94 - MSL-1R 143rd American
(203rd human,
117th American)
1st Jul 97
369) Progress M-35 226th Russian 5 Jul 97
370) Soyuz TM-26 227th Russian
(204th human,
87th Soviet)
5 Aug 97
371) STS-85 144th American
(205th human,
118th American)
7 Aug 97
372) STS-86 145th American
(206th human,
119th American)
26 Sep 87
373) Progress M-36 228th Russian 5 Oct 97
374) STS-87 - USMP-4 146th American
(207th human,
120th American)
19 Nov 97
375) Progress M-37 229th Russian 20 Dec 97
1 9 9 8 (12 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 174 missions = 7 %)
376) STS-89 147th American
(208th human,
121st American)
23 Jan 98
377) Soyuz TM-27 230th Russian
(209th human,
88th Soviet)
29 Jan 98
378) Progress M-38 231st Russian 14 Mar 98
379) STS-90 148th American
(210th human,
122nd American)
17 Apr 98
380) Progress M-39 232nd Russian 14 May 98
381) STS-91 149th American
(211st human,
123rd American)
2 Jun 98
Thiis mission concluded the seventh NASA astronaut who, collectively spent a total  2½ years aboard Mir
382) Soyuz TM-28 233rd Russian
(212nd human,
89th Soviet)
13 Aug 98
383) Progress M-40 234th Russian 25 Oct 98
384) STS-95 150th American
(213rd human,
124th American)
29 Oct 98
385) Zarya / ISS 1A/R 235th Russian 20 Nov 98 S The first International Space Station (ISS) element: the Russian service module.
386) STS-88 / ISS-2A 151st American
(214th human,
125th American)
4 Dec 98 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to the assembly of  ISS. Add to Zarya core module the U.S. Unity/Node-1 module.
387) Unity 152nd American 4 Dec 98 S First U.S. component of the International Space Station, which served as the junction port between the Russian and the American sergments of ISS
1 9 9 9 (7 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 133 missions = 5 %)
388) Soyuz TM-29 236th Russian
(215th human,
90th Soviet)
20 Feb 99 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): the 27th crew of Mir space complex. Upon returning on Earth (on 28 August 1999), this mission ends the 10 consecutive years of human presence in space.
389) Progress M-41 237th Russian 2 Apr 99 S 59th cargo delivery to Mir.
390) STS-96 / ISS-2A.1 153rd American
(216th human,
126th American)
27 May 99 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): first Space Shttle resupply flight to ISS.
391) Progress M-42 238th Russian 16 Jul 99 S 60th cargo delivery to Mir.
392) STS-93 154th American
(217th human,
127th American)
23 Jul 99 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): short Space Shuttle mission to orbit NASA's Chandra Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility.
393) Shenzhou 1 1st Chinese 19 Nov 99 S First automatic flight of China's first spaceship (a derivative of the Russian's Soyuz); a 21-hr testflight.
394) STS-103 155th American
(218th human,
128th American)
20 Dec 99 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): third Space Shuttle servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope.
2 0 0 0 (13 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 131 missions = 10 %)
395) Progress M1-1 239th Russian 1 Feb 00 S 61st cargo delivery to Mir.
396) STS-99 - SLR-3 156th American
(219th human,
129th American)
11 Feb 00 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): a dedicated Space Shuttle mission to Earth mapping and topography (for civilian and military purpose).
397) Soyuz TM-30 240th Russian
(220th human,
91st Soviet)
4 Apr 00 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): 28th and last Mir occupants. The crew reactivated the space complex in the hope that it could be reused.  But Mir was discarded a year later.
398) Progress M1-2 241st Russian 29 Apr 00 S 62nd cargo delivery to Mir.
399) STS-101 / ISS-2A.2a 157th American
(221st human,
130th American)
19 May 00 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): second logistic flight of the Space Shuttle toward ISS. Mission objectives: repair, resupply and construction tasks onboard. 
400) Zvezda / ISS-1R 242nd Russian 12 Jul 00 S Second Russian element of ISS: the crew-quarter of the station.
401) Progress M1-3 / ISS-1P 243rd Russian 6 Aug 00 S 1st cargo delivery to ISS.
402) STS-106 / ISS-2A.2b 158th American
(222nd human,
131st American)
8 Sep 00 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): third logistic flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, during which the crew outfitted the station for the arrival of the first Expedition crew.
403) STS-92 / ISS-3A 159th American
(223rd human,
132nd American)
11 Oct 00 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): second assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS: installation of the ITS-Z1 truss on top of Unity/Node-1. The hundredth flight of the Space Shuttle.
404) Progress M-43 244th Russian 16 Oct 00 S 63rd cargo delivery to Mir.
405) Soyuz TM-31 / ISS-2R 245th Russian
(224th human,
92nd Soviet
1st ISS crew)
31 Oct 00 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): first crew to stay onboard ISS (for 4½ months). The International Space Station began its long-term occupation. 
406) Progress M1-4 / ISS-2P 246th Russian 16 Nov 00 S 2nd cargo delivery to ISS.
407) STS-97 / ISS-4A 160th American
(225th human,
133rd American)
1st Dec 00 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): third assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS: installation of the ITS-P6 solar array on top of the ITS-Z1 truss.
2 0 0 1 (18 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 93 missions = 19 %)
408) Shenzhou 2 2nd Chinese 9 Jan 01 S Second automatic flight of China's new spaceship. It carried a monkey, a dog and a rabbit in a 7-day tesflight of the life support systems.
409) Progress M1-5 247th Russian 24 Jan 01 S 64th and last cargo delivery to Mir. It carried 2,677 kg of fuel needed to deorbit the space complex over the Pacific (on 23 March 2001).
410) STS-98 / ISS-5A 161st American
(226th human,
134th American)
7 Feb 01 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): fourth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS: installation of the U.S. Destiny laboratory and PMA-2 on Unity/Node-1.
411) Destiny / US Lab 162nd American 7 Feb 01 S The American 15-tonne science laboratory of the Internationl Space Station.
412) Progress M-44 / ISS-3P 248th Russian 26 Feb 01 S 3rd cargo delivery to ISS.
413) STS-102 / ISS-5A.1 163rd American
(227th human,
135th American
+ 228th human,
+ 2nd ISS crew)
8 Mar 01 S Piloted (4 crewmembers + 3-member Expedition 2): fourth logistics flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS: delivered the second Expedition crew and proceed to the first changeout of ISS residents.  Also carries supplies and scientific racks. 
414) STS-100 / ISS-6A 164th American
(229th human,
136th American)
19 Apr 01 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): fifth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle at ISS: installation of the Canadarm2.  Also carries logistics and supplies.
415) Soyuz TM-32 / ISS-2S 249th Russian
(230th human,
93rd Soviet)
28 Apr 01 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): first “taxi flight” to ISS to change its Soyuz rescue vehicle.  Also carried the first tourist (paying passenger) at ISS (Dennis Tito).
416) Progress M1-6 / ISS-4P 250th Russian 20 May 01 S 4th cargo delivery to ISS.
417) STS-104 / ISS-7A 165th American
(231st human,
137th American)
12 Jul 01 S Piloted (5 crewmembers): sixth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle at ISS: added the Quest Airlock on the side of Unity/Node-1.
418) Quest Joint Airlock 166th American 12 Jul 01 S The U.S. 6-tonne Quest Airlock fitted to facilitated extravehicular activities (EVA) outside ISS. 
419) STS-105 / ISS-7A.1 167th American
(232nd human,
138th American
+ 233rd human,
+ 3rd ISS crew)
10 Aug 01 S Piloted (4 crewmembers + 3-member Expedition 3): fifth logistics flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS and second changeout of ISS residents, Expedition 3 replacing Expedition 2. Also carried supplies and equipements.
420) Progress M-45 / ISS-5P 251st Russian 21 Aug 01 S 5th cargo delivery to ISS
421) Progress M-SO1 / ISS 252nd Russian 14 Sep 01 S Delivered the Pirs module to ISS.
422) Pirs / SO-1 / ISS-4R 253rd Russian 14 Sep 01 S The Russian Docking Module-1 (Pirs) is installed under the Zvezda module to facilitate docking of Soyuz and Progress and Russian-based EVA.
423) Soyuz TM-33 / ISS-3S 254th Russian
(234ht human,
94th Soviet)
21 Oct 01 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): second “taxi flight” to ISS to change its Soyuz rescue vehicle. 
424) Progress M1-7 / ISS-6P 255th Russian 26 Nov 01 S 6th cargo delivery to ISS.
425) STS-108 / ISS UF-1 168th American
(235th human,
139th American
+ 236th human,
+ 4th ISS crew)
5 Dec 01 S Piloted (4 crewmembers + 3-member Expedition 4): sixth logistics flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS and third changeout of ISS residents, Expedition 4 replacing Expedition 3. Also carried supplies and equipements.
2 0 0 2 (12 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 101 missions = 12 %)
426) STS-109 169th American
(237th human,
140th American)
1st Mar 02 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): fourth Space Shuttle servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope.
427) Progress M1-8 / ISS-7P 256th Russian 21 Mar 02 S 7th cargo delivery to ISS.
428) Shenzhou 3 3rd Chinese 28 Mar 02 S Third automatic flight of China's new spaceship, a week-long tesflight with a dummy astronaut instrumented to monitor life support systems.
429) STS-110 / ISS-8A 170th American
(238th human,
141st American)
8 Apr 02 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): seventh assembly flight of the Space Shuttle at ISS: installed the ITS-S0, the first segment of the station main truss carrying the large solar panels. 
430) Soyuz TM-34 / ISS-4S 257th Russian
(239th human,
95th Soviet)
25 Apr 02 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): third “taxi flight” to ISS to change its Soyuz rescue vehicle. It carried an European astronaut and a second paying tourist.
431) STS-111 / ISS UF-2 171st American
(240th human,
142nd American
+ 241st human,
+ 5th ISS crew)
5 Jun 02 S Piloted (4 crewmembers + 3-member Expedition 5): seventth logistics flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS and fourth changeout of ISS residents, Expedition 5 replacing Expedition 4. Also delivered the MSS Mobile Base System and some experiment racks.
432) Progress M-46 / ISS-8P 258th Russian 26 Jun 02 S 8th cargo delivery to ISS.
433) Progress M1-9 / ISS-9P 259th Russian 25 Sep 02 S 9th cargo delivery to ISS.
434) STS-112 / ISS-9A 172nd American
(242nd human,
143rd American)
7 Oct 02 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): eight assembly flight of the Space Shuttle at ISS: installed the ITS-S1 on the starboard side of the station main truss  Also installed CETA carts.
435) Soyuz TMA-1 / ISS-5S 260th Russian
(243rd human,
96th Soviet)
30 Oct 02 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): fourth “taxi flight” to ISS to change its Soyuz rescue vehicle. It carried an European astronaut (for the Odissea program).
436) STS-113 / ISS-11A 173nd American
(244th human,
144th American
+ 245th human,
+ 6th ISS crew)
24 Nov 02 S Piloted (4 crewmembers + 3-member Expedition 5): ninth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the installation of the ITS-P1 onto the main truss, and the fifth changeout of ISS residents, Expedition 6 replacing Expedition 4.
437) Shenzhou 4 4th Chinese 29 Dec 02 S Fourth and final unmanned test of the Shenzhou spacecraft. It carried 52 science payloads for a week-long mission.
2 0 0 3 (7 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 97 missions = 7 %)
438) STS-107 174th American
(246th human,
145th American)
16 Jan 03 .F Piloted (7 crewmembers): long-duration (16-day) Space Shuttle mission dedicated to science experiments.  Crew perished on Columbia's reentry over the United StatEs.
439) Progress M-47 / ISS 10P 261st Russian 2 Feb 03 S 10th cargo delivery to ISS.
440) Soyuz TMA-2 / ISS 6S 262nd Soviet
(247th human,
97th Soviet)
26 Apr 03 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): first Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Two-man Expedition 7 replaced the 3-man Expedition 6.
441) Progress M1-10 / ISS-11P 263rd Russian 8 Jun 03 S 11th cargo delivery to ISS.
442) Progress M-48 / ISS-12P 264th Russian 29 Aug 03 S 12th cargo delivery to ISS.
443) Shenzhou 5 5th Chinese
(248th human,
1st Chinese)
15 Oct 03 S Piloted (1 crewmember): first Chinese piloted spaceflight (a 21-hr-long mission).  First piloted flight launch by a nation other than Russia or United States. 
444) Soyuz TMA-3 / ISS-7S 265th Russian
(249th human,
98th Soviet)
18 Oct 03 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): second Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 8 replaced Expedition 7 (+ an accompaying European astronaut).
2 0 0 4 (6 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 77 missions = 8 %)
445) Progress M1-11 / ISS 13P 266th Russian 29 Jan 04 S 13th cargo delivery to ISS.
446) Soyuz TMA-4 / ISS 8S 267th Russian
(250th human,
99th Soviet)
19 Apr 04 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): third Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 9 replaced Expedition 8 (+ an accompaying European astronaut).
447) Progress M-49 / ISS 14P 268th Russian 25 May 04 S 14th cargo delivery to ISS.
448) Progress M-50 / ISS 15P 269th Russian 11 Aug 04 S 15th cargo delivery to ISS.
449) Soyuz TMA-5 / ISS 9S 270th Russian
(251st human,
100th Soviet)
14 Oct 04 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): fourth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 10 replaced Expedition 9.
450) Progress M-51 / ISS 16P 271st Russian 23 Dec 04 S 16th cargo delivery to ISS.
2 0 0 5 (8 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 78 missions = 10 %)
451) Progress M-52 / ISS 17P 272nd Russian 28 Feb 05 S 17th cargo delivery to ISS.
452) Soyuz TMA-6 / ISS 10S 273rd Russian
(252nd human,
101st Soviet)
15 Apr 05 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): fifth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 11 replaced Expedition 10 (+ an accompaying European astronaut).
453) Progress M-53 / ISS 18P 274th Russian 16 Jun 05 S 18th cargo delivery to ISS.
454) STS-114 / RTF 175th American
(253rd human,
146th American)
26 Jul 05 F Piloted (7 crewmembers): “Return-to-Flight” Space Shuttle testflight (folloiwing Columbia accident) and eight ISS logistics mission.
455) Progress M-54 / ISS 19P 275th Russian 8 Sep 05 S 19th cargo delivery to ISS.
456) Soyuz TMA-7 / ISS 11A 276th Russian
(254th human,
102nd Soviet)
1st Oct 05 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): sixth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 12 replaced Expedition 11 (+ a third paying tourist).
457) Shenzhou 6 (6 Chinese)
(255th human,
2nd Chinese
12 Oct 05 S Piloted (2 crewmembers): second Chinese spaceflight, with two crewmembers spending five days in space.
458) Progress M-55 / ISS 20P 277th Russian 21 Dec 05 S 20th cargo delivery to ISS.
2 0 0 6 (8 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 116 missions =  7 %)
459) Soyuz TMA-8 / ISS 12S 278th Russian
(256th human,
103rd Soviet)
30 Mar 06 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): seventh Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 13 replaced Expedition 12 (+ an accompaying European astronaut).
460) Progress M-56 / ISS 21P 279th Russian 24 Apr 06 S 21th cargo delivery to ISS
461) Progress M-57 / ISS 22P 280th Russian 24 Jun 06 S 22nd cargo delivery to ISS.
462) STS-121 / ULF-1.1 176th American
(257th human,
147th American)
4 Jul 06 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): second Space Shuttle testflight following Columbia accident. Also, the ninth ISS logistics mission.
463) STS-115 / ISS 12A 177th American
(258th human,
148th American)
9 Sep 06 S Piloted (6 crewmembers): tenth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the ITS-P3/P4 to the station main truss.
464) Soyuz TMA-9 / ISS 13S 281st Russian
(259th human,
104th Soviet)
18 Sep 06 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): eighth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 14 replaced Expedition 13 (+ a fourth paying tourist).
465) Progress M-58 / ISS 23P 282nd Russian 23 Oct 06 S 23rd cargo delivery to ISS.
466) STS-116 / ISS 12A.1 178th American
(260th human,
149th American)
10 Dec 06 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): eleventh assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the ITS-P4 to the station main truss. Also logistics and addition of a third crewmember to ISS resident.
2 0 0 7 (9 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 123 missions = 7 %)
467) Progress M-59 / ISS 24P 283rd Russian 18 Jan 07 S 24th cargo delivery to ISS.
468) Soyuz TMA-10 / ISS 14S 284th Russian
(261st human,
105th Soviet)
7 Apr 07 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): ninth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 15 replaced Expedition 14 (+ a fifth paying tourist).
469) Progress M-60  / ISS 25P 285th Russian 12 May 07 S 25th cargo delivery to ISS.
470) STS-117 / ISS-13A 179th American
(262nd human,
150th American)
8 Jun 07 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): eleventh assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the ITS-S3/S4 to the station main truss and replacement of the third ISS crewmember.
471) Progress M-61 / ISS 26P 286th Russian 2 Aug 07 S 26th cargo delivery to ISS.
472) STS-118 / ISS 13A.1 180th American
(263rd human,
151st American)
8 Aug 07 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): twelvth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the ITS-S5 to the station main truss and logistics..
473) Soyuz TMA-11 / ISS 15S 287th Russian
(264th human,
106th Soviet)
10 Oct 07 S Piloted (3 crewmembers): tenth Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 16 replaced Expedition 15 (+ an Indonesian astronaut).
474) STS 120 / ISS 10A 181th American
(265th human,
152nd American)
23 Oct 07 S Piloted (7 crewmembers): thirteenth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the Harmony/Node-2 in front of Destiny Lab. Also replacement of the third ISS crewmember.
475) Progress M-62 / ISS 27P 288th Russian 24 Dec 07 S 27th cargo delivery to ISS.
2 0 0 8 (14 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 111 missions = 13 %)
476) 
Mission: Progress M-63 / ISS 28P Cargoship
Launched: 5 February 2008 at 13h03 UT
Destroyed: 7 April 2008 at 12h50 UT
Duration: 61 d. 23 hr. 47 min.
Ranks: 289th Russian Piloted Spaceship
Result: Success
28th cargo delivery to ISS that carried more than 2.5 tons of various cargoes, including oxygen, water and food, propellants, consumables, scientific instrumentation and equipment. Docking on the Pirs module occured on 7 February at 14h38 UT and undocking on 7 April at 4h49 EDT, after 60 days. Deorbit burn followed at 7h50 EDT for destructive reentry over the Pacific Ocean.
477)
Mission: STS-122 / ISS 1E Humanship
Crew: CDR: Frick, PI: Poindexter, MS1: Melvin, MS2: Walheim, MS3: Schlegel, MS4: Love, MS5: Eyharts
Launched: 7 February 2008 at 19h45 UT 
Recovered: 20 February 2008 at 14h07 UT
Duration: 12 d. 18 hr. 22 min.
Ranks: 182nd American Piloted Spaceshi
(266th human, 153rd American)
Result: Siuccess
Piloted (7 crewmembers): fourteenth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS, with the addition of the Columbus science laboratory on the side of Harmony/Node-2. Also replacement of the third ISS crewmember, Eyharts becoming a member of Expedition 16 crew (replacing Tani). Atlantis docked onto PMA-2 on 9 February at 17h15 UT.  NASA then announced that it will delayed the first spacewalk and installation of Columbus on ISS by one day, because of a ˜crew medical issue˜ affecting Schlegel. Scheduled to make the first EVA with Walheim, Schlegel was replaced Love. Three EVA were performed to install Columbus, to exchange a  nitrogen tank, to install some exterior experiments on the Columbus External Payload Facility and to retrieve the failed Control Moment Gyro as well as doing some inspections of the exterior of ISS. Atlantis undocked from ISS on 12 February at 9h27 UT and landed as schedule at the Kennedy Space Cencer.
478)
Mission: Columbus Science Module
Launched: 7 February 2008 at 19h45 UT
Mated ISS: 11 February 2008 at 21h44 UT
Duration: n/a
Ranks: 1st European Piloted Spaceship
Result: Success
Europe's main contribution to ISS: a large science laboratory. Not counting Spacelab and MPLMs, it represents Europe's first truly spaceship. Columbus is a 12,775-kg research laboratory which is permanantly attached to the International Space Station to provides internal payload accommodation for experiments in the field of multidisciplinary research into material science, fluid physics and life science. In addition, an external payload facility hosts experiments and applications in the field of space science, Earth observation and technology. During its 10-year projected lifespan, the 4.5-metre diameter, with 75 cubic metres of space inside, cylindrical laboratory will be able to conduct thousands of experiments all in the weightlessness of orbit. Columbus was installed on ISS on 11 February at about 21h44 UT.
479)
Mission: ATV-1 Jules Verne Cargoship
Launched: 9 March 2008 at 4h03 UT
Destroyed: September 2008
Duration: 6 momths
Ranks 2nd European) Piloted Spacesip
Result: Success
28th cargo delivery to ISS by Europe's 1st cargoship. Nicknamed Jules Verne, ATV-1 delivers 8 tons of supplies to the Internation Space Station, including 6,5 toms of maneuver propellant and 1,2 ton of varied dry cargo ((including food, clothes and equipment as well as two original manuscripts handwritten by Jules Verne).  After a four-week orbital test flight, the craft docked successfully at the Service Module aft port on 3 April at 10h45 EDT. 
480)
Mission: STS-123 / ISS J/A Humanship
Crew: CDR: Gorie, PI: Johnson, MS1: Behnken, MS2: Foreman, MS3: Doi, MS4: Linnehan, MS5: Reisman.
Launched: 11 March 2008 at 6h28 UT
Recovered: 27 March 2008 at 0h39 UT
Duration: 15 d.18 hr.11 min.
Ranks: 183rd American Spaceship
(267th human, 154th American)
Result: Success
Piloted (7 crewmembers): fifteenth assembly flight of the Space Shuttle to ISS: addition of the Japanese logistics module (ELM-PS) and of the Canadian SPDM Dextre agile robot. Also replacement of the third ISS crewmember.
481)
Mission: Kibo ELM-PS Logistic Module
Launched: 11 March 2008 at 6h28 UT
Mated ISS 14 March 2008 at ~7h00 UT
Duration: n/a
Ranks: 1st Japanese Piloted Spaceship
Result: Success
Japanese stowage module to be placed on top of the JEM Kibo science laboratory.
482)
Mission: Soyuz TMA-12 / ISS 16S Humanship
Crew: CDR: Volkov, FE: Kononenko, SFP: Yi .
Launched: 8 April 2008 at 11h16 UT
Recovered: October 2008
Duration: Six months
Ranks: 290th Russian Piloted Spaceship
(268th human, 107th Soviet)
Result: Success
Piloted (3 crewmembers): eleventh Soyuz ISS crew changeout mission (as well as replacement of the rescue vehicle).  Expedition 17 replaced Expedition 16 (+ a South Korean astronaut).
483)
Mission: Progress M-64 / ISS 29P Cargoship
Launched: 14 May 2008 at 20h23 UT
Destroyed: 9 September 2008
Duration: 4 months
Ranks: 291st Russian Piloted Spaceship
Result: Success
29th cargo deliery to ISS
484)
Mission: STS-124 / ISS 1J Humanship
Crew: CDR: Kelly, PI: Ham, MS1: Nyberg, MS2: Garan, MS3: Fossum, MS4:Hoshide, MS5: Chamitoff.
Launched: 31 May 2008 at 21h02 UT
Recovered: (7 June 2008)
Duration:
Ranks: 184th American Spaceship
(269th human, 155th American)
Result:
485)
Mission: Progress M-65 / ISS 30P
Launched: 10 September 2008
: 11 November2008
Duration: 60 days
Ranks: 292nd Russian Piloted Spaceship
Result:
486)
Mission: Shenzhou VII
Launched: 25 September 2008
:
Duration:
Ranks: 7th Chinese Piloted Spaceship
(270th human, 3rd Chinese) 
Result:
487)
Mission: Soyuz TMA-13 / ISS 17S
Launched: 12 October 2008
:
Duration:
Ranks: 293rdh Russian Piloted Spaceship
(271st human, 108th Soviet)
Result:
488)
Mission: STS-126 / ULF-2
Launched: 15 November 08
:
Duration:
Ranks: 185th American Spaceship
(272th human, 156th American)
Result:
489)
Mission: Progress M-01M / ISS 31P
Launched: 26 November 2008
:
Duration:
Ranks:
Result:
2 0 0 9 (15 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 129 missions =12 %)
490) Progress M-66 / ISS 32P 10 Feb 09
491) STS-119 / ISS 15A 15 Mar 09
492) Soyuz TMA-14 / ISS 18S 26 Mar 09
493) Progress M-02M / ISS 33P 7 May 09
494) STS-125 / SM4 11 May 09
495) Soyuz TMA-15 / ISS 19S 27 May 09
496) STS-127 / ISS 2J/A 15 Jul 09
497) Progress M-67 / (SS 34P 24 Jul 09
498) STS-128 / ISS 17A 29 Aug 09
499) HTV 1 10 Sep 09
500) Soyuz TMA-16 / ISS 20S 30 Sep 09
501) Progress M-03M / ISS 35P 15 Oct 09
502) Progress M-SO2 / Progress M-MRM2 10 Nov 09
503) STS-129 / ULF-3 16 Nov 09
504) Soyuz TMA-17 / ISS 21S 20 Dec 09
2 0 1 0 (12 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in 129 missions = 9%)
505) Progress M-04M / ISS 36P 3 Feb 10
506) STS-130 / ISS 20A 8 Feb 10
507) Soyuz TMA-18 / ISS 22S 2 Apr 10
508) STS-131 / ISS 19A 5 Apr 10
509) Progress M-05M / ISS 37P 28 Apr 10
510) STS-132 / ULF-4 14 May 10
511) Soyuz TMA-19 / ISS 23S 15 Jun10
512) Progress M-06M / ISS 38P 30 Jun 10
513) Progress M-07M / ISS 39P 10 Sep 10
514) Soyuz TMA-01M / ISS 24S 7 Oct 10
515) Progress M-08M / ISS 40P 27 Oct 10
516) Soyuz TMA-20 / ISS 25S 15 Dec 10
2 0 1 1 (16 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in  missions = %)
517) HTV-2 / Kounotori 2 JAXA 22 Jan 11
518) Progress M-09M / ISS-41P Russian Space Agency 28 Jan 11
519) ATV-2 Johannes Kepler ESA 16 Feb 11
520) STS-133 / ULF-5 NASA 24 Feb 11
521) Soyuz TMA-21 / ISS 26S Russian Space Agency 4 Apr 11
522) Progress M-10M / ISS-42P Russian Space Agency 27 Apr 11
523) STS-134 / ULF-6 NASA 16 May 11
524) Soyuz TMA-02M / ISS-27S Russian Space Agency 7 Jun 11
525) Progress M-11M / ISS-43P Russian Space Agency 21 Jun 11
526) STS-135 / ULF-7 NASA 8 Jul 11
527) Progress M-12M / ISS-44P Russian Space Agency 24 Aug 11
528) Tiangong 1 China 29 Sep 11
529) Progress M-13M / ISS-45P Russian Space Agency 30 Oct 11
530) Shenzhou VIII China 1 Oct 11
531) Soyuz TMA-22 / ISS-28S Russian Space Agency 14 Nov 11
532) Soyuz TMA-03M Russian Space Agency 21 Dec 11
2 0 1 2 (13 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in  missions = %)
533) Progress M-14M / ISS-46P Russian Space Agency 25 Jan 12
534) ATV-3 Edoardo Amaldi ESA 23 Mar 12
535) Progress M-15M / ISS-47P Russian Space Agency 20 Apr 12
536) Soyuz TMA-04M / ISS-30S Russian Space Agency 15 May 12
537) Dragon C2+ SpaceX for NASA 22 May 12
538) Shenzhou IX China 16 Jun 12
539) Soyuz TMA-05M / ISS-31S Russian Space Agency 15 Jul 12
540) HTV-3 / Kounotori  JAXA 21 Jul 12
541) Progress M-16M / ISS-48P Russian Space Agency 1 Aug 12
542) Dragon CRS-1 SpaceX for NASA 8 Oct 12
543) Soyuz TMA-06M / ISS-32S Russian Space Agency 23 Oct 12
544) Progress M-17M / ISS-49P Russian Space Agency 31 Oct 12
545) Soyuz TMA-07M / ISS-33S Russian Space Agency 19 Dec 12
2 0 1 3 (13 Civilian Piloted Spaceships in  missions = %)
546) Progress M-18M / ISS-50P Russian Space Agency 11 Feb 13
547) Dragon CRS-2 SpaceX for NASA 1 Mar 13
548) Soyuz TMA-08M / ISS-34S Russian Space Agency 25 Mar 13
549) Progress M-19M / ISS-51P Russian Space Agency 24 Apr 13
550) Soyuz TMA-09M / ISS-35S Russian Space Agency 28 May 13
551) ATV-4 Albert Einstein European Space Agency 5 Jun 13
552) Shenzhou X China 11 Jun 13
553) Progress M-20M / ISS-52P Russian Space Agency 27 Jul 13
554) HTV-4 / Konoutori 4 Japanese Space Agency 3 Aug 13
555) Cygnus Demo Orbital Sciences for NASA 18 Sep 13
556) Soyuz TMA-10M / ISS-36S Russian Space Agency 25 Sep 13
557) Soyuz TMA-11M / ISS-37S Russian Space Agency 7 Nov 13
558) Progress M-21M / ISS-53P Russian Space Agency 25 Nov 13
2 0 1 4 ( Civilian Piloted Spaceships in  missions = %)
559) Cygnus Orb-1 Orbital Sciences for NASA 9 Jan 14
560) Progress M-22M / ISS-54P Russian Space Agency 5 Feb 14
561) Soyuz TMA-12M / ISS-38S Russian Space Agency 25 Mar 14
562) Progress M-23M / ISS-55P Russian Space Agency 9 Apr 14
563) Dragon CRS-3 / SpaceX-3 SpaceX for NASA 18 Apr 14
564) Soyuz TMA-13M / ISS-39S Russian Space Agency 28 May 14
565) Cygnus Orb-2 / CRS-2 Orbital Sciences for NASA 13 Jul 14
566) Progress M-24M / ISS-56P Russian Space Agency 23 Jul 14
567) ATV-5 Georges Lemaître ESA 29 Jul 14
568) Dragon CRS-4 SpaceX for NASA 21 Sep 14
569) Soyuz TMA-14M /ISS-40S Russian Space Agency 25 Sep 14
570) Cygnus CRS-3 Orbital Sciences for NASA 28 Oct 14 (Failure)
571) Progress M-25M / ISS-57P Russian Space Agency 29 Oct 14
572) Soyuz TMA-15M /ISS-41S Russian Space Agency 23 Nov 14
2 0 1 5 ( Civilian Piloted Spaceships in  missions = %)
Souces::
•  David A. Barker, The History of Manned Spaceflight, Crown Publishers, New York, 1979.
Leland F. Belew, Skylab, Our First Space Station, NASA SP-400,  Washington, D.C. 1977 
Courtney G. Brooks. James M. Grimwood and Loyd S. Swenson, Jr., Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft, NASA SP-4205Washington, DC,  1979
Ivan D. Ertel and Mary Louise Morse, The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology, NASA SP-4009
Edward Clinton Ezell and Linda Neuman Ezell, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA SP-4209, Washington, DC, 1978,
Sven Grahn's Space History Notes
•  James M. Grimwood, Project Mercury: A Chronology, NASA SP-4001, NASA History Division, Washington D.C. 
James M. Grimwood and Barton C. Hacker, Project Gemini: A Chronology, NASA SP-4002 Washington, D.C.
Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On The Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203, Washington, DC,  1977
Nicholas L. Johnson, Handbook Of Soviet Manned Space Flight, American Astronautical Society's Science and Technlogy Series, Volume 48, Univelt
NASA Web Site: Space Shuttle Missions,
Roland W. Newkirk and Ivan D. Ertel, with Courtney G. Brooks, Skylab: A Chronology, NASA SP-4011 
Richard W. Orloff, Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference, NASA SP-2000-4029, 2000 (Revised, September 2004)
Judith A. Rumerman, Chris Gamble and Gabriel Okolski, U.S. Human Spaceflight: A Record of Achievement, 1961-2006, NASA Monograph in Aerospace History No. 41,  NASA History Division, Washington D.C., 2008.
Asif A.Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974, NASA SP-2000-4408, NASA History Division,  Washington D.C., 2000.
•  Loyd S. Swenson Jr., James M. Grimwood and Charles C. Alexander, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA SP-4201, NASA History Division, Washington D.C., 1989.
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© Claude Lafleur, 2004-2014 Mes sites web: claudelafleur.qc.ca